The study focuses on the compatibility of Standard Costing in the current progressing fabrication sector. Standard Costing had been developed decennaries ago and gained popularity in the fabrication sector. Although, there are many unfavorable judgments placed on Standard Costing, many organisations are still utilizing Standard Costing in its operations for cost controlling and public presentation rating intents. However, the Standard Costing has to be modified to follow with the fast-paced progressing fabrication sector. Nevertheless, statements on the compatibility of Standard Costing are still sound although the Standard Costing has been modified. The consequence of the study is able to supply utile information on Standard Costing as one of its direction tool for cost controlling and public presentation rating. However, the cost of implementing Standard Costing requires farther reappraisal and other direction accounting techniques have to be considered every bit good.
I am a research helper coverage to a finance manager in a big fabrication organisation. My duty is to transport out particular undertakings required by the finance manager. The finance manager wants to cognize more about the compatibility of standard costing in the progressing fabrication sector today which relates to an article she has read. I have been asked to supply a brief study to brief the finance manager on these issues. I am required to concentrate on other information beginnings on these issues that might inform the strategic way of the organisation and the nature of these information beginnings, their relevancy and dependability.
Many theoreticians have been knocking the information provided by standard costing ( SC ) is non longer important for fabricating organisations. ( Carole 1990 ) . Carole and Leo ( 1996 ) added on that the SC has been condemned since the early 1980s for non showing the information needed for progressing fabrication sector. Furthermore, many people stated that just-in-time-based is far superior to the SC in the fast-paced concern environment ( Johnsen and Sopariwala 2000 ) .
CIMA ( 2009 ) further commented that SC had diminished in its effectivity late because the progressing fabrication organisations have similar procedures for assortment of merchandises, where SC merely aims to find the difference between the existent operating expenses and standard operating expenses. However, Johnsen and Sopariwala ( 2000 ) argued that there are faculty members that provided thoughts on bettering or updating the SC to lend important information and be made more efficient in this new competitory concern universe. Therefore, this study will analyze the being and comparison of SC in the fast-paced and progressing fabrication engineerings in organisations.
There are advantages and disadvantages in using SC as portion of the direction tool in the organisation. Thomson and Gurowka ( 2005 ) stated that the advantage of SC was the simpleness of its operation. Sendroiu and Roman ( 2007 ) added that SC is able to lend information on the fabrication costs effectual. They added that SC is utile as its discrepancies help direction to compare and contrast the costs that need to be emphasized.
However, Thomson and Gurowka ( 2005 ) besides argued that the job of SC is that hapless application of SC may ensue in an ill-defined position of the cost, therefore, improper for the direction to use SC for strategic costing. In add-on to that, Maskell ( 2005 ) agreed with Thomson and Gurowka and added that utilizing SC in a fabrication organisation to do determination is harmful and deceptive. Furthermore, Maskell ( 2005 ) stated that utilizing SC in determination devising may take to hapless decision-making.
6.0Compatibility of Standard Costing in the Advancing Manufacturing Sector
6.1 Standard Costing still compatible in the Advancing Manufacturing Sector
Lucas ( 1997 ) argues that SC still plays a function in the progressing fabrication sector today. Even though there are many unfavorable judgments of SC, the rules of SC are still being utilized in fabrication organisations. The competitory place of an organisation can be insightful with the unit cost of a merchandise. Nevertheless, SC should be updated and modified in concurrence with the unfavorable judgment to enable SC to play a important function in cost controlling and public presentation rating. Therefore, the rules of SC is still being utilized in the progressing fabrication sector but alterations on interpretation and ciphering the discrepancies have to be made ( Lucas 1997 ) .
This article is reasonably relevant to the subject as the contents of the article are chiefly base on SC and its function in today ‘s fabrication environment. It discusses the unfavorable judgment and how SC had been modified to run into with the demands in the progressing fabrication sector, which is relevant to the subject. However, the article was published in 1997, where the research done in 1997 may non be the same as what it is today. Furthermore, there were no empirical groundss on fabrication organisations using SC, merely premises made by the writer. However, the content of the article may be relevant as there are faculty members in the recent old ages support that SC is compatible and do play a function in the progressing fabrication sector today.
The writer of the article has 12 old ages ‘ experience in the fabrication industry as a fiscal director and presently a lector in University of Buckingham. The writer is sensible dependable as the writer has comparatively ample sum of cognition on direction accounting techniques in the fabrication sector. Furthermore, the publishing house of the article is Management Accounting: Magazine for Chartered Management Accountants, which is a good known publishing house for direction accounting stuffs. Therefore, the dependability of this article is peculiarly dependable.
Morelli and Wiberg ( 2003 ) did a instance survey on SC in Swedish Manufacturing Company, SKF. SC is utilized in SKF chiefly for budgeting and stock list rating. SC is really good embodied in SKF and it is a satisfying system because of its simpleness. However, betterments on the SC have to be made as its intent may be different if no betterments are made. In SKF, SC is hard to keep as it consumes clip to update. Despite that, SC is still widely used in the organisation and it is perceived relevant to the organisation even with the progressing fabrication engineerings today ( Morelli and Wilberg 202 ) .
The diary is peculiarly relevant to the subject as the diary emphasizes on the relevancy and the function of standard costing in a fabrication organisation. The manner the writer research on SC is peculiarly relevant as the writer looks into the organisation exhaustively and there is empirical grounds to back up its statements. Furthermore, the day of the month of publish is on 2003, which is non far from now. Therefore, it may be comparatively relevant to the subject.
The writers are from the School of Economics and Commercial Law and they might non hold sufficient cognition on direction accounting techniques. However, there are many empirical researches done by the writers, therefore it may still be dependable.
Johnsen and Sopariwala ( 2000 ) stated that SC has non become irrelevant in the fast-paced, progressing fabrication sector. Parker Brass, a fabrication company, had modified their SC to supply disaggregate and timely cost information for their direction to do timely determinations. Furthermore, SC was modified to supply auxiliary discrepancies to increase the efficiency and effectivity of their productions. Therefore, SC has been modified to be compatible in the progressing fabrication sector today ( Johnsen and Sopariwala 2000 ) .
The content of the article is based on direction accounting and focuses on SC, the illustrations used in the article are besides based on the fabrication sector. Therefore, it is comparatively relevant to the subject. However, the article was published 10 old ages ago on twelvemonth 2000, it may be relevant back so but it may non be relevant in the progressing fabrication sector. The empirical research is based on one fabrication organisation, which may non be sufficient to be relevant.
David Johnsen is the cost accounting supervisor of Brass Products Division at Parker Hannifin Corporation in Otsego, Mich. The article is dependable as it is based on his company and Johnsen is experience and knowing in the operations and the direction accounting techniques used in his company. Furthermore, the publishing house of the article, Management Accounting Quarterly is a good known publishing house. It publishes quarterly, on-line diaries that contain in-depth articles by and for faculty members and practicians of corporate accounting and fiscal direction. Therefore, the publishing house is extremely dependable.
Bowhill and Lee ( 2002 ) did a instance survey on two fabrication organisations in UK that adopted a assortment of modern fabricating techniques to analyze the evolutionary function of accounting systems. Many faculty members have criticized the function of SC in the progressing fabrication sector, and yet both organisations are still using the SC in their operations. Despite the environmental alterations in fabrication, both companies have merely made minimum alterations to their bing accounting technique, SC. Bowhill and Lee ( 2002 ) stated that SC is non to the full compatible with the progressing fabrication sector, but SC still play a figure of functions in the organisations. In the organisations, SC is utilized to supply a rating of stock and besides one footing of pricing, such as internal transportation monetary value. Furthermore, the hebdomadal labour discrepancies provided by SC is still relevant to the organisations for their operations. Additionally, the unfavorable judgments of SC were non observed in both the organisations in the instance ( Bowhill and Lee 2002 ) .
The diary is moderately relevant as it focuses on the compatibility of SC in the modern fabrication sector, which is extremely related to the subject. The day of the month of publish of the diary is on 2002, which is comparatively relevant but it can be considered. The writers adopted the instance survey attack to research on the compatibility of SC because the writers assume that it was a demand to research the extent of SC used in the organisation. Therefore, it is relevant to the subject.
The writers of the diary are knowing on the subject due to their occupation profession. Additionally, the publishing house of the diary, Journal of Applied Accounting Research is a well-known publishing house that contributes high quality stuffs refering the patterns of accounting. Therefore, it is extremely dependable. Furthermore, the consequences of the instance survey were the same as the Johnsen and Sopariwala, where they used the same attack to look into on the use of SC in the organisation. Therefore, it is comparatively dependable.
In Malaysia, a study was conducted to analyze the being of SC in 21 Nipponese organisations and 66 local organisations listed on the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange. 76 % of the Nipponese organisations and 70 % of the local organisations still utilizes SC in their organisations. The Nipponese organisations viewed that SC is of import for bing their stock lists. The criterions of SC are reviewed twice annually. The Nipponese organisation distinguished that the gross revenues volume and material monetary value discrepancies are important for control intents. Alternatively, the local Malayan organisations distinguished that SC is important for cost controlling and public presentation evaluating. The criterions of SC are reviewed one time annually and the important discrepancies of SC are the material monetary value and usage discrepancies for commanding intents. However, both Japanese and local organisations in Malaysia viewed that the least of import function of SC is obtaining “ informations processing economic systems ” . Despite the disapprobation of SC, big bulk of the organisations in Malaysia still utilizes SC in their concern operations and positions that SC is still compatible in the progressing fabrication sector. In add-on to that, the organisations in Malaysia chiefly utilize the SC information for direction planning and control ( Sulaiman et al. 2005 ) .
The content of the diary is on Management Accounting and focuses on SC. In add-on to that, the empirical grounds of the diary is based on a study and the samples used are 162 local Malayan organisations and 104 from these samples are fabricating organisations. Therefore, it is peculiarly relevant to the subject as bulk of its samples are based on fabrication organisations. Furthermore, the diary was published on 2005, where it is rather recent. Therefore, the diary is moderately relevant.
The writers are high bookmans and work in International Islamic University Malaysia. Furthermore, they had written a figure of articles on Management Accounting. Therefore, they are comparatively dependable. The publishing house of the article, Managerial Auditing Journal, is a well-known publishing house which provides information on the current research and patterns in accounting. Therefore, it is extremely dependable.
Rahman et Al. ( 2003 ) conducted an industrial study on the applications of direction accounting techniques in Malayan organisations. The ground behind the study was, in general, existent use of direction accounting techniques by Malayan organisations are still limited. However, the consequence of the study shows that about 70 % of the organisations in Malaysia still use SC as their cost-management system ( Rahman et al. 2003 ) . Therefore, SC is still compatible in the progressing fabrication sector in Malaysia.
The diary is non peculiarly about SC but focuses on Management Accounting techniques in general. Furthermore, it does non concentrate on fabrication sector entirely where it takes into consideration all organisations. Therefore, it is non truly relevant to the subject. However, there is of import information on SC in the diary where they had a study on which direction accounting techniques are utilized in the organisation. The consequences of the study show that SC is still being used in Malayan organisations and the diary can be considered relevant. The day of the month of publication of the diary is on 2002, which is non considered a current issue. Therefore, the diary is comparatively irrelevant to the subject but some points of the diary can be considered relevant.
The writers of the diary may non be wholly dependable as they are module of accounting in University Technology MARA, Malaysia. They might be bias towards Management Accounting due to their occupation place when Rahman et Al. ( 2003, pp.10 ) stated that, “ The specialised function of direction comptrollers must be promoted and from the statutory-bound fiscal comptrollers. ” However, the consequences of the study are considered dependable as the study by Sulaiman et.al ( 2005 ) portrays similar consequences on the use of SC in Malayan organisations. In add-on to that, the publishing house of the diary is comparatively dependable as the diary is published by the National Accounting Research Journal.
20 houses out of 25 big British fabrication still use SC in their concern operations. The 20 big British fabrication organisations on a regular basis utilize SC for efficient stock list control and on juncture, for fixing budgeting and prediction. However, the use of SC was related to an heed of cost nest eggs accessible from proper stock list control processs. In add-on, bulk of the organisations utilised SC for stock list rating and were cognizant of the duty to eliminate disused merchandises ( Fleischman and Parker 1991 ) .
The diary is practically irrelevant even though the contents are focused on SC and fabrication sector. The diary tends to be irrelevant due to the day of the month of publish, which is at 1991. This is considered a really old diary and what had occurred in 1991 might non be related to the current issue in the progressing fabrication sector. However, there are some points that might be considered relevant where there is grounds that SC is being utilized in the organisation for cost controlling intents.
The writers are extremely educated in the field of accounting and finance and it can be considered dependable. Furthermore, the publishing house of the diary, The Accounting Review is a reputable publishing house which publishes quality diaries on the current issues of accounting. Therefore, the diary can be deemed dependable.
6.2 Standard Costing Barely Compatible in the Advancing Manufacturing Sector
Maskell ( 2005 ) commented that using SC in the organisation for each merchandise is deceptive and causes hapless decision-making. He added on that value watercourse costing is a better cost-management tool where it is straightforward, easy to understand and provides information that can be seasonably used for determination devising. Using SC as a rule to do of import determinations can be deceptive and incorrect ( Maskell 2005 ) .
The article peculiarly relevant in footings of day of the month as the day of the month of the article was published near to the current day of the month. The article was besides based on SC and the fabrication sector which is relevant but, the research done is peculiarly limited as the writer merely made up an illustration to show the irrelevancy of SC in the progressing fabrication sector.
The writer is experience in fabrication and distribution industry and certified with the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants in London. He provides audience services and executions of progress fabrication techniques for organisations in the United States, England, Europe and et cetera. The writer is extremely dependable but, the publishing house of the article is by Maskell, which is the writer ‘s company. The dependability of the publishing house is questionable as there is no segregation of writer and publishing house. Furthermore, the writer had mentioned that SC can take to hapless determinations and value watercourse cost is superior to SC but, there is no other empirical grounds to back up that other than computation illustrations. Therefore, the dependability of the article is comparatively hapless.
Zoysa and Herath ( 2007 ) argued that SC may hold obtained repute among organisations as a important tool for cost controlling and public presentation rating but with the progressing fabrication engineerings, the function of SC have started to worsen. Despite the unfavorable judgment of SC, it is still utilized by a immense figure of fabricating organisations. The research by Zoysa and Herath ( 2007 ) indicates that with the fast-paced and progressing fabrication engineerings, the function of SC have non been diminished to a minimum degree. However, SC is still being utilized in Japan for dissimilar intents, where SC was chiefly utilised for the readying of the fiscal statements alternatively of cost controlling and public presentation rating ( Zoysa and Herath 2007 ) .
The content of the diary is relevant to the subject as it emphasizes on the SC in the new fabrication environment. The writers used classify appropriate literature and reviewed it methodologically to research on SC. Therefore, it is relevant to the subject. Furthermore, the day of the month of publish of the diary is in 2007, which is really recent. Therefore, the diary is highly relevant.
Anura De Zoysa is a module of commercialism, School of Accounting and Finance, University of Wollongong in Australia, whereas Siriyama Kanthi Herath extremely knowing in concern disposal. Therefore, the diary is dependable in term of writers. However, the attacks the writers used are categorising the appropriate literature and measure the methodological analysis of SC. There is no empirical grounds of SC being utilize in the fabrication sector but there are many faculty members that comes to the same decision. Therefore, it can be comparatively dependable. The publishing house of this diary, Industrial Management & A ; Data Systems is really good known in supplying diaries that provide latest information on direction accounting which aims to better managerial accomplishments. As a consequence, the publishing house of the diary is really dependable.
A study was conducted by Guilding et Al. ( 1998 ) on the patterns of SC in United Kingdom ( UK ) and New Zealand ( NZ ) fabrication organisations. The consequences of the study indicate that 76 % of UK and 73 % of NZ fabrication organisations still utilizes SC in their operations. Most of the UK fabrication organisations set their criterions based on design and technology surveies whereas, fabricating organisations in NZ sets their criterions based on past public presentation. However, the organisations in both UK and NZ perceived that the criterions are operable but difficult to achieve every bit good as “ mean past public presentation criterions ” whereas, minority of the organisations in UK and NZ obtained maximal efficiency criterions. Furthermore, 33 % of the sampled fabrication organisations in UK and 44 % of the sampled fabrication organisations in NZ will abandon the usage of SC if they implement advanced fabrication engineering and merely in clip direction. It is perceived that the function of SC might be diminished in the progressing fabrication sector ( Guilding et al. 1998 ) .
The content of the diary is partially relevant because the diary is about budget and SC, whereas the subject merely focuses on SC. However, the diary emphasize on the fabrication sector in NZ and UK, which is relevant to the subject. Furthermore, the attack the writers exercised was a study on budgeting and SC utilized in the fabrication sector. This shows that the attack usage was relevant to the subject. However, the diary was published in 1998, which was instead long ago. The study in 1998 may non be relevant now as the fabrication sector is of all time altering.
The writers are modules of Griffith University and Huddersfield University Business School, which proves that the writers are knowing in accounting techniques. Therefore, it is instead dependable. Furthermore, the study samples collected are from 303 comptrollers of the fabrication organisations, which is dependable to a certain extent. However, even though the diary is moderately dependable, it came in to a contrast in consequence with the study done by Sulaiman EL Al. ( 2005 ) . The publishing house is reasonably dependable as The Journal of International Accounting is a reputable publishing house that publishes articles related to accounting.
Shank and Fisher ( 1999 ) stated that the most utile cost-management tool should stress on supreme fabricating cost against mark cost instead than existent cost. The SC will be irrelevant in the fast-paced, progressing fabrication sector. Shank and Fisher ( 1999 ) did a instance survey on a U.S. fabrication organisation to analyze that mark costing is a more strategic tool compared to SC and the consequences have proven that mark costing is far superior than SC in the fast-paced progressing fabrication sector.
The relevancy of the content in the article is relevant to a certain extant as it focuses on mark bing instead than SC in the fabrication sector. However, it still relates to SC as it compares mark bing with SC. The attack the writers used is reasonably relevant as it examines a instance survey on a fabrication organisation sing mark costing and SC. However, the day of the month of the diary published is long ago, in 1999, which may non be relevant now as the fabrication organisation is progressing in its techniques and engineerings.
The writers are really knowing in accounting techniques as they are bookmans in that topic which proves to be really dependable. Furthermore, the method used by the writers to turn out that mark costing is a strategic tool instead than SC is non comparatively dependable seeing that it merely used 1 organisation as an illustration, whereas every organisation has different nature and operation. Therefore, it may non be reasonably dependable. On the other manus, Morelli and Wiberg ( 2003 ) had used the same attack, instance survey, to analyze the compatibility of SC, and came out with a consequence that differs from Shank and Fisher ( 1999 ) . Therefore, the dependability of the consequences may be questionable. However, the publishing house of this diary, MIT Sloan direction Review is a trusting beginning of concern diaries that relate to direction researches and patterns.
At the beginning of the industrial revolution, SC had played a function in cost rating in the U.K. and U.S. fabrication organisations. However, in the late ninetiess, where productions of indistinguishable merchandises in majorities were going more widespread, SC was being criticized for non supplying significance to the organisations. Fleishman and Tyson ( 1998 ) agreed with Guilding et Al. that with the fast-paced and progressing fabrication sector, most organisations have moved from operational control to client satisfaction and quality betterments. Therefore, SC for cost controlling and public presentation rating has been replaced by mark bing method for uninterrupted cost decreases ( Fleishman and Tyson 1998 ) .
The chief issue stated in the article is relevant to the subject as it demonstrates the development of SC in the U.K. and the U.S. fabrication organisations. Furthermore, the day of the month of publish of the article was in 1998, which would be considered non relevant to related to the subject as the fabrication sector is progressing presently.
The writers have written a book on accounting history and they are learned with the field of accounting as both writers are Professor of Accountancy, which shows that the writers are dependable. This article is published by Abacus, which is a popular concern magazine that provides independent idea and current issues in accounting, finance and concern. Therefore, the article is comparatively dependable.
Popesko and Novak ( 2007 ) had conducted a study on the direction techniques used in Czech Republic organisations. The consequences show that SC is the most widely used direction accounting technique in the Czech Republic organisations. However, a figure of organisations were non satisfied with the Management Accounting technique, where they assume that the system is non accurate and does non supply a clear image of the cost. Therefore, the consequences of the study demonstrates that SC is non compatible with the progressing fabrication sector as there are many negative positions on SC by the organisations in Czech Republic ( Popesko and Novak 2007 ) .
The content of the diary is partially related to SC as the diary focuses on activity-based costing applications in the Czech Republic. However, the study done by the writers is relevant to the subject as they conduct the study to analyze the direction techniques used in the organisations, where SC was the most widely used technique in Czech Republic. The day of the month of publish is in 2007, which is rather recent to the progressing fabrication sector today. Therefore, it is comparatively relevant.
Both the writers are modules of Management and Economics in Tomas Bata University in Zlin, which proves that the writers are experts in the direction techniques. Therefore, the writers are moderately dependable. However, the study done by the writers are rather dependable as they took a sample of 153 companies with mean constructions in the part.
SC had been criticized and condemned over the decennaries for non being able to follow with the fast-paced progressing fabrication sector. In the current modern universe of fabrication, bulk of the fabrication organisations have restructured and reorganized, from cost commanding to quality control and client satisfactory, to run into with the of all time altering fabricating environment. In add-on to that, there are other direction accounting techniques that can easy replace SC, such as mark bing for the intent of cost controlling and public presentation rating.
However, there are empirical groundss that there are still a big sum of fabrication organisations are still using SC in their operations. The organisations chiefly utilize SC for cost controlling and public presentation rating. I agree that SC can be a utile tool in fabrication organisations ; however, SC has to be modified and updated to run into with the new fabrication environment to carry through its functions as a cost commanding systems in the organisations. However, it takes an ample sum of work and clip to modify the SC to follow with the progressing fabrication sector.
The information beginnings used in the study is largely relevant. Approximately 90 % of the information beginnings are relevant to the subject. However, the day of the month of publish of the information beginnings may non be relevant as the fabrication sector is ever developing and progressing. Most of the articles and diaries are published more than 5 old ages ago. The research approaches that the writer used were reasonably relevant to be examined.
The writers that produced the information beginnings are dependable as all of them are knowing bookmans. However, minority of them have written other diaries or articles. The publishing houses of the information beginnings are all good known and dependable as they publish high quality diaries and articles that portray the current issues in the accounting universe today.
8.0 Reference List
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Cheatham, C.B. and Cheatham, L.R. ( 1996 ) Redesigning cost systems: is standard bing obsolete?Accounting Horizons. 10 ( 4 ) , pp. 23-31.
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Fleischman, R.K. and Parker L.D. ( 1991 ) British enterprisers and pre-industrial revolution grounds of cost direction.The Accounting Review.66 ( 2 ) , pp. 361-375.
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Fleischman, R.K. and Tyson, T.N. ( 1998 ) The development of standard costing in the U.K. and U.S. : from determination doing to command.Abacus. 34 ( 1 ) , pp. 92-119.
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Johnsen, D. and Sopariwala, P. ( 2000 ) Cost is alive and good at Parker Brass.Management Accounting Quarterly. pp. 1-9.
Lucas, M. ( 1997 ) Standard costing and its function in today ‘s fabrication environment.Management Accounting: Magazine for Chartered Management Accountants. 75 ( 4 ) , pp. 32-34.
Mclean, T. and Tyson, T. ( 2006 ) Standard costs, standard costing and the debut of scientific direction and new engineering into the post-second universe war Sunderland ship building industry.Accounting, Business & A ; History.16 ( 3 ) , pp. 389-417.
Maskell, B.H. ( 2005 ) Standard bing can take to hapless determinations.Maskell.
Morelli, B. and Wiberg, C.J. ( 2002 )The criterion bing system at SKF.Master Thesis, Goteborg University
Popesko, B. and Novak, P. ( 2007 )Activity-based costing applications in the Czech Republic. Tomas Bata University.
Rahman, I.K.A. , Omar, N. and Abidin, Z.Z. ( 2003 ) The applications of direction accounting techniques in Malayan companies: an industrial study.National Accounting Research Journal.pp.1-12.
Shank, J.K. and Fisher, J. ( 1999 ) Target bing as a strategic tool.Sloan Management Review. pp. 73-82.
Sulaiman, M. , Ahmad, N.N.N. and Alwi, N.M. ( 2005 ) Is standard bing disused? Empirical grounds from Malaysia.Managerial Auditing JournAl. 20 ( 2 ) , pp.109-124.
Thomson, J. and Gurowka, J. ( 2005 ) Screening out the jumble.Strategic Finance. pp. 27-33.
Zoysa, A.D. and Herath, S.K. ( 2007 ) Standard bing in Nipponese houses.Industrial Management & A ; Data.107 ( 2 ) , pp. 271-283.