Chapter 9, A Beka Book

Question Answer
Thunderstorms Localized storms involving lightning, thunder, strong winds, heavy rains, and sometimes hail or tornadoes
Stable The air is this when currents of rising air are stopped by adiabatic cooling and thus do not rise to great altitudes
Unstable The air is this when warm air is near the ground but there is very cool air at higher altitudes
Cumulus stage The stage of a thunderstorm in which ice crystals and super-cooled water droplets begin to develop
Mature stage During which the thunderstorm reaches the peak of its strength (the beginning is marked by the arrival of precipitation)
Downdrafts Concentrated blasts of cool wind that originate from strong, localized downdrafts
Microbursts The smallest, most intense downbursts
Dissipating stage In which the clouds begin to evaporate because it's power supply is cut off
Cell Updraft system
Single-cell thunderstorm A thunderstorm containing one cell
Multiple-cell thunderstorm Thunderstorms with more than one cell
Squall line A multiple-cell thunderstorm that is a long line of advancing thunderstorms usually moving ahead of a cold front
Supercell The most powerful type of thunderstorm; it is single-celled
Lightning An abrupt discharge of electricity through the air that produces a quick flash of bright light
Stepped leader An electron stream
The positive charge on the ground, attracted by the approaching stepped leader, launches upward in a(n) ___ ___ that rises to meet the stepped leader. positive streamer
Return stroke The upward flow of positive charge that forms the flash of light that can be seen
Dart leader A second leader that travels down the channel of the first strike
Thunder A shock wave of sound
___ ___-___-___ lightning is lightning in which the stepped leader travels from a negative region of the cloud down to the ground. Negative cloud-to-ground lightning
___ ___-___-____ occurs when a stepped leader begins from the cloud's positively charged upper region. Positive cloud-to-ground lightning
___ ___ is lightning that usually causes objects it strikes to catch on fire. Hot lightning
Lightning can also strike ___-___-___, although this type of lightning does not occur frequently. ground-to-cloud
30-30 rule A principle says if there are 30 seconds or less between seeing lightning strike and hearing thunder, stay in a safe place until there has been no thunder for at least 30 minutes
___-___-___ lightning occurs between two clouds or between positive and negative sections of the same cloud. Cloud-to-cloud
___ ___ is a rare phenomenon that consists of a small sphere of electricity that seems to float in the air for several seconds. Ball lightning
Tornado A narrow funnel of powerful, rapidly whirling wind that stretches from a cloud to the goround
Common names for tornadoes are ___ or ___, although to a meteorologist a ___ refers to any low-pressure system in which winds rotate in a direction caused by the Coriolis effect. twisters, cyclones, cyclone
The most powerful tornadoes are believed to form from the ___ ___ found in many super-cell thunderstorms. rotating updrafts
Mesocyclone A rotating updraft
When an inner region of rotating air reaches the ground, it becomes a what? tornado
Wall cloud A large, rotating cylindrical extension form the base of the supercell
Condensation funnel The most distinctive visual feature of a tornado
Tornado Alley The Mississippi Valley and eastern Great Plains of the United States
The ___ ___ classifies tornadoes based on intensity and area. Fujita scale
Enhanced Fujita Scale The scale currently used to rank tornado intensity
Waterspout A tornado that forms over water
Dust devil A dust devil is like a tornado but a dust devil starts on the ground and is not associated with a cloud
Tornado warning Means a tornado has been reported or favorable winds for a tornado have been spotted on a weather radar

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