Chapter 8: Photosynthesis

They use light energy from the sun to produce food.
What is the ultimate source of energy for plants?
It stands for adenosine triphosphate and it is one of the principal chemical compounds that cells use to store and release energy for work to be done in the cell
What is ATP and what it its role in the cell?
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One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to carry out active transport.
Describe one cellular activity that uses the energy released by ATP.
Autotrophs obtain energy by light from the sun to make their own food. Heterotrophs obtain energy from foods they consume
How do autotrophs obtain energy? How do heterotrophs obtain energy?
Both store energy for a cell. A single molecule of glucose stores more than 90 times the chemical energy of an ATP molecule.
With respect to energy, how are ATP and glucose similar? How are they different?
Van Helmont discovered that water was involved in increasing the mass of a plant. Priestley discovered that a plant produces the substance in air required for burning. Ingenhousz discovered that light is necessary for plants to produce oxygen.
What did van Helmont, Priestley, and Ingenhousz discover about plants?
Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy sugars.
Describe the process of photosynthesis, including the reactants and products.
Light provides the energy needed to produce high-energy sugars. Chlorophyll absorbs light, and the energy of that absorbed light makes photosynthesis work.
Why are light and chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis?
Plants are green because green light is reflected by the chlorophyll in leaves.
Describe the relationship between chlorophyll and the color of plants.
The plant would not grow well because chlorophyll does not absorb much light in the yellow region of visible light.
How well would a plant grow under pure yellow light? Explain your answer.
The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
Summarize the light-dependent reactions.
The Calvin Cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars.
What reactions make up the Calvin cycle?
Light energy is converted into chemical energy by the pigments in the chloroplast.
How is light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis?
The main function of NADPH is to carry high-energy electrons produced by light absorption in chlorophyll to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
What is the function of NADPH?
The light-dependent reactions provide the Calvin cycle with ATP and NADPH. The Calvin cycle uses the energy in ATP and NADPH to produce high-energy sugars.
Why are light-dependent reactions important to the Calvin Cycle?
6C02+6H20 ——-> C6H12O6+6O2
What is the chemical formula for photosynthesis?
The plant kingdom is organized into four main groups: Bryophyte, Pterophyte, Coniferophyte, and Anthophyte. Anthophytes are seperated into two classes: Monocots and Dicots. Monocots have one cotyledon, roots are fiborous, stem vascular bundles are scattered, and leaves parallel-veined. Dicots two cotyledon, leaves are net-veined, flower parts in multiples of fours or fives, and stem vascular bundles in a ring. Monocots and Dicots are seperated into suborders, then into orders, then into families, then into genus, and then into species. Orders are usually organized by their location, how the leaves are organized, their colors, if its a tree or shrub, the shape, how their ovary and ovule are arranged, and if they smell or not.
How are Anthophytes characterized?

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