Chillers and Energy Savings Sample Essay

Introduction
Cardinal constructing chilling options include H2O hair-raisers and direct-expansion ( DX ) A/C units. Hair-raisers use a infrigidation rhythm to chill H2O to 42? F to 55? F for pumping to chilled H2O chilling spirals. Air is so blown over the chilled H2O chilling spirals to supply cool air to the learned infinite. DX systems besides use a infrigidation rhythm. but distribute refrigerant straight to DX chilling spirals – some are packaged in a individual lodging. others are split ( evaporator spiral remote to condenser and compressor ) . High-efficiency hair-raisers can bring forth chilled H2O utilizing less than 0. 50 kilowatt per ton of chilling capacity. A infrigidation system must besides reject the heat that it removes utilizing a chilling tower for H2O chilling the capacitor ( most efficient ) or utilizing fans for air chilling the hot refrigerant of the capacitor spiral.

Chiller Performance Facts
Hair-raisers consume more than 50 % of electrical energy during seasonal periods of edifice usage. More than 120. 000 hair-raisers in the U. S. are using more than 30 % in extra energy through operational inefficiencies. ( Estimated by DOE study ) Water cooled capacitor H2O ( chilling tower ) temperature lessening of 1?F can increase efficiency of the hair-raiser compressor by 1 % to 2 % in most state of affairss ; nevertheless. there is a bound and optimal lower capacitor temperature for a given partial burden of the hair-raiser compressor. A ignored or ill maintained chilling tower can cut down hair-raiser efficiency by 10 % to 35 % and a soiled spiral capacitor of an air cooled hair-raiser every bit much as 5 % to 15 % Chemical cleansing of the interior of the capacitor and evaporator heat transportation surfaces can ensue in a 5 % to 10 % energy nest eggs – kw/ton Air-cooled hair-raisers are less efficient than water-cooled hair-raisers but cost less every bit good. to find. with today’s hair-raiser machines this instantaneous input ( kilowatt ) / ( ton ) end product relationship. Most have a control panel that looks at all of the motor thrusts connected kilowatts for comparing with the evaporator chilled H2O flow and temperature. However. if this panel is non available. the undermentioned expression represents the readings that must be taken to come close the kw/ton values for comparing with the old ARI enfranchisement informations. This will find operating cost and efficiency and besides represents a logged study.

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Chiller Performance Ratings
There are many hair-raiser makers of several compressor types and capacitor chilling constellations. ? These makers have web sites that are really educational to chiller operation in general and specific selling singularity of their equipment. The of import thing for hair-raiser operation is to cognize how the unit is executing comparative to optimum design efficiency after the initial installing. where efficiency is dependent on hair-raiser service responsibility and maintained equipment public presentation worthiness. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ( ARI ) certiAirfies hair-raiser public presentation both for capacity ( dozenss ) and power input harmonizing to really elaborate process to guarantee manufacturer’s public presentation statements are verified through existent running under partial burden and full burden conditions. As seen below there is a kw/ton scope from a partial laden status to a full laden status that would be expected during installed operation. It is possible

Efficiency Recommendations ARI Standard 550/590 Air Cooled Chillers Part Load Optimized
Compressor Type & A ; Capacity Scroll ( 30 – 60 dozenss ) Reciprocating ( 30 – 150 dozenss ) Screw ( 70 –200 dozenss ) Recommended IPLV ( kw/ton ) Best Available IPLV ( kw/ton )

Full Load Optimized
Recommended Full Load ( kw/ton ) Best Available Full burden ( kw/ton )

0. 86 or less less 0. 90 or less 0. 98 or less

0. 83 0. 80 0. 83

1. 23 or less 1. 23 or less 1. 23 or less

1. 10 1. 00 0. 94

Water Cooled Hair-raisers
Part Load Optimized
Compressor Type & A ; Capacity Centrifugal ( 150 –299 dozenss ) 2. 000 Centrifugal ( 300 – 2. 000 dozenss ) Rotary Screw greater 150 dozenss Recommended IPLV ( kw/ton ) Best Available IPLV ( kw/ton )

Optimized Full Load Optimized
Recommended Full Load ( kw/ton ) Best Available Full burden ( kw/ton )

0. 52or less 0. 45 or less 0. 49 or less

0. 0. 47 0. 0. 38 0. 0. 46

0. 59 or less 0. 56 or less 0. 64 or less

0. 50 0. 47 0. 58

Chiller Performance Measurements
Input ( Energy Consumed – KW ) • ( KW1 ) Compressor Drive Motor – Amps @ Volts. or KW • ( KW2 ) Condenser Water Pump Drive Motor – Amps @ Volts or KW • ( KW3 ) Cooling Tower Fan Drive Motor – Amps @ Volts or KW • ( KW4 ) Chiller Control System Feeder Circuit – Amps @ Volts or KW • ( KW5 ) Transmission Oil Pump Motor and Oil Heater– Amps @ Volts or KW ( Note: Chilled H2O pump thrust motor is non considered apart of the power input ) Output ( Cooling Capacity Delivered – Tons ) • ( TS ) Chilled Water Supply Temperature – °F • ( TR ) Chilled Water Return Temperature – °F • ( FCW ) Chilled Water Flow Rate Gallons/Minute – GPM Chiller Performance = Total KW Input/Tons Output ( at one peculiar runing point )

Chiller Operating Cost

Annual Operating Cost – 100 Ton Chiller
Part Load Condition 0. 5 kw/ton 0. 6 kw/ton 0. 7 kw/ton 0. 8 kw/ton 0. 9 kw/ton 1. 0 kw/ton 1. 1 kw/ton 1. 2 kw/ton 1. 3 kw/ton Cost To Operate $ 18. 600 $ 22. 300 $ 26. 000 $ 29. 700 $ 33. 400 $ 37. 100 $ 40. 900 $ 44. 600 $ 48. 300

As shown below. any hair-raiser works that operates con= KW1 + KW2 + KW3 + KW4 + KW5/ Tons Capacity. where: tinuously above approximately 1. 2 kw/ton ( air cooled capacitor ) or 0. 64 kw/ton ( H2O cooled capacitor ) . there is a demand for betterment. This normally inTons Capacity = FCW ( gal/min ) x 8. 34 lb/gal x ( Cp ) 1 Btu/ volves a service representative to measure the loadlb. °F ten ( TR – TS ) x 60 mins. /hr ing. operating conditions ( log sheets ) . and maintedivided by 12. 000 Btu/hr/Ton fagot service records for uncovering the lack. The above expressions are for a hair-raiser that has a chilling tower supplying capacitor chilling. KW3 would be the entire KW of the multiple fan motors that are running for an air cooled capacitor system. Obviously. if there is a individual circuit supply to the hair-raiser unit so all of the single motors are jointly represented by a individual A and electromotive force measuring.

Cost Savings Potential at Different Performance Levels
The undermentioned chart is an illustration of how much electricity disbursal can change over a summer season of operation at different hair-raiser public presentation degrees. This chart is based on a 100 ton hair-raiser running 24-hours each twenty-four hours. 180 days/year. at the efficiency as shown below. ( mean one-year electricity cost of $ 0. 086/kwh )

References & A ; Resources:
1. Manufacturers ; Trane. York. Carrier. McQuay. 2. ASHRAE Journal /www. ashrae. org/ 3. Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute ( ARI ) . World Wide Web. ahrinet. org Sponsored by the State Energy Office. N. C. Department of Administration and the U. S. Department of Energy. with State Energy Program financess. in cooperation with the Land-of-Sky Regional Council ( Waste Reduction Partners ) and the NCDPPEA However. Land-ofNCDPPEA. any sentiment. findings. decisions. or recommendations expressed herein are those of the writer ( s ) and do non needfully reflect the positions of either the N. C. Department of Administration or the U. S. Department of Energy. An on-line version of this fact sheet is available at: World Wide Web. wastereductionpartners. com and World Wide Web. energync. cyberspace

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