Chapter 5 Chemistry

Group 1 (Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium)
What elements are designated as the alkali metals?
– they have low melting and boiling points compared to most other metals
– they are very soft and can be cut easily with a knife
– they have low densities (lithium, sodium and potassium will float on water)
– they react quickly with water, producing hydroxides and hydrogen gas
– their hydroxides and oxides dissolve in water to form alkaline solutions
List four characteristics properties of alkali metals.
We will write a custom essay sample on
Chapter 5 Chemistry
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Group 2 (Beryllium, Magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Radium)
Which elements are designated as the alkaline-earth metals?
alkaline-earth metals are not as reactive, silvery or cuttable, never in a pure state in nature
How do alkaline-earth metals’ characteristic properties compare those of the alkali metals?
Hydrogen – 1s1
Helium – 1s2
Lithium – 1s2 2s1
Neon – 1s2 2s2 2p6
Argon – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
Krypton – 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6
Write the usual group configuration notation for each d-block.
The group number tells how many electrons there are in the outer shells; group 1 has 1 electron, group 2 has 2 electrons, and so forth
How do the group numbers of those groups relate to the numbers of outer s and d electrons?
transition metals
What name is sometimes used to refer to the entire set of d-block elements?
What type of elements make up the p block?
P block metals are less reactive because their shells are mostly filled. The metals are also harder and denser.
How do the properties of the p-block metals compare with those of the metals in s and d blocks?
Group 17 (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine)
Which elements are designated as the halogens?
– Most reactive non-metals (form salts)
– 7 electrons
– Forms acids with Hydrogen
List three characteristic properties of halogens.
boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te), polonium (Po), and astatine (At)
Which elements are metalloids?
brittle solids, mix of properties of metals and non metals
Describe metalloids characteristic properties.
lanthanides and the actinides
Which element make up the f block in the periodic table?
s and p block
What are the main-group elements?
reactivity decreases across the periodic table
What trends can be observed across the various period withing the main-group elements?
a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons
What is meant by atomic radius?
Atomic radii decrease going across a period
What trend is observed among the atomic radii of main-group elements across the period?
Atomic radii increase going down a group.
What trend is observed among the atomic radii of main-group elements across a group?
an atom or group of bonded atoms that has a positive or negative charge
any process that results in the formation of an ion
first ionization
the energy required to remove one electron from a neutral atom of an element
second ionization
the energy required to remove another electron from a neutral atom of an element
across – decreases
down – increases
How do the first ionization energies of most group elements vary across a period and down a group?
1st ionization energies decrease down a group because electrons are further away from the nucleus and thus less attracted to it
Explain the basis for each trend.
the energy change that occurs when an electron is acquired by a neutral atom
What is electron affinity?
positive ion
negative ion
Positive ions are smaller than the neutral atom because they have lost electrons; negative ions are larger, because they have gained electrons
How does the size of a cation and anion compare with the size of the neutral atom from which it is formed?
valence electrons
the electrons available to be lost, gained, or shared in the formation of chemical compounds
the outer-most shell of an electron
Where are valence electrons located?
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out