benefit … benefit
harmed … harmed
no effect … benefit
benefit … harmed
benefit … no effect
The random distribution of one competing species will have a positive impact on the population growth of the other competing species.
Bird species generally do not compete for nesting sites.
Even a slight reproductive advantage will eventually lead to the elimination of the less well adapted of two competing species.
Two species with the same fundamental niche will exclude other competing species.
Natural selection tends to increase competition between related species.
differential resource utilization that results in a decrease in community species diversity
competitive exclusion that results in the success of the superior species
slight variations in a species’ niche that allow similar species to coexist
two species that can coevolve to share identical niches
a climax community that is reached when no new niches are available
a day-flying hawkmoth that looks like a wasp
a chameleon that changes its color to look like a dead leaf
two species of moths with wing spots that look like owl’s eyes
two species of rattlesnakes that both rattle their tails
two species of unpalatable butterfly that have the same color pattern
a butterfly that resembles a leaf
an insect that resembles a twig
a fawn with fur coloring that camouflages it in the forest environment
a nonvenomous snake that looks like a venomous snake
a snapping turtle that uses its tongue to mimic a worm, thus attracting fish
a katydid whose wings look like a dead leaf
eye color in humans
colors of an insect-pollinated flower
the brightly colored patterns of poison dart frogs
green color of a plant
Observe if the niche size changes after the introduction of a similar non-native species.
Study the temperature range and humidity requirements of the species.
Observe if the species expands its range after the removal of a competitor.
Measure the change in reproductive success when the species is subjected to environmental stress.
Observe if the niche size changes after the addition of nutritional resources to the habitat.
If Chthamalus were removed, Balanus’s fundamental niche would become larger.
These two species of barnacle do not show competitive exclusion.
Balanus is inferior to Chthamalus in competing for space on rocks lower in the intertidal zone.
Balanus can survive only in the lower intertidal zone because it is unable to resist desiccation.
The two species of barnacles do not compete with each other because they feed at different times of day.
The removal of Balanus shows that the realized niche of Chthamalus is smaller than its fundamental niche.
where it lives
the rate at which it uses energy
its food source
the intensity of its competition with other species
whether it is early or late in ecological succession
that provide important foods and medicines
that live primarily on or under rocks and stones
that have the most biomass in the community
whose absence would cause major disruption in a community
with the largest number of individuals in a community
Longer chains are less stable and energy transfer between levels is inefficient.
Top-level feeders tend to be more numerous than lower-trophic-level species.
There are only so many organisms that are adapted to feed on other types of organisms.
Top-level feeders tend to be small but are capable of conserving more energy.
Food chain length is ultimately determined by the photosynthetic efficiency of producers.
Which letter represents an organism that could be a producer?
Grass grows on a sand dune, is replaced by shrubs, and then by trees.
Overgrazing causes a nutrient loss from soil.
Introduced pheasants increase, and native quail populations disappear.
Decomposition in soil releases nitrogen that plants can use.
A mouse eats seeds, and an owl eats the mouse.
Habitats are opened up for less competitive species.
The resulting uniform habitat supports stability, which in turn supports diversity.
The environmental conditions become optimal.
Competitively dominant species infrequently exclude less competitive species after a moderate disturbance.
Less-competitive species evolve strategies to compete with dominant species.
prey only on the least abundant species in the community.
reduce the number of disruptions in the community.
prey on the community’s dominant species.
competitively exclude other predators.
allow immigration of other predators.
limitation of plant biomass by rainfall amount
influence of soil nutrients on the abundance of grasses versus wildflowers
influence of temperature on competition among plants
effect of grazing intensity by bison on plant species diversity
effect of humidity on plant growth rates