Chapter 5

Question Answer
Define Genetics the study of heredity
and how traits are passed from parents to offspring
When two alleles of a gene are the same, what is the genotype? homozygous
Define Heredity the passing on of traits from parents to offspring
Which factor blocks or covers up another genetic factor? dominant factor
Which factor is blocked or seems to disappear? recessive factor
Define Alleles different forms of a gene
What tool can you use to trace traits through a family pedigree
Define heterozygous the genotype when two allelels of a gene are different
Which inheritance pattern combines the parents' phenotypes incomplete dominance
Define phenotype how a trait appears or is expressed
Which inheritance pattern occurs when multiple genes determine a trait polygenic inheritance
How do parents pass their genetics traits to their offspring? through reproductive cells
What are the 3 types of RNA? messenger RNA
transfer RNA
ribosomal RNA
If parent A has genotype (AA) and parent B has genotype (aa). What genotypes will the offspring have? All Aa
If parent A is heterozygous (Aa) and parent B is homozygous dominant (AA). What is the probability of the offspring inheriting the trait? not possible
The punnett square predicts the outcomes AA, AA, Aa, or Aa
If parent A has genotype (aa) and parent B is (AA). A is dominant. What trait will the offsping have? certain that the offspring will have the dominant trait A
The punnett square predicts all outcomes are Aa
2 orange lizards mated and had 4 offspring. 3 baby lizards were orange and 1 was green. What are the parents' genotypes? heterozyous for green skin, which is recessive
Define RNA Protein are made with the help of RNA, a type of nucleic acid that carries the code for making proteins from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
aa represents which genotype? homozygous recessive genotype
How is eye color determined? polygenic inheritance
What does a punnett square show? all the ways that alleles can combine
List 3 external causes of mutations. exposure to:
ultraviolet light
radioactive materials
Capital letters in punnett squares represent which type of alleles? dominant
How many recessive traits need to be observed when recessive genetic factors are present in offspring? 2
What is a gene? a segment of DNA on a chromosome
What plant did Gregor Medel use to study heredity? hundreds of pea plants
Which genetic factor blocks another factor? dominant trait
Define self-pollination when pollen lands on the same plant
List 3 forms of mutations insertion
Define heterozygous genotype hetero means different
example Aa
Define homozygous genotype homo means same
example AA or aa
List the Nitrogen bases that form the rungs of the ladder in DNA adenine
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? genotype are the alleles
phenotype is the physical appearance of traits
Which base bonds with Adenine? Thymine
Which base bonds with Cytosine? Guanine
A heterozygous yellow plant (Aa) is crossed with a homozygous red plant (aa). If yellow is the dominant allele and red is recessive, what color ratio with the offspring have? 2 yellow: 2 red

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