Chapter 7 Photosynthesis

They produced their own food by photosynthesis. The sun gives them solar energy which the autotrophs convert into usable energy.
Explain how autotrophs are able to produce their own food?
A chloroplast is an organelle which carries out photosynthesis once water and carbon dioxide diffuse into it. The chloroplast has a double membrane and and a semifluid interior which is called the STROMA. Within the stroma there are flattened sacs called THYLAKOIDS, which are stacked to form a GRANA. Within the grana the thylakoids each have a space called the THYLAKOID SPACE.
Describe the componets of chloroplast?
We will write a custom essay sample on
Chapter 7 Photosynthesis
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
Heterotrophs release carbon dioxide when they respire, then the carbon dioxide enter autotrophs through leaves (through the STOMA, small openings where carbon dioxide enters) and are converted into carbohydrate. CARBOHYDRATE in the form of glucose is is the chief source of chemical energy for most organisms.
Compare the role of carbon dioxide in autotrophs and heterotrophs?
The three major groups of photosynthetic organisms are land plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.
Describe three major groups of photosynthetic organisms?
The thylakoid which contains CHLOROPHYLL absorbs energy in the chloroplast. The STROMA contains an enzyme-rich solution which forms a carbohydrate in the chloroplast.
Distinguish the part of a chloroplast that absorbs solar energy from the part that forms a carbohydrate?
Autotrophs- include plants, algae, and cyanobacteria and are photosynthetic organisms. Heterotrophs- are consumers that get energy by feeding on autotrophs. Both use organic molecules produced by photosynthesis as a source of building blocks for growth and repair and as a source of chemical energy for cellular work.
What is the difference between autotrophs and heterotrophs?
6CO₂ + 12H₂O →(solar energy) 6CH₂) + 6H₂O + 6O₂
Photosynthesis consists of an Oxidation (the loss of electrons) and a Reduction (the gain of electrons.) In Photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is reduced and water is oxidized. Solar energy is used to generate the ATP needed to reduce the carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate. have two types of reactions, the light reactions and the Calvin Cycle reactions.
Describe the overall process of photosynthesis?
The input of a light reaction is the solar energy, and the output is the converted energy into ATP and NADPH.
Compare energy input and output of the light reaction?
In the Calvin Cycle, the carbon is reduced to a carbohydrate and then later converted into glucose.
Compare carbon input and output of the Calvin cycle reaction?
Redox reactions are when atoms such as hydrogen are lost.
Explain how redox reactions are used in photosynthesis?
Enzymes need to be involved in the reduction of carbon dioxide to a carbohydrate.
Describe the role of enzymes during photosynthesis?
As the wavelength gets shorter, the energy increases.
Describe the relationship between wavelength and energy in the electromagnetic spectrum?
Pigment molecules absorb wavelengths of light, but only some pigments absorb certain lights, so they either reflect or transmit other wavelengths. So, the chloroplast makes pigments that are capable of absorbing various portions of visible light , called ABSORPTION SPECTRUM.
Explain the role of photosynthetic pigments in harnessing solar energy?
ATP is made in the mitochondria from oxygen which was made when water molecules were split by replacement electrons. NADPH is made when each NADP+ accepts two electrons and H+ to become reduced and form NADPH.
Explain how ATP and NADPH are produced from redox reactions and membrane gradients?
The electromagnetic spectrum is light that we cannot see with the naked eye, vs. visible light which are colors that we can see roygbiv.
Distinguish visible light from the electromagnetic spectrum?
Low energy electrons within chlorophyll in Photosystem II are excited to a higher energy state by sunlight. (happens during redox reactions in ETC), it creates a proton gradient across thylakoid membrane. E- are excited again to a higher energy state by Photosystem I.
Evaluate the energy level of molecules that go in and come out of the light reaction?
The three carbon cycles are (1) carbon dioxide fixation, (2) carbon dioxide reduction, and (3) regeneration of RuBP.
Describe the three phases of the Calvin cycle and when ATP and/or NADPH are needed?
RuBP carboxylase enzyme is significant because it makes up to 20-50% of the protein content in the chloroplast. Even though it is slow, processing only a few molecules of substrate per second, there is a lot of it so it work out.
Evaluate the significance of RuBP carboxylase enzyme to photosynthesis?
Glycerade-3-phosphate produced other plant molecules by reforming the RuBP molecules so that the RuBP and create important proteins.
Explain how glycerade-3-phosphate (G3P) is used to produce other necessary plant molecules?
The three major steps of the Calvin Cycle are Carbon fixation, carbon reduction, and regeneration of RuBP.
Describe the three major steps of the Calvin cycle?
It takes 3 turns of the Calvin Cycle to produce 1 G3P because for every three turns of the Calvin cycle, five molecules of G3P are used to re-form three molecules of RuBP.
Illustrate why it takes 3 turns of the Calvin cycle to produce 1 G3P?
Photosynthesis is in the mesophyll of C₃ and C₄ plants.
Compare the internal location of photosynthesis in C₃ and C₄ plants?
CAM stands for crassulacean-acid metabolism, it’s a family of succulent (water containing) plants that live in warm, dry regions. Whereas a C₄ plant represents partitioning in space, carbon dioxide fixation occurs in mesophyll cells while the Calvin cycle occurs in bundle sheath cells.
Contrast C₃/C₄modes of photosynthesis with CAM photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is essential for life on earth, so different organisms adapted to different environments to sustain life.
Explain how different photosynthesis modes allow plants to adapt to particular environments?
CAM plants such as cacti, orchids, ferns, pineapple, and agave.
Describe some plants that use a method of photosynthesis other than C₃ photosynthesis?
In dry hot climates, the net photosynthetic rate of C₄ plants is amour two to three times that of C₃ plants. C₄ plants enjoy this because they can avoid photorespiration.
Explain why C₄ photosynthesis is advantageous in hot, dry conditions?
A C₃ plant uses the enzyme RuBP carboxylase to fix CO₂ to RuBP in mesophyll cells. C₄ is an adaptation photosynthesis which enables some plants to avoid photorespiration.
Compare a C₃ plant to a C₄ plant?
The oxygen given off by photosynthesis comes from H₂O.
The oxygen given off by photosynthesis come from what?
The function of the light reaction is to convert light energy into a usable form of chemical energy
What is the function of the light reaction?
In order for the earth to to work, there must be sunlight for the plants to get energy from and there must be plants for the animals to get their energy from.
Why is it proper to say that almost all living things are dependent on solar energy?
The Calvin cycles retains produce carbohydrate, convert one form of chemical energy into a different form of chemical energy, regenerate more RuBp, and use the products of the light reactions.
What does the Calvin cycle reactions do?
C₄ photosynthesis occurs in plants whose bundle sheath cells contain chloroplasts and is an advantage when the weather is hot and dry.
What does C₄ photosynthesis do?
The final acceptor of electrons during the noncyclic electron pathway is NADP+.
What is the final acceptor of electrons during the noncyclic electron pathway?
The NADPH and ATP from the light reactions are used for converting 3PG to G3P.
What are the NADPH and ATP from the light reactions used for?
CAM photosynthesis is prevalent in desert plants that close their stoma during the day.
Where does CAM photosynthesis occur?

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out