Chemistry Final (Abshire)

theoretical yield
the amount of product that could form during a reaction calculated from a balanced chemical equation; it represents the maximum amount of product that could be formed from a given amount of reactant.
actual yield
the amount of product that forms when a reaction is carried out in the laboratory
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percent yield
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield for a chemical reaction expressed as a percentage; a measure of the efficiency of a reation
molar volume
the volume occupied by one mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure (STP)
22.4 L
What is the standard volume?
coefficient
a small whole number that is placed in front of the formulas in an equation in order to balance the equation in order to balance the equation
empirical formula
a formula with the lowest whole-number ratio of elements in a compound
1. Find the number of moles of each element in a sample of the molecule
2. Find the ratios between the number of moles of each element
3. Find the empirical formula
What are the steps to finding the empirical formula in a compound?
A molecule with a molecular weight of 180.18 g is analyzed and found to contain 40.00% carbon, 6.72% hydrogen and 53.28 % oxygen. What are the empirical and molecular formulas of the molecule?
percent composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
compressibility
a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
spectator ion
an ion that appears on both sides of the equation and is not directly involved in the reaction
skeleton equation
a chemical equation that does not indicate the quantity of reactants and products
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure
ionic compound
a compound composed of positive and negative ions
covalent compound
a bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
acid
a compound that contains one or more hydrogen atoms and produces hydrogen ions (H⁺) when dissolved in water
an anion combined with as many hydrogen ions that are needed to make the molecule electrically neutral
What is an acid consisted of?
-ide
What endings do all monoatomic anions have?
Add the prefix hydro- and change the -ide to -ic
How do you name an acid with the name -ide?
What we -ate was -ic, but it was -ite with -ous.
*Mnemonic device for remembering suffix for acids*
-ous
If the anion’s name ends in -ite, what is the acid name’s suffix?
hydro
When the name of the anion ends in -ide, what is the acid names prefix?
HCl
What is the chemical formula of hydrochloric acid?
H₂SO₄
What is the chemical formula of sulfuric acid?
Carbonic acid
What is the name of H₂CO₃?
HBr
What is the chemical formula of hydrobromic acid?
sulfurous acid
What is the name of H₂SO₃?
bases
ionic compound that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
the name of the cation, followed by the name of the anion
How are bases named?
Write the symbol for the metal cation followed by the formula for the hydroxide ion.
Balance the ionic charges.
How do you write the formulas for bases?
NH₄OH
What is the formula for ammonium hydroxide?
Lithium Hydroxide
What’s the name of LiOH
Lead (II) Hydroxide
What’s the name of Pb(OH)₂
Magnesium Hydroxide
Whats the name of Mg(OH)₂
Al(OH)₃
What is the formula for aluminum hydroxide?
HMnO₄
What’s the formula for permanganic acid?
Nitrous acid
What’s the name of HNO₂?
hydrosulfuric acid
What’s the name of H₂S?
catalyst
a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier; the catalyst is not used up in the reaction
activity series
a list of elements in order of decreasing activity
Activity series of metals
Activity series of metals
Decreasing reactivity ↓
1. Flourine (F)
2. Chlorine (Cl)
3. Bromine (Br)
4. Iodine (I)
5. Astatine (At)
Activity series of halogens
STP
the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured
0°C
What is standard temperature?
101.3 kPa or
1 atm
What is standard pressure?
stoichiometry
the portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships in chemical reactions; the calculation of quantities of substances involved in chemical equations
net ionic equation
an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
polyatomic ions
ions composed of more than one atom, which behaves as a unit and carries and ionic charge
nitrite
NO₂⁻
nitrate
NO³⁻
permanganate
MnO₄⁻
acetate
C₂H₃O₂⁻
sulfite
SO₃²⁻
sulfate
SO₄²⁻
chromate
CrO₄²⁻
carbonate
CO₃²⁻
phosphate
PO₄³⁻
ammonium
NH₄⁺
sodium ion
Na⁺
calcium ion
Ca²⁺
aluminum ion
Al³⁺
floride
What is the anion name of florine?
chloride
What is the anion name of chlorine?
oxide
What is the anion name of oxygen?
sulfide
What is the anion name of sulfur?
nitride
What is the anion name of nitrogen?
phosphide
What is the anion name of phosphorus?
arsenide
What is the anion name of arsenic?
transition metal
Chromium, copper, magonese, mercury, iron, tin, cobalt, and lead are all what type of metal?
iron (II) ion
Fe²⁺ reads as…
iron (III) ion
Fe³⁺ reads as…
silver (I) ion
Ag⁺ reads as…
copper (II) ion
Cu²⁺ reads as…
potassium chloride
KCl reads as…
Fe₂O₃
What is the formula for the compound iron (III) oxide?
CaS
What is the formula for the compound calcium sulfide?
CuS
What is the formula for the compound copper (II) sulfide?
Cu₂S
What is the formula for the compound copper (I) sulfide?
iron (III) oxide
Fe₂O₃ reads as…
calcium sulfide
CaS reads as…
copper (II) sulfide
CuS reads as…
copper (I) sulfide
Cu₂S reads as…
magnesium phosphate
Mg₃(PO₄)₂ reads as…
Mg₃(PO₄)₂
What is the formula for the compound magnesium phosphate?
calcium nitrate
Ca(NO₃)₂ reads as…
Ca(NO₃)₂
What is the formula for the compound calcium nitrate?
lithium carbonate
Li₂CO₃ reads as…
Li₂CO₃
What is the formula for the compound lithium carbonate?
potassium sulfate
K₂SO₄ reads as…
K₂SO₄
What is the formula for the compound potassium sulfate?
NBr₃
What is the formula for the compound nitrogen tribromide?
B₆Si
What is the formula for the compound hexaboron silicide?
HI
What is the formula for the compound hydrogen iodide?
P₂O₅
What is the formula for the compound diphosphorous pentaoxide?
PI₃
What is the formula for the compound phosphorus triiodide?
NO
What is the formula for the compound nitrogen monoxide?
tetraphosphorus pentasulfide
P₄S₅ reads as…
disilicon hexabromide
Si₂Br₆ reads as…
nitrogen triflouride
NF₃ reads as…
diboron silicide
B₂Si reads as…
sodium hydroxide
NaOH reads as…
sulfurous acid
H₂SO₃ reads as…
calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)₂ reads as…
hydrophospheric acid
H₃P reads as…
Co(OH)₂
What is the formula for the compound cobalt (II) hydroxide?
H₂Se
What is the formula for the compound hydroselenic acid?
HBr
What is the formula for the compound hydrobromic acid?
metal ions+nonmetal ions
What is a binary ionic compound?
1
mono means…
2
di means…
3
tri means…
4
tetra means…
5
penta means…
6
hexa means…
7
hepta means…
8
octa means…
9
nano means…
10
deca means…
6.02 × 10²³
One mole contains how many representative particles?
molecules
What is the representative particle of covalent compounds and diatomic atoms?
formula unit
What is the representative particle of an ionic compounds?
an atom
What is the representative particle of an individual element?
0.208 mol Mg
How many moles of magnesium is 1.25 × 10²³ atoms of magnesium?
1.28 × 10²⁴ molecules C₃H₈
How many representative particles are in 2.12 moles of propane (C₃H₈)?
13 L SO₂
Determine the volume, in liters, of 0.60 moles of SO₂ gas at STP.
3.93 × 10⁻²
At STP, how many moles are in 0.880 L He?
1.99 × 10²⁴ molecules H₂
How many representative particles are in 73.9 L of H₂ gas at STP?
mass of element/molar mass of compound × 100
What is the formula for percent composition?
H₂→ Hydrogen
N₂→ Nitrogen
F₂→ Fluorine
O₂→ Oxygen
I₂→ Iodine
Cl₂→ Chlorine
Br₂→ Bromine
What are the diatomic molecules?
H₂→ Have
N₂→ No
F₂→ Fear
O₂→ Of
I₂→ Ice
Cl₂→ Cold
Br₂→ Beer
*mnemonic device to remember the diatomic molecules*
60.29% of Mg
39.71% of O
When a 13.60 g sample of a compound containing only magnesium and oxygen is decomposed, 5.40 g of oxygen is obtained. What is the percent composition of this compound?
Atomic mass of element/total molecular mass of the molecule × 100
How do you calculate percent mass?
81.71% of C
18.29% of H
Calculate the percent mass of C₃H₈.
67.0022 g C
14.9978 g H
Calculate the mass of carbon and the mass of hydrogen in 82.0g of propane (C₃H₈). *find percent mass first*
1. Use the chemical formula to determine the number of each type of atom present in a compound.
2. Multiply the atomic weight of each element by the number of atoms of that element present in the compound.
3. Add it all together and put units of grams/mole after the number.
How do you find the molar mass of a compound?
NO₂
Find the empirical formula for the oxide that contains 42.05 g of nitrogen and 95.95 g of Oxygen.
CH₂
Suppose a compound is analyzed and reveals that is composed of 85.7% carbon and 14.3% hydrogen. Find the empirical formula for this compound.
C₄H₅N₂O
Given the following mass composition, determine the empirical formula. 148.5g C, 15.6g H, 86.4g N, and 49.5g O
164.1 g Ca(NO₃)₂
Find the molar mass of calcium nitrate.
106.0 g Na₂CO₃
Find molar mass of sodium carbonate.
1. combination reaction
2. decomposition reaction
3. single-replacement reaction
4. double-replacement reaction
5. combustion reaction
What are the five types of chemical reactions?
combination reaction
a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form one product
decomposition reaction
chemical change in which a single compound breaks down into two or more simpler products
single-replacement reaction
a reaction in which once element replaces a second element that is in a compound
double-replacement reaction
a chemical change involving an exchange of positive ions between two compounds
combustion reaction
a chemical change in which an element or compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy
combination reaction
This is the general equation for which type of chemical reaction: R+S→RS
decomposition reaction
This is the general equation for which type of chemical reaction: RS→R+S
single-replacement reaction
This is the general equation for which type of chemical reaction: T+RS→TS+R
double-replacement reaction
This is the general equation for which type of chemical reaction: R⁺S⁻+T⁺U⁻→R⁺U⁻+T⁺S⁻
combustion reaction
This is the general equation for which type of chemical reaction: A+O₂→H₂O+CO₂
combination reaction
What type of reaction is this: 8Fe+S₈→8FeS
decomposition reaction
What type of reaction is this: 2H₂O→2H₂+O₂
single-replacement reaction
What type of reaction is this: Zn+2HCl→ZnCl₂+H₂
double-replacement reaction
What type of reaction is this: NaCl(aq)+AgNO₃(aq)→NaNO₃(aq)+AgCl(s)
combustion reaction
What type of reaction is this: C₁₀H₈+12O₂→10CO₂+4H₂O
2 Fe+3 H₂SO₄→1 Fe₂(SO₄)₃+3 H₂
Balance this equation: Fe+H₂SO₄→Fe₂(SO₄)₃+H₂
4(NH₄)₃PO₄+3 Pb(NO₃)₄→Pb₃(PO₄)₄+12 NH₄NO₃
Balance this equation: (NH₄)₃PO₄+Pb(NO₃)₄→Pb₃(PO₄)₄+NH₄NO₃
4NH₃+5O₂→4NO+6H₂O
Balance this equation: NH₃+O₂→NO+H₂O
SnO₂(s)+2H₂(g)→Sn(s)+2H₂O(g)
Translate this sentence into an equation:
Tin oxide is heated with hydrogen gas to form tin metal and water vapor. Write the balanced equation that describes this reaction.
BaCl₂(aq)+Na₂CrO₄(aq)→BaCrO₄(s)+2NaCl(aq)
Translate this sentence into an equation: Aqueous solutions of barium chloride and sodium chromate react to produce a precipitate of barium chromate plus sodium chloride in aqueous solution.
the skeleton equation
What type of equation is this: Pb(s)+AgNO₃(aq)→Ag(s)+Pb(NO₃)₂(aq)
Ionic equation
What type of equation is this: Pb(s)+2Ag(aq)+2NO₃(aq)→2Ag(s)+Pb²⁺(aq)+2NO₃⁻(aq)
2NO₃ and 2NO₃⁻
What are the spectator ions of Pb(s)+2Ag(aq)+2NO₃(aq)→2Ag(s)+Pb²⁺(aq)+2NO₃⁻(aq)
In a chemical reaction, substances (elements or compounds) called reactants are changed into other substances (compounds or elements) called products.
What’s the difference between reactants and products?
Pb(s)+2Ag(aq)→2Ag(s)+Pb²⁺(aq)
Write the net ionic equation of Pb(s)+AgNO₃(aq)→Ag(s)+Pb(NO₃)₂(aq).
Know the stoichiometry conversions.
Know the stoichiometry conversions.
1. Calculate the number of moles that you have of each reactant.
2. Convert one of the molar quantities to moles of the other reactant (using mole ratios).
What are the steps for calculating limiting reagents?
In the perfect world
When will the theoretical yield happen?
In a laboratory. It’s what you really get in real life. It’s not perfect
Where would the actual yield occur?
1. Change the moles of what you have, to the moles of what you want.
2. Change the moles of what you have to the moles of what you want, using the mole ratios from the original equation
3. Change the moles of what you want to the grams of what you want by using the molar mass of what you want.
What are the steps to solving a mass to mass problem?
21.3 g P
What mass of phosphorus will be needed to produce 48.9 g of P₄O₁₀
30.4 g NH₃
Calculate the number of grams of NH produced by the reaction of 5.40 g hydrogen, with the excess of nitrogen. The balanced equation is: N₂(g)+3H₂(g)→2NH₃(g)
Because the actual yield of a chemical reaction is often less than the theoretical yield.
Why is the percent yield often less than 100%?
percent yield= actual yield/theoretical yield×100
What’s the equation for percent yield?
Human error, nature, mislabeling, impurities, and mismeasurement.
What are some factors that cause percent yields to be less than 100%?
13.9 g CaO
What is the theoretical yield of CaO if 24.8 g CaCO₃ is heated? The chemical equation is CaCO₃(s)→CaO(s)+CO₂(g)
94.2% CaO
What is the percent yield if 13.1 g CaO is actually produced when 24.8 g CaCO₃ is heated? The chemical equation is CaCO₃(s)→CaO(s)+CO₂(g)
97.9% CCl
What is the percent yield of CCl if 617 kg is produced from the reaction of 312 kg CS₂.
The chemical equation is CS₂+3Cl→CCl₄+S₂Cl₂
excess reagent
The reactant in a chemical reaction that remains when a reaction stops when the limiting reactant is completely consumed. It remains because there is nothing with which it can react.
limiting reagent
The reactant in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product that can be formed. The reaction will stop when all of it is consumed.
limiting reagent= Cu
excess reagent= S
0.150 mol S is left over
What is the limiting reagent when 80.0 g Cu reacts with 25.0 g S? Excess reagent? How much of the excess reagent is left over?
If there is only a certain amount of one reactant available for a reaction, the reaction must stop when that reactant is consumed whether or not the other reactant has been used up.
Know how to explain a limiting reagent and excess reagent in your own words with examples.
boyle’s law
states that for a given mass of a gas at constant temperature the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure
P₁×V₁=P₂×V₂
What is the equation for Boyle’s law?
temperature
What is being held constant in Boyle’s law?
Charles’ law
the volume of a fixed mass of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature if pressure is constant
V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂
What is the equation for Charles’ law?
pressure
What is being held constant in Charles’ law?
Gay-Lussac’s Law
states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature if it’s volume is held constant
P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂
What is the equation for Gay-Lussac’s Law?
P₁×V₁/T₁=P₂×V₂/T₂
What is the equation for the combined gas law?
P×V=n×R×T
What is the equation for the ideal gas law?
V₂= 124L
A balloon contains 30.0 L of helium gas at 103 kPa. What is the volume of the helium when the balloon raises to an altitude when the pressure is 25.0 kPa
P₂= 141 kPa
A sample of neon gas occupies a volume of 677mL at 134 kPa. What is the pressure of the sample if the gas is decreased to 642 mL.
V₂= 4.46 L
If a balloon inflated in a room at 24°C has a volume of 4.00L. The balloon is then heated to a temperature of 58°C. What is the new volume if the pressure remains constant. (Use the sigfigs of Kelvins)
T₁= 280 K
What is the temperature of a 2.3 L balloon if it shrinks to a volume of 0.632 L when it is dipped into liquid nitrogen at a temperature of 77K?
P₂= 415 kPa
The gas in a used aerosol can is at a pressure of 103 kPa at 25°C. If the can is thrown onto a fire, what will the pressure be when the temperature reaches 928°C?
221 K
A pressure cooker containing Kale and water starts at 298 K and 101 kPa. The cooker is heated and the pressure increases to 136 kPa. What is the final temperature inside the cooker?
A 12.0 g sample of gas occupies 19.2 L at STP. What is the molecular weight of this gas?
28.75 mol of argon
A cylinder of argon gas contains 50.0 L of Ar at 18.4 atm and 127 °C.
How many moles of argon are in the cylinder?
K=273+C°
What’s the equation for converting Celsius to Kelvins?
8.314
What is the universal gas constant for kPa?
0.082
What is the universal gas constant for atm?
Ideal gases
1. very elastic (travels forever in a linear path)
2. never loses energy
3. has an insignificant volume
Are all properties of what?
properties of real gases
molarity
the number of moles of a solute dissolved in one liter of a solution
moles of solute/liters of solution
What is the equation for molarity?
0.15 M
A saline solution contains 0.90 g NaCl in exactly 100 mL of solution. What’s the molarity?
1.05 m NaClO₂
Household laundry bleach is a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO). How many moles of solute are present in 1.5 L of 0.70M NaClO₂?
M₁×V₁=M₂×V₂
To make dilutions, what formula do you use?
V₁= 20 mL
How many mL of aqueous 2.00 M MgSO₄ solution must be diluted with water to prepare 100.0 mL of aqueous 0.400 M MgSO₄?
0.06 M CuSO₄
100.0 mL of a 0.300 M CuSO₄ solution is diluted to 500.0 mL. What’s the concentration of the diluted solution?
concentration
the measure of the amount of solute dissolved in a specific amount of solvent
diluted solution
a solution that contains a relatively small amount of solute
concentrated solution
a solution that contains a relatively large amount of solute
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