Chapter 6-Photosynthesis

light reactions
What is the stage 1 of photosynthesis in which light energy is converted into chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH?
Calvin Cycle
What is the stage 2 of photosynthesis in which CO2 is fixed into an organic compound?
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In what organelle does photosynthesis take place?
What is the pigment of photosynthesis?
red blue purple
What colors of the spectrum does this pigment absorb?
green and yellow
What colors of the spectrum does it reflect?
Oxygen and hydrogen proton
What are the substances produced when water molecules are broken down during the light reactions?
Inside the chloroplast there are stacks of interconnected membrane sacs called thylakoids. The thylakoids occur in stacks called grana
Distinguish between thylakoid and grana
Autotrophs produce compounds during photosynthesis that they can later break down to form ATP. Heterotrophs must consume autotrophs or other heterotrophs to obtain the compounds that can be broken down to form ATP. ATP is needed by all cells to perform life processes.
Explain why both autotrophs and heterotrophs depend on photosynthesis to obtain the energy they need for life processes.
Chlorophylls are pigments that absorb light energy during photosynthesis. Chlorophyll b assists chlorophyll a in capturing light energy. Excited electrons that leave chlorophyll a travel along 2 electron transport chains. The energy of these excited electrons is then used to form ATP and NADPH
Describe the role of chlorophyll in the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis.
ATP is produced. occurs at the ATP synthase molecule in the thylakoid membrane. The production of ATP occurs because a concentration buildup of H+ occurs across the thylakoid membrane.
What product is produce from chemiosmosis? Where does chemiosmosis occur? What causes this process to occur?
Unlike pigments in clothing which simply absorb and reflect light, photosynthetic pigments are closely associated with membranes and enzymes that facilitate their functioning in harnessing light energy.
Thinking about the main role of pigments, explain how the pigments in colored objects such as clothes differs from plant pigments.
The original electron donor is water.
The molecule that precedes the electron transport chains of both photosystem II and photosystem I is an electron acceptor. What is the original molecule that is the electron donor for both these systems?
Without a concentration gradient, there would be no tendency for protons to move from the thylakoid into the stroma. As a result, ATP would not be synthesized by ATP synthase
Explain how the light reactions would be affected if there were no concentration gradient of protons across the thylakoid membrane.
Which of the following statements is correct?
Accessory pigments are not involved in photosynthesis
Accessory pigments add color to plants but do not absorb light energy
Accessory pigments absorb colors of light that chlorophyll a cannot absorb
Accessory pigment receive electrons from the electron transport chain of photosystem I
When water is split
Oxygen is produced at what point during photosynthesis?
carbon fixation
What is the incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds called?
What are openings in the underside of a leaf that allow air to enter?
Name the part of the chloroplast where the Calvin cycle takes place.
Most of the 3 carbon G3P is used to make more RuBP, keeping the Calvin cycle operating. Some G3P is converted into other organic compounds including amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates
Describe what can happen to the three-carbon molecules made in the Calvin Cycle.
In C3 plants, CO2 continually enters the Calvin cycle and a three carbon compound is made. A C4 plant fixes CO2 into four carbon organic compounds in certain cells. After these compounds are transported to the other cells, they release CO2, which then enters the Calvin cycle. CAM plants fix CO2 at night.
Distinguish between C3, C4, and CAM plants.
The light reactions produce ATP and NADPH which are needed by the Calvin cycle. The Clavin Cycle produces ADP and NADP+ and phosphates that are used in the light reactions
Explain why the light reactions, and the Calvin Cycle are dependent on each other.
If all available electrons in chlorophyll are excited, increasing light intensity will have no effect on photosynthesis
Explain why and increased light intensity might not result in an increased rate of photosynthesis?
The Calvin cycle would stop.
What would happen to photosynthesis if all of the three-carbon sugars produced in the Calvin Cycle were used to produce organic compounds?
Many dry regions would be devoid of plant life, since C3 plants would not be able to survive there.
Explain how the world would be different if C4 and CAM plants had not evolved.
It would stimulate the rate of photosynthesis until that rate level off.
How would an increase in the CO2 levels affect photosynthesis?
Which of the following is a reactant in the Calvin Cycle?
Light reaction is to ATP as Calvin Cycle is to what?
Calvin Cycle
Stage of photosynthesis; organic compounds are formed
most important pigments of photosynthesis
solution surrounding grana
e transport chain
series of molecules in thylakoid membranes that electrons are passed along
system of membranes inside chloroplast
C4 pathway
alternative pathway where CO2 is fixed into a four carbon compound
cluster of pigment molecules and protein pigments are embedded in
CAM pathway
water conservation pathway used by some plants to fix carbon
self-feeders; producers
process that synthesizes ATP
compounds that absorb light
light reactions
stage of photosynthesis; light energy converted into chemical energy; stored in ATP and NADPH
carbon fixation
incorporation of CO2 into organic compounds
accessory pigments; yellow, orange and brown
organelle of photosynthesis
small pores on underside of leaf
other feeders; consumers
primary e acceptor
acceptor of e lost from chlorophyll a
stack of thylakoids
process of converting light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds
Energy is required for a variety of life processes including…
A. growth and reproduction
B. movement
C. transport of certain materials across cell membranes
D. all of the above
consume other organisms for energy
Heterotrophs are organisms that what?
The process whereby plants capture energy and make complex molecules is known as what?
either photosynthetic organisms or organisms that have eaten them provide energy for all other organisms on earth.
The sun is considered the ultimate source of energy for life on earth. Why?
biochemical pathway
The energy from the sun is converted into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds in a series of linked chemical reactions called a what?
absorb light energy
The role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis is to what?
it reflects green wavelengths of light
Why is chlorophyll green?
What is the source o oxygen produced during photosynthesis?
What is the major atmospheric byproduct of photosynthesis?
Calvin cycle
During photosynthesis, what is the series of reactions that create complex carbohydrates needed for energy and growth?
the bodies of heterotrophs
All organic molecules contain carbon atoms that ultimately can be traced back in the food chain to where?
Organisms that make their own food are called?
Organisms that eat other things to get energy are called?
In the overall equation for photosynthesis, six molecules of carbon dioxide result in six molecules of what?
Plants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing molecules called what?
Which of the following is false?
A chloroplast contains a stroma
A stroma contains a thylakoid
A granum contains several thylakoids
A thylakoid contains chlorophyll
Pigments in photosystem II absorb light
What step is in the beginning of photosynthesis?
light independent reactions
The Calvin cycle is another name for what?
no sugars will be produced
If carbon dioxide is completely removed from a plant’s environment, what would you expect to happen to the plant’s production of high-energy sugars?
light intensity
What 3 things affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Where in the chloroplast does stage 1 occur?
electrons pump ions
How do the electrons function in creating a concentration gradient of H+?
What is the enzyme (protein) that is directly involved in the production of ATP?
The products of photosynthesis are the reactants of respiration
Plants and animals exchange materials through the process of photosynthesis and respiration. How are the 2 processes similar?
Each of the following is true of photosynthetic membrane except that it…
A. is the site of chlorophyll molecules
B. releases “excited” molecules
C. contains photosystems I and II
D. is the site of light-independent reactions
Oak tree is to autotroph as human is to ….
Light-dependent reactions is to oxygen as Calvin Cycle is to
What is one of the main energy-storage compounds used by cells?
Which of the following is NOT produced in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
water + carbon dioxide —> sugars+oxygen
What is an equation that best summarizes the process of photosynthesis?
What is the color of light that is least useful to a plant during photosynthesis?
absorption of light energy
What is the first step in photosynthesis?
In a typical plant, all of the following factors are necessary except what?
B. Light
C. Oxygen
D. Carbon Dioxide
E. Water
What pigment traveled the shortest distance? (on a page in one of the reviews, oh well)
use light energy to make carbohydrates
What is the role of chloroplasts in plant cells?
What organelle in the plant makes food?
What substance from the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the Calvin cycle?
Calvin cycle
The light independent reaction s of photosynthesis are also known as what?
chemical energy
During photosynthesis, light energy absorbed by the plant is converted into what?
What is one of the principle compounds that living things use to store energy in?
reflects green light
The leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll does what?
sugars and oxygen
What are the products of photosynthesis?
light absorption
What is the first process int he light independent reactions of photosynthesis?
aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2 —> 6CO2 +12H2O + 36 ATP represents the process of what?
What are the two energy carriers in photosynthesis?

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