When a tunnel is built between two states there are a batch of benefits for both states. There will be economical additions as it increases touristry and concern for both states. Both states will besides profit from a stronger political relationship. Furthermore the societal barriers will be broken as people from both states will be more accustomed to each other ‘s civilizations. The success of such a undertaking will besides be good on a wider graduated table as it encourages the remainder of the continent to work on similar undertakings.
The chief issues addressed in this study are: a ) technology, B ) economical, societal, political, and sustainability issues. The three tunnels that will be compared are the Channel tunnel, Frejus Road tunnel and Hsuehshan tunnel. The Channel tunnel and the Frejus Road Tunnel both run through two states, hence societal and political impacts will be compared. The Channel Tunnel and the Hsuehshan Tunnel are built under H2O ; the technology troubles to build the tunnels will be compared. Besides the sustainability of all three tunnels will be compared.
During the building of the Channel tunnel the biggest job was the face stableness. Despite the attempts to brace the tunnel face it became unstable. Therefore to get the better of these job decreases were made. However the job still persisted which led them to utilize a two metre profligate which was used to organize a buttress face that slopes which finally solved the job ( I.C.D Fugeman ) .
The Frejus route tunnel is 12.87km long and it connects France and Italy through the Alps it is a two lane route tunnel. The diameter of the tunnel is 7.4m on the Gallic side and the breadth inside the tunnel is 10m. The intent of the tunnel was to cut the going clip between France and Italy through the Alps, the Frejus route tunnel is one of few tunnels which provide a path through the Alps.
The building of the tunnel took six old ages building started in 1974 and it was completed in 1980. The tunnel was constructed by utilizing drill and blast method. The tunnel is used by the general populace and it ‘s besides used to transport goods from Italy to France and frailty versa. Both France and Italy will derive from the Frejus route tunnel as it offers a more cost effectual manner to transport goods.
During the building of the Frejus route tunnel the chief job was slope stabilization. When building a tunnel in location with complex environment incline stabilization is one of the major obstructions in the undertaking. In order to bind the heap retaining wall a DIYWIDAG multistrand ground tackle was used. The chief complication to this procedure was the specification of the bond lengths. It was n’t possible to find the bond which would be suited for the deepness of the stone beds before the boring took topographic point. Therefore the clip for the fiction and installing was cut short to three yearss. To work out this peculiar job all the ground tackles were prefabricated in a location near the site.
One of the chief similarities between the two tunnels is the economical benefits that both undertakings bring. The Channel tunnel has benefited both France and Britain since it provides a much cheaper agencies of transporting goods into both states. The Frejus route tunnel has benefited both France and Italy in similar manner. Even though it is n’t the lone tunnel that connects Italy and France the demand for a short journey through the Alps is high.
Another similarity between the web sites is the fact that it strengthened the political dealingss of the states. The Channel tunnel was the first tunnel to link Britain and France which was seen as a major landmark in bettering political dealingss. The Frejus route tunnel besides shows the continued strength in political dealingss between France and Italy.
The building for the Hsuehshan tunnel was contracted to RSEA. For the first clip in the history of Taiwan a TBM ( Tunnel Boring Machine ) was used to build the tunnel ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Similar to the Frejus route tunnel a major obstruction for the building of the tunnel was the trouble with the geology. Although the geology was precisely the same as the Frejus route tunnel the jobs were similar. The tunnel cuts through the Hsuehshan mountain scope with the deepest overburden every bit much as 720m ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Rock formation is badly fractured and they contain immense militias of land H2O. To get the better of the troubles with the geology a combination of both TBM and D & A ; B ( Drill and Blast ) methods were used.
During the building of the tunnel the local communities of both Kent and Nord-pas de Calais were non badly affected. This was due to the fact that both metropoliss were non urbanised at the clip which meant that they did non hold to be relocated during the building procedure ( Clement, Rebecca, 2006 ) . However the expected rise in employment did non make the degrees ab initio expected as lone half of the workers employed were from Kent ( Patterson, B et al 1992 ) .
The entire cost of the building for the Channel tunnel was expected to be in the part of ?4Bn. However the overall cost at the terminal of the building finally rose to ?9.5Bn ensuing in the undertaking to be over budget by ?4.5Bn ( Anguera Recard, 2006 ) . Some of the grounds for the undertaking traveling over budget were as a consequence of machine failures which caused holds. However the chief grounds for the undertaking bing more than double the monetary value ab initio predicted was the alteration in statute law on the environmental and safety ( Anguera, Recard, 2006 ) .
In Taiwan the Hsuehshan tunnel had a great impact on both the societal and economical development of Taiwan. In order to increase the development of East Taiwan it was indispensable that the travel clip was cut down ( ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Therefore the Hsuehshan tunnel was an built-in portion of the success of Taiwan and it became a authorities policy ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) .
When constructing big substructures such as the Hsuehshan tunnel in the present twenty-four hours and age planning and design work has to be carried out exhaustively. The serviceableness of tunnels such as the Hsuehshan tunnel is considered to last over centuries. Therefore some of the design work is carried decennaries before the completion of the undertaking. In the instance of the Hsuehshan tunnel, methods antecedently used for diggings in Taiwan had to be overlooked in favor of the TBM the environmental deductions were considered as portion of the choice procedure ( Wen-Lon, Taiwan Area National Expressway Engineering Bureau ) . Although the environment deductions were considered by and large it is n’t a precedence in Taiwan. In a 2005 environmental sustainability table Taiwan were ranked 145th out of 146 states ( Environmental sustainability study, 2005 ) .
On the other manus sustainability and environmental facets were more important to both France and Italy. France is graded 36th in the tabular array and Italy are ranked 69th ( Environmental sustainability study, 2005 ) . This indicates that during the building of the Frejus route tunnel both states would hold tougher statute laws than Taiwan. The importance of the environment and sustainability is besides influenced by the EU since both France and Italy are members. The fact that five European states are in the top 10 in this tabular array compared to no Asiatic state shows that there is a difference in behavior.
The UK is ranked fortieth on the sustainability tabular array which indicates that the attack to sustainability issues is similar to France. The Channel tunnel was besides capable to tougher environmental demands compared to the Hsuehshan tunnel. Due to alterations in statute law on the environment the entire cost increased well ( Anguera, Recard, 2006 ) . There were a figure of steps taken the overall pollution caused when building the Channel tunnel. One manner of cut downing the pollution degrees was to curtail the transit times of stuffs to the site ( Clement, Rebecca, 2006 ) .
Even though the Taiwan ranked unusually low on the sustainability tabular array in 2005 betterments were made in 2006. The Environment public presentation index ranks Taiwan in 24th place ( Environmental Performance Index, 2006 ) . Although attempts are being made by Taiwan to better on the environmental measures the tabular array besides shows that France, the UK and Italy are all ranked in higher places ( Environmental Performance Index, 2006 ) . Looking at the table premises can be made that future buildings of a similar tunnel would be more expensive in Taiwan if they want to better the environmental policies.