Chapter 7 CC 1

Question Answer
Atmosphere The blanket of gases that surrounds our planet to protect and support life
The atmosphere can be broadly divided into two regions based on chemical composition: the ___ and ___ ___. lower, upper, atmosphere
Homosphere (homo- means "same" or "uniform") The lower atmosphere
Nitrogen The most abundant gas that we breathe
Name the top four most abundant gases. 1. nitrogen
2. oxygen
3. argon
4. carbon dioxide
Water vapor (can compose up to 4% of the air, depending on the air's humidity and altitude) The gaseous form of water
Ozone A relatively scarce type of oxygen molecule in which three oxygen atoms are bonded together that is within the upper limits of the atmosphere
Oxygen is ___ to humans and to most animal life. vital
Carbon dioxide is vital for ___. plants
Carbon dioxide and water vapor help give the earth a(n) ___ and ___ ___. mild, stable, climate
Ozone helps the earth's surface by doing what? It helps protect it from the sun's intense ultraviolet radiation
Turbopause Lies at the end of the homosphere, it is the boundary or transitional zone between the lower and upper atmospheres
Heterosphere (hetro- means "different") The upper atmosphere is called this because of its distinct layers
Trophosphere The lowest layer of the atmosphere
The troposphere is the "__ __." weather layer
Temperature gradient A steady change in temperature as altitude increases
Tropopause The point that marks the upper boundary of the troposphere
Stratosphere The layer immediately above the tropopause
The stratosphere has strong, steady ___, but few ___ ___ ___. winds, changes of weather
The ___ has a temperature gradient opposite that of the ___. stratosphere, troposphere
The stratospheres upper boundary Stratopause
ozone layer Acts as a "shield" to protect the earth's surface from the dangerous effects of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation
UVB Causes tanning and sunburn
UVC The most powerful and dangerous form of UV radiation; but it is completely absorbed in the ozone layer
Mesosphere (meso- means "middle" or "between") The least-understood layer of the earth because it is to high for airplanes and to low for sattelites
Mesopause The mesosphere's upper boundary; the coldest point in the atmosphere
Thermosphere (thermo- means "heat") The layer immediately above the mesopause that is characterized by high temperatures
Thermopause The upper boundary of the thermosphere
Vacuum A space that does not contain any matter
Exosphere The outermost layer of the atmosphere
Cosmic rays The extremely powerful radiation that comes from deep space
Plasma A special state of matter made up of a mixture of electrons and positive ions
Ionosphere A portion of the earth composed of plasma air
The ionosphere acts like a giant ___, "bouncing" certain types of radio waves back down toward the ground. mirror
An invisible force magnetism
Magnetism is concentrated at two points known as ___. poles
Imaginary lines used to map out a magnetic field's location and strength Lines of force
Magnetic field The region in which the magnet affects other objects
Solar wind The stream of harmful, charged particles sent out by the sun
Magnetosphere The region of the earth's magnetic field that is influenced by the solar wind
Magnetopause The region (or boundary) where the solar wind meets with and presses on the magnetosphere
Megnetotail The region of the magnetosphere that look like a tail
Auroras (also known as the northern and southern lights) Are created when particles react with the atmosphere's molecules
Auroras that occur in the northern latitudes are called what? Aurora borealis
Auroras that occur in the southern latitudes are called what? Aurora australis
UVA The least-harmful form of UV radiation
Van Allen radiation belts Particles that are trapped in the magnetosphere are found in two different regions that look similar to belts or doughnuts encircling the earth's equator; these regions are known as this.
Atmospheric pressure The force per square foot at sea level
The atmospheric pressure is normally equal to ___ pounds per square inch at sea level. 14.7
As altitude ___, air pressure ___. increases, decreases

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