COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING SIP Project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the PGDM Program By Abhishek Kumar Pandey Supervisors: 1. Mr. Aditya Sareen (Manager, Delhi International Airport Ltd. ) 2. Prof. N. Y. Phadnis (Professor, IMT Nagpur) INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY, NAGPUR 2009-11 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity to thank Mr. ASK Reddy, CHRO, Delhi International Airport Private Ltd for providing me with an opportunity of doing a project with a reputed company like GMR.
I would like to express sincere thanks to Mr. Sunil Bhardwaj, GM (Talent Development Group). His insights on the technical and behavioral aspects in a corporate world have instilled in me a sense of maturity to tackle a corporate presence. I would also like to thanks Mr. Aditya Sareen, Manager (Talent Development Group) for giving me this opportunity of working on such a significant topic in HR. Also, my sincere gratitude to Ms. Deepti Kurian, Associate Manager (Talent Development Group), for her patience and significant inputs.
Last but not the least, my heartfelt thanks to everyone at TDG Department, for their significant inputs to the project. I am highly obliged to Prof. N. Y. Phadnis of Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur, for his support throughout the project period. I am also gratified by the valuable inputs I received from other faculty members of my institute, which helped alleviate my project knowledge. Abhishek Kr. Pandey 2009038 PGDM 2009-11 IMT Nagpur Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 2 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR
Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 3 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Acknowledgement 2. Certificate 3. Table of Content 4. Executive Summary 5. Objectives of the study 6. Introduction a. GMR b. About DIAL 7. HR at DIAL & its Hierarchy 8. Concepts / Models used in the Study a. What is Competency b. What is not a Competency c. What is competency mapping d. When Do we map Competency e. Concept of Competency Dictionary f. Implications i. For Organization ii. For Managers iii. For Employees g. Advantages and Disadvantages 9.
Competency Based Training a. Introduction b. Evolution of CBT c. Significance d. Advantages e. Disadvantages 10. Implementation at DIAL 11. Effects on the policies and strategies of the organization 12. Concluding Recommendations 13. Bibliography & References Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 4 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Executive Summary “The Familiarization and implementation of the competency based training program at Delhi International Airport Ltd. ” The Delhi International Airport Ltd. is on the verge of completion of Terminal-3 Project.
It has already been acknowledged as the “Most Improved Airport” in its category. For maintaining the high standards set by the organization at the very onset of the Project, Human Resource department will have to play an important role in the organization. The HR Department will have to come up with innovative as well as viable options in order to improvise or at least maintain the productivity level of the employees. It is this need, which demands the implementation of Competency Based Training at Delhi International Airport Limited.
Recruitment, Succession Planning, Training and Development would be standardized according to the Competency Based model in order to maximize the effectiveness of this implementation. It has also been noticed that Competency Based Training Methodology is a new term for the employees to deal with and hence would need a Familiarization before driving it into action. The Organization has a policy of ensuring five man days of training and development for each employee in the organization.
Thus, implementation of the competency based training could play a significant role in producing a highly efficient, Productive and Trained Manpower. This in turn would enhance the possibility of achieving the sketched Business goals in the speculated time. Also, the organization has a large array of levels, under which employees are placed. Mapped competency for the employee, which is a part of competency based training, would enable HR to place the prospective employee in the right level creating a match between the Position and the Person. All this would be facilitated by the competency based training.
As the competency based training has its own complexities which start to unveil once you start with the implementation. So as they say “It is better to prevent and prepare than to repent and repair. ” For avoiding the hiccups during the actual implementation phase, it is better if a simulation is done in advance and then the planning for the actual roll out of the implementation is followed. This is the basic objective of this project work – to provide DIAL with a ready reckoner for the implementation of the Competency based training, giving a detailing to each and every minute of the issues.
Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 5 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR GMR Group The GMR Group is one of the leading and fastest growing private sector organizations of India with special interests in Airports, Urban Infrastructure and Energy. Founded in 1978 by Grandhi Malikkarjun Rao, the Group is well diversified and professionally managed. Vision To build entrepreneurial organizations those make a difference to society through creation of value.
Values & Beliefs: The group has a culture of its Values and Beliefs which are as follows: Humility- Value intellectual modesty and dislike false pride and arrogance Entrepreneurship – Seek opportunities they are everywhere Teamwork and Relationships – Going beyond the individual encouraging boundaryless behaviour Deliver the promise – Value a deep sense of responsibility and self discipline, to meet and surpass on commitments made Learning – Nurturing active curiosity – to question, share, and improve Social Responsibility – Anticipating and meeting relevant and emerging needs of society Respect for Individuals – Treat others with dignity, sensitivity and honour GMR Group is one of the fastest growing infrastructure organizations in the country with interests in Airports, Energy, Highways and Urban Infrastructure (including SEZ). Employing the Public Private Partnership model, the Group has successfully implemented several infrastructure projects in India. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 6
Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR GMR Infrastructure Limited is the infrastructure holding company formed to fund the capital requirements of various infrastructure projects in the Group? s Energy, Highways and Airport business. It undertakes the development of the infrastructure projects through its various subsidiaries. In addition, other focus area of the Group is the Agri-business with Sugar as its main product-line. GMR Industries Limited is the holding company for the Group’s Agri-Business. The Group? s commitment to inclusive growth is achieved through its Corporate Social Responsibility arm – the GMR Varalakshmi Foundation (GMRVF).
GMRVF works with the under-privileged sections of the community in all the locations where the Group has business interests. The various arenas in which the Group is functional are as follows: Agri Business: GMR Industries Limited (GIDL) is the Agri business division of the GMR Group, one of the fastest and most progressive business houses in India. GIDL produces superior grade sugar and associated products. And are equally committed to the socioeconomic development of the farmers through their farmer-partnership initiatives by providing assistance in farming practices and by undertaking various economic initiatives for the benefit of the local communities. The sugar manufacturing facility is certified ISO 9000:2001 and the distillery is certified “zero-effluent. The various projects undertaken by GMR Group are: ? ? ? Sankili Sugar Plant Ramdurg Sugar Complex Haliyal Sugar Complex Fig. Sankili Sugar Plant Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Fig. GMR Energy Ltd. Page 7 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR GMR Infrastructure, as part of its business strategy to strongly position the group in the Global energy market, has acquired a 50% stake in Intergen, a leading global power generation company, headquartered in neatherlands. The 50% stake was purchased from AIG Highstar. The transaction was completed in October 2008. Intergen? s unique operating strengths give immense boost to GMR? s value creation ability.
The projects are designed to utilize long term PPA, fuel agreements & other structured contracts for risk mitigation and Sustainable returns. URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE: GMR Group entered into an MOU with Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation (TIDCO) for the development of a Multi Product Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Krishnagiri District, Tamil Nadu. The SEZ will be developed through a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) to be set up through a Joint Venture partnership with TIDCO. This multi- product SEZ will be spread around 3300 acres in the Krishnagiri District of Tamil Nadu. The selection of the codeveloper by TIDCO was carried out through a two-stage competitive bidding process.
The nonagricultural land is expected to be procured by the SPV over a period of one year. The SEZ is advantageously located in close proximity to Bangalore. The entire development process to be completed by 2014. ? This multi product SEZ will focus on a variety of industries ranging from Bio Technology, IT and ITES besides the traditional electronics and engineering areas. ? It will be of global standards comprising, green corridors with a special emphasis on high quality and social infrastructure. Ecological efficiency and sustainability shall be the key elements. ? Additional benefits of this SEZ include excellent connectivity through state highway NH 7 and a good railway network. ?
Over three lakh people would be benefiting from this SEZ, both through direct and indirect employment. ? An added advantage of this project would be the related development through its multiplier effect, on the physical and social infrastructure in the region. Going forward: A „Community based Participative Approach? shall be adopted, for land procurement where adequate attention will be given to compensation, relief and complete rehabilitation measures to all land owners. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 8 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR GMR Sports The GMR Group successfully won the bid as a Franchisee for Indian Premier League (IPL) sponsored 20-20 Delhi Team.
The reason for the Group to venture into this highly people-intensive category to support good cricket and more so, the 20-20 form of it, is three-fold; 1. The Group believes that sports, particularly Cricket, is a very important connect with the community at large 2. Through this, the Group will also be able to achieve its social objectives of promoting and nurturing talent, especially in the areas around the Capital at the grass-roots level 3. While acting as a custodian of the team which truly belongs to the community at large, the Group would provide the role of being a mentor to promote this game and also help obtain for itself the goodwill of the community in the Capital.
This, it believes, would help it build its brand across various sections of the society in the long run Foundation: GMR Varalakshmi Foundation (GMRVF) is the Corporate Social Responsibility arm of the GMR Group. Its mandate is to develop social infrastructure and enhance the quality of life of communities around the locations where the Group has a presence. The Foundation is a Section 25 (not-for-profit) company. It has its own professional staff drawn from top academic and social work institutions. It is governed by a Board chaired by Group Chairman, GMR Group. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 9 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR The foundation works in following areas: Education Wing ? ? ? ? ? ? GMR Institute of Technology (GMRIT) Sri GCSR College GMR Varalakshmi DAV School Seethamahalakshmi DAV Public School (SMLDAV) St.
Ann’s Varalakshmi Vidyashram GMR Chinmaya Vidyalaya Foundation also facilitates scholarships and educational loans to ensure that deserving students, irrespective of their financial backgrounds, have access to these institutions. Other Focus Areas of the foundation are: ? Health, Hygiene and Sanitation ? Empowerment & Livelihoods These Institutes train unemployed youth in a variety of skills like plumbing, tailoring, twowheeler repairs, and photography. Great emphasis is laid on developing the entrepreneurial spirit by strengthening confidence and motivation levels, improving Communication skills etc. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 10
Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Airports The various projects undertaken by GMR G roup in Airport Operations are: ? ? ? GMR Hyderabad International Airport Pvt Ltd Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Airport Ltd. Delhi International Airport (P) Ltd. GMR Hyderabad International Airport Pvt Ltd GMR Hyderabad International Airport Limited (GHIAL) is a joint venture company promoted by the GMR Group (63%) in partnership with government of India (13%), government of Andhra Pradesh (13%) and Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad (11%). The Company was incorporated to design, finance, build, operate and maintain a world class Greenfield airport at Shamshabad, Hyderabad.
The project is based on the Public Private Partnership (PPP) model and is structured on a Build, Own, Operate and Transfer (BOOT) basis. The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGIA) was inaugurated on March 14, 2008 by Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Chairperson of the UPA and commenced commercial operations with effect from 00:01 hrs on March 23, 2008. The airport which was commissioned in a record time of 31 months, has an initial capacity of 12 million passengers per annum (MPPA) and 100,000 tons of cargo handling capacity per annum. The Project has the flexibility to increase capacity to accommodate over 40 MPPA and shall be developed in a phased manner. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 11 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR
The airport provides world-class facilities and infrastructure, in accordance with ICAO standards and practices to handle large aircraft and international traffic. Its integrated domestic and international terminals are equipped with 12 contact boarding bridges, 30 remote stands, Common User Terminal Equipment (CUTE), self check-in kiosks (Common User Self Service- CUSS) and 46 immigration counters. It also incorporates modern IT systems including Flight Information Display Screens, Baggage Handling System (BHS), and Airport Operational Database (AODB) technology for the first time in India. RGIA is the first Indian airport to have the Airport Operations Control Centre which acts as the nerve centre for all coordination within the airport.
RGIA has been rated the best in the world by Airports Council International (ACI) in the 515 million passengers category for its Airport Service Quality for 2009. It has also been adjudged as the 5th best airport across all categories, both in the world as well as the Asia Pacific-Region. RGIA was the first airport in the world to be awarded the Leadership Energy and Environment Design (LEED) silver rating for its eco-friendly design. It has also won the „Outstanding Concrete Structure of Andhra Pradesh? award from the Indian Concrete Institute. GMR Varalakshmi Foundation, the CSR wing of the GMR Group has won the ORBIS award, and the TERI Award for enhancing he quality of life in the communities living around the RGIA. It was also awarded the „Airport Environmental Performance of the Year 2009? by the Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA). Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen Airport Ltd. GMR made its maiden international foray, by winning the bid to develop Istanbul Sabiha Gokcen International Airport (ISGIA) at Istanbul, Turkey, along with its consortium partners Limak Holding, Turkey (LIMAK) and Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad (MAHB). The terminal is twice the size of the new Hyderabad Airport. It is 3. 5 times the size of the new Bangalore Airport. Completed in a near world record time of 18 months without compromising any safety or quality standards.
The airport is targeted to handle 35-40 million ppa by the end of the concession term. ISGIA is the fastest growing airport in Turkey and in Europe (among airports with +3mn pax in Europe). It is slated to become the 3rd busiest airport in Turkey by passenger traffic by 2010, after Istanbul-Ataturk and Antalya airports. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 12 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR DELHI INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT PVT. LTD. DIAL is a joint venture consortium of GMR Group (54%), Airports Authority of India (26%), Fraport & Eraman Malaysia (10% each). GMR is the lead member of the consortium; Fraport AG is the airport operator, Eraman Malaysia – the retail advisors.
In January 2006, the consortium was awarded the concession to operate, manage and develop the IGI Airport following an international competitive bidding process. DIAL entered in to Operations, Management and Development Agreement (OMDA) on April 4, 2006 with the AAI. The initial term of the concession is 30 years extendable by a further 30 years. Besides upgrading the existing terminals, DIAL has already commissioned a new runway 11-29 at IGI Airport on September 25, 2008. It has also inaugurated the new domestic departure terminal 1D (T1D) on 26th February, 2009. T1D will increase the capacity of domestic departures to 10 million passengers per annum. fig.
The Proposed Model of DIAL The new terminal has a modern 4 level in-line baggage handling system to eliminate baggage X-ray prior to check in, spacious security hold area with extensive F&B and retail facilities, special contact zone for passengers with special needs and baggage handling area on a separate level allowing greater space for passenger amenities. DIAL has also constructed an integrated passenger terminal (Terminal 3). The first phase of the airport is designed to Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 13 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR handle 60 million passengers per annum (mppa). This phase will be completed by mid 2010. This development would form just the first phase of the airport expansion. In subsequent stages, the airport will be further developed with the increase in passenger demand and more terminals and runways would be added in a modular manner to form a U shaped complex with an ultimate design capacity of 100 million passengers per annum. ? ? Third runway, amongst the longest in Asia, has started operations in 2008 and is capable of handling A380 sized aircraft. New domestic terminal inaugurated on 26th February, 2009 State- of- the- art integrated terminal to be inaugurated on 3rd July, 2010. Terminal 3 would be a state- of- the- art complex featuring Common Use Terminal Equipment (CUTE) and an advanced 5 level in-line baggage handling system with explosive detection technology for greater efficiency and security. The check-in area would feature more than 160 check-in counters. Passengers would greatly benefit as check-in and security clearances would be faster and less obtrusive.
For international passengers more than 90 desks would facilitate immigration procedures. In addition, the terminal would also feature 76 aerobridges. The two tier terminal building would feature the departure complex on the upper level and the arrivals on the lower level. The roof of the building will have stylized incisions to allow daylight, but will be angled to protect the interior from direct sunlight. The effect would create a calm environment and maximize the sense of volume, space and light inside. The use of natural light would reduce the dependency on artificial light during day-time. The arrival hall will feature both standard and wide-body baggages reclaim belts.
Passengers will emerge from bag reclaim into the Internal Landside Arrivals Concourse from where transit passengers would use elevators to proceed to the Departures level. 4 piers will provide access to the aircraft from the terminal. Access to the new terminal would be via a 6 lane approach road. The Airport would also be connected via dedicated high speed Metro line connecting to the city centre. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 14 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Human Resources Department at DIAL The Human Resources Department is well structured and organized at DIAL with several verticals existing in the HR department itself.
The HR department is divided amongst 4 Subdivisions. TDG KM ER HR Dept. TMG FMS FIG. The HR Department at DIAL The TMG Dept stands for the Talent Management and Acquisition Department and it takes care of the Annual Operating Plan, Performance management Process which supposedly includes Recruitment. The functional area of the group is in itself quite elaborative of their operating areas. One of the recent actions that have been added to their verticals is Exit interviews. Manpower Planning, Declaring the vacancies, Recruiting for a position, Induction of the New Joinee and manage the appraisal process through an unbiased performance management process.
The recruited employee then becomes the responsibility of ER Department which takes care of every need of the employee from the Introductions, Documentation to Familiarization in the organization, Payroll management, Leave and attendance management etc. The Talent Development Group has the immense responsibility of ensuring the development of the employee through a training programme distributed all year long. The organization has a policy that every employee has to undergo 5 man days of training in a financial year. For FMS (Facility management System), as the name suggests, they take care of the Facilities and procurement of any desirables of the employees. Functions, Parties, any special requirement for the trainings. The Knowledge Management Team is in the evolving stage at DIAL and carries the responsibility of on the Job learning enhancement of the employees.
For a segregation of the job and a smooth functioning, the department may have been separated but there is a very significant linkage between the working of these teams, rather Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 15 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR the sub divisions. This might get even clear by this explanation. The TMG Group recruits and fulfills the vacancy requirement of any Post/Department and it has to be in accordance with the Annual Operating Plan sketched at the beginning of every financial year. The salary negotiations are also carried out by the TMG executives. But, the payroll process is taken care by ER, which obviously requires proper communication amongst these two subdivisions.
Now, from the very day of joining till the end of the employee? s service they are taken care by ER and the annual employee engagement survey is administered by the TDG Group. Although the survey is outsourced and is carried out by Gallop Consultancies, which is a Marketing Research Outsourcing Agency. Also the training and development needs are identified during the Performance Appraisal Dialogue process, carried out by TMG on the basis of which the TDG rolls out the training calendar for that particular year. This need of training is shortened to some extent due to the existence of KM Dept. as it keeps feeding relevant information to the employees at regular interval of time.
The idea behind the above explanation is to exhibit the close linkage between the subdivisions of the HR Department despite their independent nature of work. For an organization like DIAL, which works on the Public-Private partnership model, HR Dept. plays a crucial role. The coherent functioning of the department? s sub-division ensures smooth as well as proper functioning of the organization on the whole. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 16 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Objective ? Study and document the developments in the area of competency based training. ? To familiarize, the concept of competency based training at DIAL. ? To sketch a line of action for the implementation of Competency Based Training at DIAL. To list the effects on other functions and policies. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 17 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Competency It is about identifying preferred behaviors and personal skills which distinguish excellent and outstanding performance from the average. A Competency is something that describes how a job might be done, excellently; however, a Competence only describes what has to be done, not how. So the Competencies might describe the duties of a Sales Manager for example, such as manage the sales office and its staff, prepare quotations and sales order processing, manage Key Accounts and supervise and motivate the field sales force.
The Competencies which might determine excellence in this role could include Problem Solving and Judgment; Drive and Determination; Commercial Awareness; Inter-personal skills etc, all of which might be described further by Behavioral Indicators relating specifically to that post in that organization. Thus competency is defined as a skill, knowledge, ability or behavioral characteristic that is associated with superior performance. There are two basic levels of competencies: Technical and Behavioral. The first level, Technical Competencies are predominately about acquired knowledge and technical abilities and skills. These competencies are often easier to see, train for and develop. Examples of technical competencies include knowledge of applicable legislation and case law, knowledge of valuation methodology.
The second level of competencies is behavioral competencies, such as communication skills or team member skills. These competencies can be harder to see and develop but are key indicators of how an individual approaches his/her work. All competencies identified as key competencies by behavioural competency (BC) Assessment should be: ? Observable ? Measurable ? Linked to job requirements ? Linked to BC Assessment strategy and business needs ? Future-oriented ? Based on strong performance Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 18 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR These characteristics are applied more and more by organizations because they provide significant help with key problems such as: ? ? ?
Clarifying workforce standards and expectations Aligning individuals, teams, and managers with the organization’s business strategies Creating empowerment, accountability, and alignment of coach, team member, and employer in performance development ? Developing equitable focused appraisal and compensation decisions. Competencies only include behaviors that demonstrate excellent performance. Therefore, they do not include knowledge, but do include “applied” knowledge or the behavioral application of knowledge that produces success. In addition, competencies do include skills, but only the manifestation of skills that produce success. Finally, competencies are not work motives, but do include observable behaviors related to motives. (See figure below for an illustration of these key points. ) Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 19 Competency Based Training
SIP at DIAL | GMR Competency mapping Competency mapping is a process of identifying key competencies for a particular position in an organization, and then using it for job-evaluation, recruitment, training and development, performance management, succession planning, etc. “The competency framework serves as the bedrock for all HR applications. As a result of competency mapping, all the HR processes like talent induction, management development, appraisals and training yield much better results,” states well-known HR consultant Ullhas Pagey. He however points out that the competency movement has caught on much better in the non-IT sector than the IT sector. Unless managements and HR heads have holistic expectations from their HR departments, the competency movement is unlikely to succeed as it requires lot of time, dedication and money,” he adds, pointing out that before an organization embarks on this journey it has to be very clear about the business goals, capability-building imperatives and core competencies of the organization. The competency mapping process needs to be strongly integrated with these aspects. More often than not, we are overwhelmed by new management fads at regular intervals of time. This has happened so often that we have developed immunity towards them. Is “Competency Mapping” a passing fad or is it a new paradigm in HR Systems? It becomes important to examine some questions, 1. How do we clearly link training to performance? 2. How do we align jobs & people to organizational and customer requirements? 3. How do we Customize Appraisals to each job position? 4. How do we select people who perform? 5.
How do we reduce apple-polishing and bias in appraisals? The ineffectiveness of the underlying systems has gone unnoticed because of the lack of any sort of effectiveness measurement process. The resultant blunders have been costly. Look at the following example: A Company “A” short-listed two candidates, No ‘1″and No. “2” for the position of Head “HR”. No. “1” got selected, No”2″ got a job in another organization. After 3 years and after considerable HR trouble, Co A asked No”1″ to quit and again selected No”2″ for the job. The amount of damage that resulted out of the faulty selection is immeasurable. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 20 Competency Based Training
SIP at DIAL | GMR In a Company “B”, there was an effective ASM. He was facing insubordination from one of his reportees. After the failure of repeated private counseling, the ASM took his subordinate to task, publicly. The RSM was a party to the incident. Subsequently, the RSM gave the ASM a bad remark in the area of interpersonal relations in the appraisal form. This had a direct impact on the increment of the ASM, which slowly resulted in mounting his cynicism. This is how a high performer got converted into a cynical organization baiter. There is obviously something seriously wrong in the HR practices, which have been predominant till now.
Most of the time, HR departments, have been getting away with such slipshod HR processes. “Competency Mapping” answers the questions quoted above and also reduces the incidence of cases such as those of Co “A” & Co. “B”. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 21 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR METHODS OF COMPETENCY MAPPING It is not easy to identify all the competencies required to fulfill the job requirements. However, a number of methods and approaches have been developed and successfully tried out. These methods have helped managers to a large extent, to identify and reinforce and develop these competencies both for the growth of the individual and the growth of the organization.
In the following section, some major approaches of competency mapping have been presented. Assessment Centre: “Assessment Centre” is a mechanism to identify the potential for growth. It is a procedure (not location) that uses a variety of techniques to evaluate employees for manpower purpose and decisions. It was initiated by American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1960 for line personnel being considered for promotion to supervisory positions. An essential feature of the assessment center is the use of situational test to observe specific job behavior. Since it is with reference to a job, elements related to the job are simulated through a variety of tests.
The assessors observe the behavior and make independent evaluation of what they have observed, Which results in identifying strengths and weaknesses of the attributes being studied. It is, however, worth remembering that there is a large body of academic research which suggests that the assessment centre is probably one of the most valid predictors of performance in a job and, if correctly structured, is probably one of the fairest and most objective means of gathering information upon which a selection decision can be based. From the candidate? s perspective it is important to be natural and to be oneself when faced with an assessment centre, remembering always that you can only be assessed on what you have done and what the assessors can observe.
The International Personnel Management Association (IPMA) has identified the Following elements, essential for a process to be considered as assessment center: ? A job analysis of relevant behavior to determine attributes skills, etc. for effective job performance and what should be evaluated by assessment center. ? Techniques used must be validated to assess the dimensions of skills and abilities. ? Multiple assessment techniques must be used. ? Assessment techniques must include job related simulations. ? Multiple assessors must be used for each assessed. ? Assessors must be thoroughly trained. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 22 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Behavioral observations by assessors must be classified into some meaningful and relevant categories of attributes, skills and abilities, etc. ? Systematic procedures should be used to record observations. ? Assessors must prepare a report. ? All information thus generated must be integrated either by discussion or by Application of statistical techniques. The techniques used by Assessment centers are given below: Assessment Centers Interview Simulations/Role Plays Case Studies/Analysis Excercise Group Discussions In Tray Positive Task Roles Positive Maintenance roles Apart From the Assessment Centers, there are several other techniques that organizations carry out in order to map the competencies. Some of which are mentioned below: ?
Critical Incidents Technique: It is difficult to define critical incident except to say that it can contribute to the growth and decay of a system. Perhaps one way to understand the concept would be to examine what it does. Despite numerous variations in procedures for gathering and analyzing critical incidents researchers and practitioners agree the critical incidents technique can be described as a set of procedures for systematically identifying behaviors that contribute to success or failure of individuals or organizations in specific situations. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 23 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR ? Interview Techniques for Competency Mapping: Almost every organization uses an interview in some shape or form, as part of competency mapping.
Enormous amounts of research have been conducted into interviews and numerous books have been written on the subject. There are, however, a few general guidelines, the observation of which should aid the use of an interview for competency mapping. The interview consists of interaction between interviewer and applicant. If handled properly, it can be a powerful technique in achieving accurate information and getting access to material otherwise unavailable. If the interview is not handled carefully, it can be a source of bias, restricting or distorting the flow of communication. Since the interview is one of the most commonly used personal contact methods, great care has to be taken before, during and after the interview. Questionnaires o Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ) o Functional Job Analysis o Multipurpose Occupational System Analysis Inventory (MOSAIC) o Occupational Analysis Inventory o Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) o Work Profiling System(WPS) o Psychometric Tests Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 24 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR The “Competency Mapping” cycle goes through following processes, given below: Step 1: Identifying Job Families All the jobs in the organization are grouped on the basis of commonality. Step 2: Identifying Competencies This is a crucial step in the “Competency Mapping” process. The competency set emerges from 3 key stakeholders: 1. Competency set related to the organization mission / vision / strategy. 2. Competency set related to Internal and External Customer Expectations. 3. Competency set related to departmental focus areas.
Step 3: Defining Competencies The competencies identified have to be defined concisely in order to reduce misinterpretation. Step 4: Strategizing Competencies The competencies identified are divided into Vital, Essential and Desirable competencies for each job family. Step 3 and 4 signify the importance of a competency dictionary for every organization strategizing to implement CBT Process. Step 5: Defining Measurement Scale The calibrations in the measurement scale of each competency are defined. Step 6: Position Profiling: 1. Vital, Essential and Desirable Competencies. 2. The expected calibration on the measurement scale of each competency.
Step 7: Person Profiling Each person is profiled in terms of level of knowledge application and attitudes on the measurement scale of each competency. The superimposing of the Person profile on the Position profile has wide ranging ramifications. These two profiles integratively have the potential of enhancing the effectiveness of all HR Systems. The gaps between the position profile and the person profile give birth to training needs. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 25 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Concept of Competency Dictionary: For all competencies in the dictionary, a definition is provided. Each competency also includes a proficiency scale that indicates the full range of expression for the competency.
Most proficiency scales have five levels. Each proficiency level is described in terms of behavioral indicators. The behaviors at each level of the scale are illustrative rather than definitive; that is other examples of behavior are possible. Each competency scale is cumulative which means that, although behaviors from lower levels are not repeated at higher level, they nonetheless apply. The contents of this dictionary represent the behavioral or non-technical competencies that apply to jobs in the Public Services. The dictionary can be used for a variety of purposes including recruitment and staffing, learning and career development and performance management.
For each job, choose competencies and proficiency learning that are most critical to performance excellence. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 26 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Advantages of Competency Mapping For Organization: The advantages of competency mapping for the companies or organizations are as follows: • Establishes expectations for performance excellence. • Improved job satisfaction and better employee retention. • Increase in the effectiveness of training and professional development programs because of their link to success criteria. • Provides a common understanding of scope and requirements of a specific role. Provides a common, organization wide standard for career levels that enable employees to move across business boundaries. • Help companies “raise the bar” of performance expectations. • Help teams and individuals align their behaviors with key organizational strategies. For Managers: The competency mapping provides following advantages to the managers: • Identify performance criteria to improve the accuracy and ease of the selection process. • Easier communication of performance expectations. • Provide a clear foundation for dialogue to occur between the managers and employees and performance, development and career-oriented issues. For Employees:
The employees in an organization get the following advantages by competency mapping: • Identify the behavioral standards of performance excellence. •Provide a more specific and objective assessment of their strengths and the tools required to enhance their skills. • Enhances clarity on career related issues. • Helps each understand how to achieve expectations. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 27 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Disadvantages of Competency Mapping ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Time & Expense. Expertise requirements. Omission of critical competency factors which panelists are unaware of. Data are limited to items and concepts included in the survey.
It cannot identify new competencies or nuances of competency can also be inefficient. Cost of system hardware and software. Provides characteristics of job rather than those of the people who do the job well. Task lists too detailed to be practical and do not separate truly important tasks from the routine activities. Possibility of proving to be Expensive and inefficient. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 28 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Competency based Training Definition: Competency-based training is one of the latest buzz phrases on the HR Planet. It? s a combination of a few steps, by following which, employees can be armed with the knowledge they need to do their jobs.
In recent years, there has been a gradual move to using competencies from job descriptions in training. This type of training ensures that employees receive only the “need to know” information instead of “nice to know” information. To develop a competency-based program, HR should make sure that the job descriptions include the correct knowledge, skills, and abilities – that’s the foundation. Once this foundation is complete, it is found to be fairly easy to establish competency-based training – if you follow a few simple steps. Steps in carrying out a Competency based Training: ? The first step should be to assemble a group of employees who are currently doing the job for which training needs to be imparted.
This group of subject matter experts (SME’s) should be a mix of high performers, managers, and supervisors. Get the SME group together and help them identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to function in their jobs. The SME group can take each competency, discussing all of the knowledge, skills, and abilities in that competency. But the result of breaking down the competencies gives the objectives for training. There is a hidden benefit to approaching competency-based training this way: once the competencies are identified and broken down, you can ask executive managers to approve what you’ve come up with. Getting the involvement of executive managers almost guarantees their buy-in and may make the job much easier. Now that identification and breaking down the competencies has been done, one can start building training from those individual competencies. With a module based on units of competencies, the tools needed to complete basic tasks is already with the employees. Moving through the competencies, and with the SME group approving each set of KSA’s, one would be able to create training that’s important to your employees’ success on the job. ? Once the training is “live”, you can measure its effectiveness. You can do this by introducing surveys to the trained employees and their supervisors. One could survey new employees at a designated interval, usually 45 to 60 days.
In the survey, focus questions Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 29 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR on the training objectives, which came directly from the competencies. Ask the new hire? s if they feel comfortable performing the basic work that was explained in training. On the other hand, also ask the supervisors if they’ve observed the new hire’s ability to perform basic functions. Ask them to rate the new hire’s ability on a scale. If a majority of new hires report no problems with basic functions and their supervisors tell us that they have few errors and few questions on the subject, training has been effective for the competency.
If, on the other hand, there’s some discomfort and numerous errors, one can go back to the competency itself, the training, or even the training instructor to find the problem. In a traditional training system, the unit of progression is time and it is teacher-centered. In a CBT system, the unit of progression is mastery of specific knowledge and skills and is learner/participant-centered. Background and Evolution of CBT: There appears to be substantial support for competency-based training. Norton (1987) believes that competency-based training should be used as opposed to the “medieval concept of time-based learning. ” Foyster (1990) argues that using the traditional “school” model for training is inefficient.
After in-depth examinations of three competency-based programs, Anthony Watson (1990) concluded that competency-based instruction has tremendous potential for training in industry. Moreover, in a 1990 study of basic skills education programs in business and industry, Paul Delker found that successful training programs were competency-based. Competency-based training for professionals is training based upon the participant? s ability to demonstrate attainment or mastery of skills performed under certain conditions to specific standards (the skills then become competencies). Norton (1987) describes five essential elements of a CBT system: ? Competencies to be achieved are carefully identified, verified and made public in advance. Criteria to be used in assessing achievement and the conditions under which achievement will be assessed are explicitly stated and made public in advance. ? The instructional program provides for the individual development and evaluation of each of the competencies specified. ? Assessment of competency takes the participant? s knowledge and attitudes into account but requires actual performance of the competency as the primary source of evidence. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 30 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR ? Participants progress through the instructional program at their own rate by demonstrating the attainment of the specified competencies.
Characteristics of CBT: How does one identify a competency-based training program? In addition to a set of competencies, what other characteristics are associated with CBT? According to Foyster (1990), Delker (1990) and Norton (1987) there are a number of characteristics of competency-based programs. Key characteristics are summarized in Table 1. Characteristics of Competency-Based Training Programs ? ? ? ? Competencies are carefully selected. Supporting theory is integrated with skill practice. Essential knowledge is learned to support the performance of skills. Detailed training materials are keyed to the competencies to be achieved and are designed to support the acquisition of knowledge and skills.
Methods of instruction involve mastery learning, the premise that all participants can master the required knowledge or skill, provided sufficient time and appropriate training methods are used. ? Participants? knowledge and skills are assessed as they enter the program and those with satisfactory knowledge and skills may bypass training or competencies already attained. ? ? ? ? Learning should be self-paced. Flexible training approaches including large group methods, small group activities and individual study are essential components. A variety of support materials including print, audiovisual and simulations (models) keyed to the skills being mastered is used.
Satisfactory completion of training is based on achievement of all specified competencies. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 31 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Models and Simulations in CBT Models and simulations are used extensively in competency-based training courses. Airplane pilots first learn to fly in a simulator. Supervisors first learn to provide feedback to employees using role plays during training. Individuals learning to administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) practice this procedure on a model of a human (mannequin). Satur and Gupta (1994) developed a model which facilitates skill development in performing and evaluating coronary anastomoses with an angioscope.
The results of their study indicate that models are proving invaluable as a training tool. George H. Buck in a 1991 historical review of the use of simulators in medical education concluded that “Given the developments in this technology within the last 50 years, it is possible that the use of simulators will increase in the future, should the need arise to teach new concepts and procedures at set times to large groups of individuals”. Researchers in two different experimental studies involving training people to perform self-examinations compared several methods and found that using models was the most effective training method (Campbell et. al. 1991 and Assaf et. al. , 1985). Norton (1987) believes that participants in a competency-based training course should learn in an environment that duplicates or simulates the work place. Richards (1985) in writing about performance testing indicates that assessment of skills requires tests using simulations (e. g. , models and role plays) or work samples (i. e. , performing actual tasks under controlled conditions in either a laboratory or a job setting). Finally, Delker (1990) in a study of business and industry found that the best approach for training involved learner-centered instruction using print, instructional technology and simulations.
Evaluation and Assessment in CBT: Evaluation in traditional courses typically involves administering knowledge-based tests. While knowledge-based assessments can certainly be used in CBT to measure mastery of information, the primary focus is on measuring mastery of skills. In keeping with this, Thomson (1991) reports that the decision to recognize a performance as satisfactory and to determine competence should be the basis for success of a competency-based program. Moreover, Foyster (1990) argues that assessment in competency-based programs must be criterion-referenced with the criterion being the competencies upon which the program is based.
Finally, Richards (1985) indicates that Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 32 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR simulation and work sample performance tests should include a checklist or some type of rating scale. Implications for Using CBT: In a 1990 study of three operating competency-based programs, Anthony Watson identified a number of implications for organizations considering implementing a CBT system: ? ? ? ? ? Organizations must be committed to providing adequate resources and training materials. Audiovisual materials need to be directly related to the written materials. Training activities need to match the objectives.
Continuous participant interaction and feedback must take place. Trainers must be trained to conduct competency-based training courses. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 33 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Advantages and Limitations of CBT One of the primary advantages of CBT is that the focus is on the success of each participant. Watson (1990) states that the competency-based approach “appears especially useful in training situations where trainees have to attain a small number of specific and job-related competencies”. Benefits of CBT include: ? ? ? ? Participants will achieve competencies required in the performance of their jobs.
Participants build confidence as they succeed in mastering specific competencies. Participants receive a transcript or list of the competencies they have achieved. Training time is used more efficiently and effectively as the trainer is a facilitator of learning as opposed to a provider of information. ? More training time is devoted to working with participants individually or in small groups as opposed to presenting lectures. More training time is devoted to evaluating each participant? s ability to perform essential job skills. ? While there are a number of advantages of competency-based training, there also are some potential limitations. Prior to implementing CBT, it is important to consider these limitations: ?
Unless initial training and follow up assistance is provided for the trainers, there is a tendency to “teach as we were taught” and CBT trainers quickly slip back into the role of the traditional teacher. ? A CBT course is only as effective as the process used to identify the competencies. When little or no attention is given to identification of the essential job skills, then the resulting training course is likely to be ineffective. ? A course may be classified as competency-based, but unless specific CBT materials and training approaches (e. g. , learning guides, checklists and coaching) are designed to be used as part of a CBT approach, it is unlikely that the resulting course will be truly competencybased. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 34
Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Implementation of Competency Based Training at DIAL The implementation of a policy is critical for the organization not just because of the cost factor attached with it. There are significant repercussions of a policy implementation in an organization, whatever the size of the organization may be. Objective of the organization, Interest of the stakeholders, Perception of the employees and interest of the prospective employees are the major concern immediately before the implementation phase. So, before the implementation one needs to look into the minutes of such issues to ensure success of the project.
DIAL is an organization working on a Public Private Partnership Model. There should be enough work done in order to get a nod of the stakeholders for the implementation. This can only be achieved if there is a sufficient amount of research done on the issue in the context of the organization. The following flowchart would give sufficient clarity on the issue: Implementation of CBT Gaining Organizational Support Creating Competency Models Assessment Phase Programme Designing Phase Fig. Implementation Cycle of CBT Considering the work culture, Size and hierarchy of Power distribution at DIAL, the implementation should be divided into four phases.
The first phase takes care of alignment of organizational objectives and stakeholders interest to the outcomes of the implementation. After getting the buy in for the project, there should be a model which serves as the basis for any assessment or comparisons. The assessment system should then be decided in order to map the existing competencies of the employees. The programme design phase takes care of shortening the gap between existing and required competencies for the employees by designing apt training programme(s). Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 35 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR PHASE 1: Gaining Organizational Support
No matter what changes you inculcate in an organization, if there are roadblocks of any sort in either internal or external atmosphere, policy implementation cannot be achieved successfully. So, before even making a proposal document for the policy implementation buy in, there should be a performance diagnosis which could identify all the existing as well as potential roadblocks affecting the performance and should be immediately taken care of. This can be done easily by a simple questionnaire asking the respondents to report about the barriers at work and later asking them to prioritize those barriers. This would lead you to the most critical of the barriers at work.
Before moving ahead with the schedule, care must be taken to remove them. Now that the background is set to approach the boardroom, following should be the focus area during this session with the decision makers of the organization. A proper alignment of business goals and outcomes of competency based training approach should be made. It would be better if the audience is asked to enlist and then rank the objectives of the organization which they feel is important for the success of the organization. Then it should be correlated with the outcomes of the CBT Implementation so that the decision makers are in no doubt on whether or not the project is in sync with the business objectives. Enlist the present pproach on the CBT subject and compare it with the projected approach in terms of productivity and efficiency. Also, it is important to stress that the employees should be aware about what exactly they need to do, the results that they need to achieve and the quality issues attached to the achieved results. The first two issues can be sorted even without CBT through proper Job analysis and goal setting but the quality of output which is one of the major factors brings in the concept of competency and thus, the competency based training. It would be significantly influential if an estimation of the mis-match about what is required and employee? s perception about the required objectives can be quantified.
According to a recent research, there is around 50 % mis-match at work related to above mentioned issues. Introducing concepts of exemplary performance and difference between exemplary and star performance in terms of efficiency is also a good idea to get the desired response in the scheduled meeting. A proper explanation of the role of management and clear sketch of organization? s state after implementation of the CBT would further strengthen the possibility of an affirmative output from the Meeting. A ready action plan for the further phases should also be discussed. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 36 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR PHASE 2: Creating Competency Models • Allocate a team. Enlist the phases and target Jobs to be covered in each phase for which competencies will be identified and model will be prepared. STEP 1 STEP 2 • Mould competency requirements according to strategic requirements of the organization. STEP 3 • Create the action plan and corresponding deadlines. STEP 4 STEP 5 • Conduct regular briefings with team head’s. STEP 6 • Research Job Outputs and Job Tasks. STEP 7 • Identify Key Job Competencies STEP 8 • De-lineate technical and behavioural Competency requirements STEP 9 • collate all the competencies to document a Competency model/Dictionary. • Conduct a review meeting with the project team to check the validity of captured competencies under the specific Jobs. STEP 10 Fig.
Action Plan for creating Competency Model/Dictionary The whole idea behind doing this is to sketch out the required competencies for each and every post in the organization. As mentioned earlier in the literature review, Competencies incorporate two kinds of skills: Technical and Behavioral. An employee when goes through the dictionary, he must leave it with a clarity on what competencies he is required to depict at the organization. The verification of the competencies could be done by a sketch of competencies followed by an interview with the position holders to ensure the reliability and validity of the Model. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 37 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR PHASE 3: ASSESSMENT PHASE
Competency Assessment to define is simply an evaluation of an individual performer? s competence in comparison to some performance requirement which is generally a standard set of competencies such as Competency Model/Dictionary. The Assessment systems used today around the globe comprises of: ? Paper-Pencil Test ? Assessment Centers ? Simulation Exercises ? Multi Rater Feedback Methods ? Certification Practices At this juncture when the organization looks for ways to motivate employees and empower them by entrusting upon them, critical decision making, it would be better if the multi rater feedback or 3600 feedback system for assessment where everybody would feel involved and would lead to motivation for the employees.
Also, the scope for error would be minimized to certain level as employees giving feedback would also act as checkpoints for checking the reliability and validity of the competencies of the Subject. Superiors Colleagues Employee Colleagues Subordinates Fig. Representation of multi-rater assessment center’s Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 38 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR The whole cycle of events which took place in case of the Phase 1, shall be reported in order to make a GO/NO GO decision regarding the multi rater assessment centers. Justification for the same has to be given in context of its effects on business goals and objectives. The schedule of events for the verification during the assessment phase is: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Select a team and Manager. Allocate project resources. Make a GO/NO GO decision.
Develop Data collection instruments. Train the raters Acquire the data input, test it, Analyze. Collect the assessment data from raters. Interpret the ratings Assess the achievement of the objectives set. Smaller organizations have the issues with maintaining the anonymity due to its size but DIAL being a decently sized organization can be approved to use the Multi rater assessment Centers. Another issue which is raised is the reliability and validity of the data is crucial for the multi rater assessment center? s functioning in a healthy manner. The raters as well as the analyzer must be trained well to avoid such anomalies to creep in the data.
It identifies employees strength and weakness which are critical for the organization, Identifies competency gaps well in advance, before they could create some problems, Provides sufficient information for succession planning and career planning, Improves team performances and relationship, Provides insights into subordinate and peer competency strengths and weaknesses. Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Page 39 Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR PHASE 4: PROGRAMME DESIGNING PHASE Another buzz word in the training programme designing world is Individual Development contract planning (IDCP). It is a process of filling skills gap that is the difference between the individual strengths and the standard requirement for the position that the individual is currently holding. The IDCP is a written document that enlists the developmental gaps or the developmental needs of the individual.
Also, it describes the focus areas which need to be addressed in order to close the gap. It can be identified with the section of the Performance management Process (PMP), where the training needs and issues are addressed, training already attended is mentioned and comments on whether it was beneficial or not is reflected. The main objectives for introducing IDCP at DIAL are: 1. To help individual? s in narrowing the gap between current competencies and the competencies necessary for the star/exemplary performance. 2. To help supervisor? s in managing performance of their subordinates. 3. To generate resources necessary for the Succession planning stage. 4.
To sketch a roadmap for individual? s easy access of focus area(s) for development. These are the benefits the organization drives out of the whole process. Firstly, a clear and precise plan for individual? s development has been identified. Secondly, a highly efficient data which could be used to cure a potential problem before it could harm the organization. It also helps in justification of individual development expenditures. A ready reckoner for critical stages of succession planning. The costs associated with the IDCP implementation is given below: ? ? ? Interpreting assessment results. Planning for development. Tracking and evaluating developmental results.
But the implementation has significant benefits which would outweigh the costs associated: ? ? ? Would increase the flexibility of individual performers. Can provide a pool of talent available to be tapped in future. Would give the employees, clarity on focus areas which they need to address. Page 40 Institute of Management Technology, Nagpur Competency Based Training SIP at DIAL | GMR Effects on Policies and strategies of the Organization Such a large scale policy implementation has an effect on each and every part of the organization but a quality check should be installed in order to see that the impact is positive and is not a potential danger for the organization.
A sketch of major effects on the policies and strategies are being given below but it is not just these, which are getting affected. There are a whole lot of eff