This study sets out to see the issue of how some of the British brotherhoods have adopted what is termed an ‘organising scheme ‘ in order to regenerate brotherhood strength, and to so compare this scheme with that adopted by brotherhoods in the U.S. and France.
Frege and Kelly link the issue of brotherhood rank to “ the contours of corporate bargaining ” ( 2003:16 ) , and argue that, in comparing to the remainder of Europe, there is more of an inducement within the “ decentralised systems of the UK and United States ” ( ibid ) for trade brotherhoods to organize, Baccaro, et Al, likewise link the UK to the U.S when they comment how the UK trade brotherhoods “ have borrowed from the forming tactics of American brotherhoods ” ( 2003:123 ) . Consequently this study takes awareness of these positions and will pull from surveies and literature, from both the United States and the United Kingdom, analyzing both the historical and current impressions of brotherhood organising and brotherhood revival in these states.
Other faculty members, such as Jeffreys ( 1996 ) , remark as to how there are besides turning similarities between the force per unit areas confronting both the UK and the Gallic brotherhoods and this study will besides endeavor to see and compare the differing organising schemes within the Gallic Trade brotherhood motion where, although there is a lower degree of rank denseness ( see table 2 ) , the Gallic Trade brotherhoods are still able to call up big Numberss of workers when needed.
The study will besides see the industrial and political environments that each brotherhood motion faces, in their several states, in order to measure the function of organizing within the brotherhood motion. The study will seek to compare the successes, or jobs, that the trade brotherhood administrations may hold encountered, by analyzing the information gathered and so sing what decisions and recommendations can be made sing the function of trade brotherhood organizing schemes in the three states.
The demand for an organising scheme 201
It is of import to analyze the history, and construct, of organizing as seen through the literary plants of faculty members. In comparative surveies of trade brotherhoods by other writers there is a common subject which suggests that throughout most of the 1980s and 1990s, trade brotherhoods throughout the UK and Europe were in diminution ( Kelly: 1998, Heery: 2003, Darlington: 2002 ) , and that accordingly many brotherhoods have had to re-examine their constructions, and methods by which they represent their rank in order to last in today ‘s competitory free market economic system.
Today ‘s brotherhoods have several picks when taking to organize within a workplace as this can be achieved through ; xxxx
partnership trades and appealing to the employer – as with Nissan, nevertheless a recent paper on ‘Union reclamation ‘ by Danford et Al. argues that partnership and organizing can non work in tandem as there is a strong likeliness that senior militants would go anomic from the rank thereby curtailing members engagement and mobilization ( pp1-27 )
organizing to accomplish a numerical mark that would let acknowledgment under legislative act or,
a strong leading that is able to actuate the work force to the inequalities and unfairnesss that members may comprehend as demonstrated by the RMT brotherhood. ( Darlington:2009 )
Heery besides argues that today ‘s brotherhoods are “ less able to pull members and [ have become ] less representative of the working population ” ( 2003: 79 ) and, it could be argued, that in today ‘s current industrial dealingss clime, Sidney and Beatrice Webb ‘s definition of a Trade Union as being “ a uninterrupted association of pay earners for the intent of keeping or bettering the conditions of their working lives ” ( 1920: p.1 ) is no longer plenty to pull people to the trade brotherhood motion.
2.1 Specifying an organising scheme within UK brotherhoods 860
Evidence to back up Heery ‘s statement ( 2003:79 ) can be observed in the TUC ‘s determination, in 1998, to put up an Organizing Academy in order to re-build rank and turn workplace administration as a consequence of the twelvemonth on twelvemonth diminution in brotherhood rank since the 70 ‘s. [ See table 1 ]
Table 1. Trade brotherhood rank figures, 1993-2003
4.5 % **
Beginning: France & A ; UK informations: EIRO:2011 United States Data: Mayer G, 2004
. * France- harmonizing to CGT, 24.9 % of members were pensionaries in 1993. and 21.8 % in 1998. ** Change from 1993 to 1998.
In kernel, it could be argued that the TUC organizing theoretical account was non so much a freshly imported construct from the United States, but alternatively was an effort to determine a scheme under the streamer of ‘New Unionism ‘ with the purpose of conveying an organising civilization to the centre phase of the trade brotherhood thought. This would at the same clip, aid to counter the US ‘union breaking ‘ HRM techniques that companies in the UK were get downing to present ( Smith: 2008, Moore: 2004 ) . However conveying such an organizing theoretical account to the head of trade brotherhood believing requires the brotherhoods to follow new techniques and civilizations, such as ‘mapping the workplace ‘ and making organizing commissions ( Heery et al. :2003 ) , and any such procedure would besides trust upon the debut of a new sort of brotherhood functionary who would be a trained specializer, able to be used as an
“ agent of alteration ” ( ? ? ? ? 2008 ) in order to assist travel the brotherhood motion off from the old proverb of brotherhood functionaries being “ picket, male and stale ” ( Coddington:1998 ) .
The new ‘union organizers ‘ were set a strategic function by the TUC that it could be argued, is a slightly contrary place to Kelly ‘s ‘mobilization theory ‘ ( 1998 ) , and Darlington, uses the Royal Mail Industrial Relations environment to supply an illustration of this duality, when he describes the postal ‘union leading ‘ as being ;
“ aˆ¦a bed of workplace brotherhood militants and activists capable of standing up and reasoning with their fellow workers, and supplying rank-and-file leading frequently independently of full-time brotherhood functionaries ” ( 2002:98 ) .
However, instead than merely holding the brotherhood leading seen as the cardinal militants that generate work force grudges, and highlight issues to the rank, in order to convey about some signifier of corporate action as described by Darlington, the TUC ‘s position was to utilize the organizers in a manner in which they could be seen as ‘professionalising ‘ the issue of organizing, nevertheless the organizers ‘ function relies upon the rank to go actively participative in cardinal workplace issues, and in order to complement and help the ballad activists it can go a resource hungry procedure.
Nowak provinces that, since construct ten old ages antecedently, the TUC Organising Academy has changed significantly and he accepts that the academy had n’t “ led to a immense rush in trade brotherhood rank ” nevertheless he believed that ; “ right from the start aˆ¦one [ such ] enterprise could n’t ” accomplish this ( Nowak: 2008 ) .
Moore raises an of import point when she argues that as “ the benefits of winning [ acknowledgment ] may be perceived as higher for the unionaˆ¦ [ and ] aˆ¦unions may put important resources into forming ” ( 2004: p.21 ) , and it is notable that the TUC, upon establishing the Academy, set out a budget of ?1.5 Million for this scheme, with the 17 sponsoring brotherhoods besides supplying ?15,000 towards the organizers rewards. ( Coddington: 1998 ) . Kelly et al adds to this by inquiring why, with such a committedness to resources undertaken by the brotherhoods, “ was the recovery of rank in Britain so modest in the period 1998 – 2002? ” ( 2004: p.32 ) .
Whether this sum of money can be seen as ‘significant resources ‘ , when compared to the 2006 entire one-year rank income of UK brotherhoods which stood at ?747 Million, with the TUC having ?14 Million in association fees and passing ?1.59 Million on organizing ( TUC:2008 ) , is unfastened to debate and this raises the inquiry as to whether or non worsening brotherhood gross, through decrease in members, is really a driver that is forestalling the brotherhoods from supplying equal resources to carry through the purposes of the TUC ‘s organizing scheme, and for the brotherhoods to accomplish the benefits of acknowledgment as described by Moore.
Volitions ( 2001 ) highlights the fact that the TUC is non the lone administration that has considered the impact of organizing and in 2004 the Iron and Steel Trades Confederation rhenium branded itself as ‘Community – the brotherhood for life ‘ , a brotherhood which non merely offers all the traditional brotherhood services but besides goes beyond this by offering a scope of benefits such as Child Benefit through to Learning Centres for members, their households and the community. It besides encourages members to stay in the administration when they retire ( Community:2011 ) .
Another aspect of the UK trade brotherhood motion trying to travel ‘outside the box ‘ is the Battersea and Wandsworth Trades Council and they have “ run a figure of successful, community-based undertakings to widen brotherhood administration to companies supplying privatised public services ” ( Heery abbot p169 ) every bit good as establishing the ‘Workers Beer Company ‘ which uses the financess from the venture to assist use three ‘union organizers ‘ in the local country ( Battersea and Wandsworth TUC: 2011 ) .
Willman ( 2004: p76-79 ) offers a position that, with respects to the loss of members, the trade brotherhood motion has three options,
To increase rank fees, whilst taking into history current economic conditions sing members wage,
To “ seek new rank markets ”
To buttonhole authorities for alterations to the employment regulative procedure.
Specifying an organising scheme within United States brotherhoods.
The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations is the United States equivalent to the British TUC and is a voluntary federation stand foring a sum of 57 national and international labor brotherhoods with a combined rank of 12.2 million brotherhood members. It has the ‘mission statement ‘ to: “ better the lives of working households – to convey economic justness to the workplace and societal justness to our nationaˆ¦ ” ( AFL-CIO:2011 ) , it has besides set itself a mark to:
“ make a wide apprehension of the demand to form among our members, our leading and among unorganised workers ” ( ibid ) .
It can be argued that this ‘mission statement ‘ sing organizing and more notably amongst unorganized workers, is the consequence of employer ill will towards the trade brotherhood motion, as demonstrated through the Taft-Hartley Act which produced ‘Right-to-work ‘ provinces and this enabled the Southern and Western provinces to censor the closed store ( Gaspin et al ) . However, the AFL-CIO has non merely had to cover with the employers onslaughts but historically, of all time since the 1960 ‘s and 70 ‘s, it has besides had to confront the outgrowth of the turning US civil rights motion, and sing the past history of the AFL, which “ welcomed into its ranks white-supremacist brotherhoods that frequently had clear racial-exclusion clauses in their rank demands ” ( Fletcher et al 2009: p.12 ) , it is non surprising to happen that other administrations formed as a direct consequence of the AFL-CIO ‘S “ refusal to follow internal integration steps ” ( Tait: 2005 ; p.25 ) , and these now openly vie for rank.
One illustration of such an administration is the Negro American Labour Council which, in 1963, organised the memorable ‘Jobs and Freedom ‘ March, at which Martin Luther King Junior. radius of his ‘dream ‘ . It could be argued that this March was the drift for the US brotherhood motion to organize the linkage between the civil rights motion to the issue of occupations and employment.
Evidence to back up this statement can be found in the mode and manner of the linguistic communication used by the brotherhoods, who talk of ‘social and economic justness ‘ , and ’empowering workers to talk ‘ . This, coupled with the recent extremely seeable and successful political runs, such as the Obama presidential run ( Ghitza et al.2009: p.81 ; Radcliff: 2001 ) show how brotherhoods are now associating political and other public issues that reach beyond the workplace, and affect workers day-to-day lives, in order to pull members.
Not merely hold brotherhood administrations such as the AFL-CIO have therefore had to develop complex methods to pull workers to fall in the brotherhood motion, such as runing for ‘social and economic justness ‘ but they have besides had to supply a assortment of services for their members, such as societal insurance strategies, societal disbursement plans, and consumer protection statute law ( AFL-CIO:2011 ) . All of which have a wide entreaty to the work force, nevertheless, Heery et Al, challenges whether or non such services do really pull members, indicating to the AFL-CIO ‘associate rank ‘ plan which, Heery believes,
“ failed to lend significantly to rank growing and had enrolled fewer than 100,000 members by the early 1990s ” ( 2000: p.160
However the AFL-CIO organising scheme did non merely rely upon their going a ‘service brotherhood ‘ , and their partnership attack to join forcesing with “ Working America ” which has
“ worked side by side AFL-CIO brotherhood militants on protecting societal security, harnessing in corporate surpluss, the Employment Free Choice Act, wellness attention reform, and more ” ( Sweeney:2009.p.3 ) ,
demonstrates how this partnership can assist the AFL-CIO range out to the three million members of Working America.
Acuff besides remarks upon this partnership attack and his sensed deficiency of growing by the AFL-CIO when he states that:
“ It has taken excessively long, but the AFL-CIO and it ‘s affiliate brotherhoods have eventually faced the fact that American labour jurisprudence works against forming and the procedure of corporate bargaining and that America ‘s brotherhoods must alter the manner we organize ” ( 2003 )
is the nexus to the US Working Families workingfamilies.com site.In 1995 the AFL-CIO ‘s new leading committed $ 20 million to back up a important thrust in organizing and asked all affiliates to perpetrate to puting 30 per cent of their disbursement to organizing ventures. Other big brotherhoods, such as the Communication Workers of America, besides followed suit and this venture attracted over a 1000 immature workers, and college pupils into organizing runs.
Specifying an organising scheme within Gallic brotherhoods
The Gallic Trade Union motion is built around five chief and viing, rival alliances, the CGT, CFDT, FO, CFTC and CFE-CGC. These alliances are recognised through a legal position as being ‘representative ‘ at a national multi – industry degree, and they act as an umbrella administration for single trade brotherhoods, and occupational or industrial federations, at departement and regional and national degree. Unlike the UK and US trade brotherhood motions, they are able to organize associations which they can use to better their fortunes and they have a common principal which is the support for “ the transmutation of society ” as a chief brotherhood aim ( ETUI:2011 ) .
However, despite the brotherhood denseness being lower than that of either the UK or US [ see table 2 ] the Gallic trade brotherhoods are still able to organize workers to take part in employee representatives elections and to call up workers to set about Industrial Action when needed ( LRD: 2010 ) , although this point of view is challenged by Boulin who argues that the Gallic Trade Union motion is “ in the throes of a crisis that is deeper than of all time before. ” ( 1998: p242 ) and uses the lessening in differences to contend that the “ diminution in the brotherhoods ‘ image, as distinguishable from that of their leaders, has resulted in a loss of influence and made it more hard to call up workers ” .
Table 2. Trade brotherhood Density figures, 1999-2008
Beginning: OECD. StatExtracts
This raises the inquiry as to whether or non it is really the Trade Union motion that is capable of call uping the work force, or whether the reply to the mobilization of workers ballads in history of the Gallic work force ‘s institutionalized attack, and civilization of republicanism, coupled with the trade brotherhood motions ‘ construct of syndicalism which to seek to subvert of the capitalist processes through industrial battle. One illustration of the duality confronting the brotherhoods can be demonstrated by the ejection, by the CGT, of a group of telecoms and postal members for their actions in back uping a work stoppage that the cardinal brotherhood did non hold with ( Denis:2006 ) , and the ejection in bend led to the formation of SUD ( Solidarity, Unity & A ; Democracy ) .
SUD-PTT union members: moral enterprisers?
Mentions and farther reading may be available for this article. To see mentions and farther reading you must buy this article.
Jean-Michel Denis Sociologie du Travail
Volume 48, Supplement 1, August 2006, Pages e39-e55
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=ArticleURL & A ; _udi=B6VR1-4KGX8B8-3 & A ; _user=10 & A ; _coverDate=08 % 2F31 % 2F2006 & A ; _rdoc=1 & A ; _fmt=high & A ; _orig=search & A ; _origin=search & A ; _sort=d & A ; _docanchor= & A ; view=c & A ; _searchStrId=1653275030 & A ; _rerunOrigin=google & A ; _acct=C000050221 & A ; _version=1 & A ; _urlVersion=0 & A ; _userid=10 & A ; md5=ed1e27f1bb1dbaeb3f49d40be08ec0fc & A ; searchtype=a
The modern work force has changed from the epoch of the Webbs and the biggest job for the trade brotherhood motion in all three states, is how to organize in industries that are going more and more Delawares regulated and where employers operate HRM techniques which are taking to the creative activity of a more individualistic work force, with companies using the usage of flexible, and portion clip, working contracts ( Gaspin 1997 p. ) .
In rank footings the Gallic trade brotherhood motion is the weakest of the three comparators, with merely 8 % of employees in brotherhoods by comparing with the UK at 27.1 % and the US at 11.9 % , but unlike their worsening opposite numbers, the Gallic motion should be considered as independent alliances which, in regard to external organic structures, are more able to lend towards in the preparation of statute law associating to the regulations of labor and societal security jurisprudence, and this in pattern topographic points a considerable sum of power in their custodies.
It could besides be argued that the Gallic workers continue to show the spirit and independency associated to the Gallic Revolution, and that there are similarities within the American work force attitudes in footings of their ‘independence ‘ , with back uping grounds that demonstrates how the US trade brotherhood motion has attempted to utilize the rise in civil rights runing to advance ‘social and economic justness ‘ enterprises as a positive image to assist derive credence in the community and let organizing to travel beyond the industrial environment.
Schenk et Al ( 1992 ) puts frontward a position that:
“ aˆ¦the state of affairs for brotherhoods would be much bleaker in the US if it had non been for forming additions in the populace sector and in instruction. Significant additions in these two countries helped to countervail the diminution in the private sector and building ” .
Schenk ‘s position, sing organizing in the populace and instruction sectors, is more important in today ‘s current economic clime as the current economic crisis brings the apparition of cuts in public services looms to each state, nevertheless in the UK there has merely been a limited move towards community issues, and these have tended to concentrate upon raising consciousness of public service issues such as the Royal Mail denationalization although the recent cuts in public services along with the issue of university tuition fees has now seen the TUC range out to the pupils brotherhood to organize a collaborative attack to disputing the cuts.
In both the UK and US the legal constructions allow employees the right to organize, in order to accomplish corporate bargaining, nevertheless the procedure for corporate bargaining differs between all three states. There are similarities between the hurdlings that are set in topographic point, in both the US and UK, by their several authoritiess, such as the clear anti brotherhood Torahs sing secondary action, introduced in the UK during the Thatcher epoch, and the 1947 Taft-Hartley Act in the US, which likewise abolished the ‘closed store ‘ and badly restricted brotherhood action through sympathetic work stoppages.
It is non surprising to therefore discovery that the AFL-CIO and TUC have committed to a joint programme of work that includes
“ Work together to develop and present ‘Busting the brotherhood fellows ‘ preparation stuffs for brotherhood officers and organizers in both the US and UK, and to interchange preparation and organising staff ” . ( TUC / AFL-CIO: dateless ) .
Uni – combined attack to organizing on a planetary footing affecting brotherhoods in UK, US and France,
Frege and Kelly ‘s aˆ¦aˆ¦..help to give a greater apprehension of the assorted trade brotherhood schemes
and willingness to take industrial action, through enterprises such asaˆ¦..
can this be linked to
In Britain, the success of efforts to organize contingent workers has yet to be evaluated,
And The chief focal point of TUC organizing scheme appears to be to alter the civilization and thought of British trade brotherhoods and there is small grounds to show the fiscal committednesss required from single brotherhoods, particularly when compared to committedness of the AFL-CIO and its associates to prioritize 10 % of brotherhood resources to “ form the unorganised ” ( AFL-CIO:2009 ) .
Evidence tilts towards UK organizing as an infill to recruitment instead than making out to new work countries with weak or small grounds, with the exclusion of Community brotherhood, of British brotherhoods retroflexing US community unionism and spread outing their remit beyond the traditional workplace and into either the community or to the new coevals of Aristotelian or migratory workers that are
Both the British and US theoretical accounts of organizing require the brotherhoods to assist the work force understand the function of corporate bargaining and
Acuff, S. , ( 2003 ) , ‘At the Acme: AFL-CIO Organizers Map Organizing Directions ‘ , Social Policy. Summer 2003, Vol. 33, Issue 4, p12-14.
AFL-CIO, ( 2009 ) , Resolution1- Seizing the Moment for Growth, Strength and Solidarity: Organizing for Our Future. Proceedings of the AFL-CIO Convention held at David L. Lawrence Convention Center, Pittsburgh, PA. September 13, 2009
AFL-CIO, ( 2011 ) , What We Stand for: Mission and Goals of the AFL-CIO [ Online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aflcio.org/aboutus/thisistheaflcio/mission [ Accessed: 08 February 2011 ] .
Baccaro, L. , Hamman, K. , Turner, L. , ( 2003 ) , ‘The Politics of Labour Movement Revival: The Need for a Revitalized Perspective ‘ , European Journal of Industrial Relations, vol.9, no.1, pp119-133. London: Sage Publications
Battersea and Wandsworth TUC, ( 2011 ) , Organizing and Campaigning, [ online ] London: Battersea and Wandsworth TUC, available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bwtuc.org.uk/organising.aspx [ Accessed 13 February 2011 ]
Boulin, J.Y. , ( 1998 ) , ‘Trade Unions in France: How to Challenge the Trend Towards De-Unionisation? ‘ in Trade Unions in Europe: Facing Challenges and Searching for Solutions. Hoffmann R. Waddington J. ( explosive detection systems ) ( 2000 ) pp215 -243 ETUI, Brussels
Clawson, D. , ( 2003 ) , ‘The Next French Upsurge ‘ . Labour history. Vol. 45 no.3 August 2004 P 338 -339 Routledge
Cockburn, D, ( 2010 ) , Annual Report of the Certification Officer 2009-2010 [ online ] London: HMSO. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.certoffice.org/CertificationOfficer/files/1f/1f6626ee-c0ae-4d4b-ac0b-278486c60547.pdf [ Accessed: 03 February 2011 ]
Coddington, A. , ( 1998 ) , ‘Pale, Male and Stale No More ‘ , The New Statesman, [ online ] September 11,1998. Vol. 127 Issue 4402, p.XII, Available from:
hypertext transfer protocol: //0-web.ebscohost.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk/ehost/detail? hid=9 & A ; sid=aa1c21a3-363c-4bf7-9012- da71cda354e8 % 40sessionmgr4 & A ; vid=5 & A ; bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ % 3d % 3d # db=aph & A ; AN=1117322 [ Accessed 13 February 2011 ]
Community, ( 2011 ) , About us – Community is your place. [ on-line ] London: Community. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.community-tu.org/information/100308/about_us/ [ accessed 13 February 2011.
Danford, A. , Richardson, M. , Upchurch, m. , ( 2002 ) , ‘New Unionism Organising and Partnership: a comparative analysis of brotherhood reclamation schemes in the populace sector ‘ Capital and Class. 76. pp.1-27
Darlington, R. , ( 2002 ) , ‘Shop stewards ‘ leading, leftist activism and corporate workplace brotherhood administration ‘ . Capital and Class. Issue 76. pp.95-126. London: Sage Publications.
Darlington, R. , ( 2009 ) , ‘Leadership and Union combativeness: The instance of the RMT ‘ . Capital and Class. Issue 99. September 2009. pp. 3-32. London: Sage Publications.
EIRO, ( 2011 ) , Trade brotherhood rank 1993-2003 [ online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/2004/03/update/tn0403105u.htm. [ Accessed 22 February 2011 ]
ETUI, ( 2011 ) , National Industrial Relations – Trade Union – France [ on-line ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.eurofound.europa.eu/emire/FRANCE/TRADEUNIONCONFEDERATION-FR.htm [ Accessed 11 February 2011 ]
Fletcher, B. , Gapasin, F. , ( 2009 ) , Solidarity Divided – the Crisis in Organized Labor and a New Path Towards Social Justice. Berkeley, CA: UC Press
Frege, C.M. , Kelly, J. , ( 2003 ) , ‘Union Revitalization Strategies in Comparative Perspective ‘ , European Journal of Industrial Relations, vol.9, no.1, pp7-24. London: Sage Publications.
Gaspin, F. , Branson, J. , ( 2010 ) , ‘Building The Majority Through Solidarity ‘ International Union Rights Vol.17. Issue 4, 2010. Nottingham: ICTUR International.
Gaspin, F. , Yates. M. , ( 1997 ) , ‘Organizing the Unorganized: Will Promise Become Practices? ‘ Monthly Review, Vol.49, Issue 3, July/August 1997, pp 46 – 63.
Ghitza, Y. , Rogers, T. , ‘Data Driven Politics ‘ in Anstead, N. , Straw, W. , ( explosive detection systems. ) ( 2009 ) , The Change We Need – What Britain Can Learn From Obama ‘s Victory. London: Fabian Society
Heery, E. , Kelly, J. , Waddington, J. , ( 2003 ) , ‘Union Revitalization in Britain ‘ , European Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 9. no.1, 2003. pp79 – 97. London: Sage Publications
Heery, E. , Salmon, J. , ( 2000 ) , ‘Trade Unions and the insecure work force ‘ in The Insecure Workforce. [ Online ] . Taylor & A ; Francis. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //0-lib.myilibrary.com.emu.londonmet.ac.uk? ID=31860 [ Accessed 12 February 2011 ]
Jeffreys, S. , ‘Strategic Choices for Unions in France and Britain: Divergent Institutions with Converging Options ‘ in Leisink, P. , Van Leemput, J. , Vilrokx, J. , ( explosive detection systems. ) ( 1996 ) , The Challenges to Trade Unions in Europe ; Innovation or Adaptation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Kelly, J. E. , ( 1998 ) , Rethinking Industrial Relations: mobilisation, Bolshevism, and long moving ridges. London: Routledge
Kelly, J. , Badigannavar V. , ‘Union Organizing ‘ , Kelly, J. , Willman, P. ( explosive detection systems ) ( 2004 ) , in Union Organization and Activity ‘ , London: Routledge.
LRD ( 2010 ) Millions mobilised by immense presentations in France Nov 2010
Mayer, G. , ( 2004 ) , Union Membership Trends in the United States. Federal Publications, Paper 174 [ online ] Available from ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace/174. Cornell University ILR School. [ Accessed 22 February 2011 ] .
Moore, S. , ‘Union Mobilization and employer counter-mobilization in the statutory acknowledgment procedure ‘ , Kelly, J. , Willman, P. ( explosive detection systems ) ( 2004 ) in Union Organization and Activity ‘ , London: Routledge.
A Nowak. P. , ( 2008 ) , 10 old ages of the TUC Organising Academy: Purpose, Policy and Practice. Proceedings of the WLRI Trade Union Seminar Series held at London Metropolitan University on 20 February 2008 [ online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.workinglives.org/news/archive/2008/wlri-trade-union-seminar-series-2008/20-february-2008.cfm. [ Accessed: 30 January 2011 ] .
OECD. ( 2011 ) , Trade Union Density – StatExtracts [ online ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. [ accessed 22 February 2011 ]
Radcliff, B. , ( 2001 ) , ‘Organized Labor and Electoral Participation in American National Elections ‘ . Journal of Labor Research. Vol.22. no.2. Spring 2001: pp.405-414. Dordrecht: Springer Science & A ; Business Media B.V.
Smith, L. , ( 2008 ) , ‘Union-busting tactics on the addition, warns TUC ‘ , The Guardian, Tuesday 12 February 2008: [ Online ] London: Guardian Newspapers. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/feb/12/tradeunions. [ Accessed 04 February2011 ]
Sweeney, J. , ( 2009 ) , Presidents Report – to AFL-CIO 2009 Convention [ online ] Pittsburgh: AFL-CIO. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aflcio.org/aboutus/thisistheaflcio/convention/2009/upload/ec_presreport.pdf [ Accessed 22 February 2011 ]
Tait, V. , ( 2005 ) Poor Workers ‘ Unions – Rebuilding Labor from Below. Cambridge MA. : South End Imperativeness
TUC/AFL-CIO, ( Undated ) , Protocol between AFL-CIO and the TUC. January 2008 papers held in CWU Research library Accessed 17 February 2010.
TUC, ( 2008 ) , Review of TUC support for Organising & A ; Recruitment, London: TUC, Private and confidential papers held in CWU Research library.
Webb, B. , Webb. S. , ( 1920 ) , The History of Trade Unionism – 1894. New York: Augustus M. Kelley
Willman, P. , ‘Structuring Unions ‘ Kelly, J. , Willman, P. ( explosive detection systems ) . ( 2004 ) , in Union Organization and Activity. London: Routledge.
Volitions, J. , ( 2001 ) , Community unionism and trade brotherhood reclamation in the United kingdom: traveling beyond the fragments at last? Minutess of the Institute of British Geographers, 2001, Vol. 26 Issue 4, pp.465-482.