Chapter 5 biology

Autotroph~ an organism that can make organic molecules from inorganic molecules
Heterotroph~ an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter instead of producing its own nutrients
What is the difference between an autotroph and a heterotroph?
Producers or Autotrophs
An organism that makes its own food is called what 2 terms?
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process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
6CO2 + 6H2O + solar energy _> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Goal~ Carbohydrates
What is photosynthesis? What is the goal of this process?
process where cells produce energy from carbohydrates by oxygen combining with glucose to form water and carbon dioxide
C6H12O6 + 6O2 _> 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Goal~ Energy
What is cellular respiration? The main goal?
Consumer or heterotrophs
An organism that gets its energy by eating other organisms is called?
What is the group of organisms that break down dead organisms called?
Food chain
Producers {1,000} [most energy], primary consumers {100}, secondary consumers {10}, and tertiary consumers {1}[least amount of energy]
What is the term for the linear sequence in which energy is transferred? What are the 4 layers labeled as?
Food Web
The many feeding relationships in an ecosystem are called?
Algae, grass, bacteria, ferns, flowering plants, trees
List 3 organisms likely to be at the bottom tropic level of a food chain.
The sun
What is the ultimate source of energy for most organisms?
Eat the producers and obtain the carbohydrate?
Organisms that get their energy by eating other organisms
Herbivores~ plants
Carnivores~ animals
Omnivores~ both
Decomposers~ bacteria and fungus
What is a consumer? What are the 4 different types of consumers and what do they eat
Nitrogen cycle
What process cycles between the atmosphere, bacteria, and other organisms?
All life on earth is molecularly based on what element?
Nitrogen [78%]
What is the most abundant element in the atmosphere?
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Organisms that can transform unusable nitrogen in the atmosphere are called? What kingdom do they belong to?
The carbon in carbohydrates and these other molecules may be released into the soil or air after an organism dies. These molecules may form deposits of coal, oil, or natural gas
Under a lot of pressure and long periods of time
What are fossil fuels? How are they formed?
Ecological succession
What is the gradual change of communities/ecosystems called?
Nitrogen and Phosphorus
Fertilizers are made primarily of what 2 elements?
Carbon dioxide
What atmospheric gas is produced from the burning of fossil fuels?
the final, stable community in equilibrium with the environment
What is a climax community?
What type of succession occurs on abandoned farmland?
What type of succession occurs where life hasn’t existed before?
Herbivores, Omnivores, and decomposers??
Which consumers would directly depend on a producer to live?
A consumer that eats only producers is called?
Occurs on a surface where an ecosystem had previously existed. It is the process by which one community replaces another community that has been partially or totally destroyed
What is secondary succession?
Which organisms occupy the level on an energy pyramid with the most energy?
By converting carbon dioxide in the atmosphere into carbohydrates during photosynthesis
In the carbon cycle, where do the producers get their carbon?
The atmosphere
Where are fossil fuels located?
Lichens break down rock so it wouldn’t be able to start without it
It cannot start without a pioneer species
How do lichens contribute to primary succession?
Use sunlight to make sugar molecules
What do plants do with the energy received from the sun?
Carbon~ earth [fossil fuels]
Where is the largest reservoir of nitrogen that is unusable by most organisms?
Which kind of organism obtains energy directly from the sun?
Lichen they break down rock
If you start off with bare rock the only thing that can break it down is lichen
What organisms are the most likely to be a pioneer species? Why?
On new islands formed by volcanic activity, you will most likely find what kind of succession?
Without producers consumers couldn’t live
Describe one way in which consumers depend on producers.
How does carbon get cycled from the atmosphere through producers and consumers, and back into the atmosphere.

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