Classical Societies Classical Societies In what is now known as the Classical Societies, art has evolved and taken many forms. It can be seen in sculpture, paintings, architecture, music, and other venues. The different classical societies consist of Classical Greece, Hellenistic Greece, Etruscan Society, The Roman Republic, and The Roman Empire. Each of these societies can be identified by the different style of art that encompasses them. In Classical Greek society, art was greatly classified in the sculptures that were produced.
Made from many different materials such as stone, marble, limestone, and even clay, though few made of clay have survived. These sculptures were crafted to showcase the more aesthetic values of the human body. Suppression of the emotions was believed to be noble characteristics of all civilized men (University Press, 2008). The transposing of their beliefs into the sculpture’s that were crafted during that time shows a direct relationship to the intellectual evolution of the Classical Greek era. The Diadoumenos statue by Polykleitos shows these characteristics, as the form is free and in a more natural position, yet the face expressionless.
The influence of the culture and the rapidly advancing intellectuality of Greece are apparent in the sculptures produced during that time, as well as the sculpture influencing the culture by idolizing the natural human form. Hellenistic Greece was much different than Classical Greece, as can be seen in the art and sculpture. Whereas Classical Greek sculpture had beauty in the form, they were expressionless. Hellenistic Greek sculpture was much more dramatic. Expressions were sculpted into the faces of the subjects.
The form of the sculpture was made to express the emotion or action that was intended to be expressed. Sleeping Satyr is a wonderful example of this idea. He is in a relaxed pose, as if he is ready to sleep, his face showing his fatigue. This would not be seen in Classical Greek sculpture. The sculptures crafted during this period reflect the dramatic transformation that Greece was undergoing at the time culturally. The naturalism of Classical Greece gave way to more dramatic human expression (GreekLandscapes. com, 2010). Etruscan Society produced such great metal sculptures as Chimera of Arrezzo.
This type of sculpture was made in the figurative sense, and did not embody realism as the art produced by other classical societies. Etruscan art was influenced by the optimism of the culture, as seen in some art that reflects the afterlife. Humor and a sense of energy are apparent in many Etruscan sculptures. The art itself influenced the culture as well, as the Etruscans became known for their superior work in bronze and other metals. Art in the Roman Republic was heavily influenced by Greek art, although Romans were very different than the Greeks.
The sculptures of The Roman Republic were of great size, as was customary in many aspects of the Roman Republic. The sculpture and painting of the Roman Republic was realistic, focusing on specific people, places, and times. Sculpture was particularly detailed, and the many small details of the human face could be seen most readily and easily, as in the Portrait bust of Julius Caesar. Roman culture focused heavily on lineage, and importance of the political figures. The detail of sculptures can be attributed to the importance of the subjects that Romans sculpted.
Empirical Rome was for the most part very peaceful after the reign of Caesar Augustus. Augustus of Primaporte, a sculpture that was influenced by Greek realism, portrayed the importance of Augustus as well as the peace that was experienced during and after his reign. Greek idealism and Roman realism were combined in Empirical Roman sculpture. The sculptures maintained a sense of the importance of the Political figures in Rome. Romans continued to have an obsession with larger than life size ratio and would craft sculptures that were greater in size than the average human.
This also lent to inspire the public to awe the more important political figures, and kept them in their place. Art and sculpture in the Classical Societies is largely different, although at the core, there are some similarities. It is apparent that art and sculpture had an influence on the cultures of each society, as well as the culture having an influence on the art. Without these works of art, we would know much less about the culture and history of these classical societies. References The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2010). Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History.
Retrieved from http://www. metmuseum. org/toah/hd/athl/ho_25. 78. 56. htm University Press. (2008). Ancient Greece. Retrieved from http://www. ancientgreece. com/s/Sculpture/ GreekLandscapes. com. (2010). Greek Art: the Hellenistic Period. Retrieved from http://www. greeklandscapes. com/greece/athens_museum_hellenistic. html Questia. (1959). Etruscan Art. Retrieved from http://www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o&docId=88967147 Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art. (2010). Roman Art. Retrieved from http://www. visual-arts-cork. com/roman-art. htm