Competitive Advantage Of Organizations Essence Essay

The word fight originates from the Latin word competer and means engagement in a concern competition for markets. Today, it has become common to depict economic strength of an entity with regard to its rivals in the planetary market economic system in which goods, services, people, accomplishments, and thoughts move freely across geographical boundary lines. ( Murths, 1998 ) .

Numerous writers and research workers have studied and analyzed the features of competitory advantage hence there are many definitions available. Before discoursing them, we will do an of import comment – the construct of fight and competitory advantage can be viewed from three different degrees: state, industry and company ( Di Mauro, Forster ) .

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At the house and industry degree, which is the focal point of our research, fight can be defined as the ability of house to plan, bring forth and/or market merchandises superior to those offered by rivals, sing the monetary value and non-price qualities ( D’Cruz, 1992 ) . Roberts claims that competitory advantage is a set of factors or capablenesss that allows houses to systematically surpass their challengers. It is even considered as the bosom of a house ‘s public presentation ( Porter, 1998 ) .

The kernel of these definitions is the same – competitory advantage allows bring forthing more choice merchandises and services than those produced by the relevant rivals. This ensures sustainable development in international markets without protection or subsidies. In our sentiment, the dimensioning of the term ‘competitiveness at steadfast degree ‘ includes comparable house profitableness, comparable cost and quality, export grosss and market portion. Keeping and increasing the competitory advantage of the house is performed at different degrees:

Competitiveness of a merchandise or a service ;

Competitive place of the house ;

Measuring the international fight of a state.

Since each company that managed to make the market is capable to confirmation of user satisfaction, each consumer buys what most closely corresponds to his personal demands. Therefore, the fight of a merchandise or a service can be determined merely by comparing with the merchandises of rivals. Competitiveness is comparative and associated with a specific market and clip period to sell. Since every purchaser has their ain standards for measuring the grade of satisfaction of a certain demand, so fight is besides single. Porter tells us that the unequivocal value that a company creates can be measured by the monetary value which the purchasers are willing to pay for the merchandise or service. He besides puts an accent on the value concatenation, a tool that will be exhaustively discussed subsequently on.

A good market place of the house in the modern-day concern universe is a consequence of its strong competitory advantage. Its important decrease and lessening of rivals ‘ labour productiveness, leads to staff redundancy, worse and more expensive merchandises than those of rivals, it decreases grosss and drives it into bankruptcy.

The term ‘international fight ‘ is widely used to specify the ranking of states and companies in footings of holding comparatively better consequences in foreign economic activity compared to their rivals on the universe market for a certain period of clip. The competitory advantage of a state is non merely measured by GDP, concern income or net incomes but besides socio-economic standards.

The latter refers to the ability of citizens to accomplish a high and invariably lifting criterion of life. In most states the criterion of life is determined by productiveness, which reveals the usage of province resources and created merchandises per unit labour and / or capital invested. Therefore, as defined by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ( OECD ) , whose members are the richest and most developed states, international fight is the extent to which a state under free and just market conditions is able to bring forth goods and services that meet the blessing of the international markets, while at the same clip for a long term to keep and increase the existent income of the people.

It is necessary to separate quality from fight of goods. The presence of high quality in a merchandise does non needfully do it competitory. While quality is the characteristic of the merchandise, which makes it able to execute certain maps and fulfill a certain demand, the fight is determined merely by those belongingss that are of indispensable involvement to purchasers and guarantee the satisfaction of a demand. All parametric quantities of the merchandise that go beyond those boundary lines are non indispensable in measuring the fight in the specific conditions.

Main theoretical accounts for competitory advantage analysis

Among the methodological tools for analysing and measuring the fight of a company there is a figure of theoretical theoretical accounts. They provide an chance to consistently analyze the impact of competition and on this footing to develop schemes, policies and plans to derive competitory advantage. Based on specialised direction literature, we will do an effort to show assorted theoretical theoretical accounts, concentrating on those which are most popular and practically important.

2.1 Michael Porter ‘s Five Forces Competition Theory Model
This theoretical account for analysing the construction and strength of the competition in a peculiar sector or sub-sector was developed by Michael Porter in 1979. At its base lies the apprehension that fight of a company and its ability to keep or spread out market places are determined by the strength of the influence and interaction of five major groups of factors:

Dickering power of purchasers – R1 ;

Dickering power of providers – R2 ;

Menace of new entrants – R3 ;

Menace of replacement merchandises or services – R4 ;

Rivalry among bing rivals – R5.

In general, the relationship between these forces of impact can be illustrated as follows:


New entrants



Rivalry among bing rivals

Menace of new entrants

Menace of replacement merchandises or services

Dickering power of purchasers

Dickering power of providers

Figure 1: The five forces that shape industry competition

Beginning: ( Porter, 1998, p.5, Figure 1-1 )

In the theoretical account illustrated above, the influence of the assorted factors for altering the competitory position of the house can be characterized as follows:

First. The dickering power of purchasers is one of the chief factors impacting the competition in the industry and it is indicated by the alteration in the coefficient R1. Here purchasers influence the market with their behaviour, coercing companies to cut monetary values, increasing the demands for quality and service and in this manner opposing to rivals against each other. This factor can be considered deciding when:

The purchasers on the market are more concentrated and organized by the provider, thereby increasing their buying power ;

The clients are of cardinal importance – they buy sweeping on a regular footing ;

The merchandise has a big comparative portion for the purchaser and requires a important portion of his costs – in this manner the purchaser is monetary value sensitive and can non follow ;

There is small merchandise distinction – the merchandise is standardized, there are few assortments and it does non separate much from other similar merchandises, which forms possibilities of replacing the merchandise ;

Switch overing to other merchandises does non be much to the purchasers ;

Management costs are little and the group of purchasers has low net incomes ;

The menace of entry into an industry is big ;

The merchandise purchased does non fit the merchandise quality from the position of the purchaser ;

The purchaser has full information about the cost construction in the industry.

In these instances, clients are seeking to convey down the monetary values and expression for higher quality, better service and extra services.

Second. The addition in the bargaining power of providers is estimated by altering the coefficient R2. The power of providers additions when they are concentrated or organized, when the delivered merchandises are really of import for the company and when the costs of exchanging to other providers are really big. Strong providers can show their power before the industry by ordering higher monetary values, lower quality and measure of the services and merchandises delivered or unequal frequence of bringings. In other words, if a group of providers wants to win in the market, it should hold plenty bargaining power. A group of providers is strong when:

There is a big concentration on the market ;

It is headed by a few companies and it is more concentrated than the industry that the providers sell to ;

The industry is non a really of import client for the group of providers ;

The merchandise provided by the group of providers is an of import resource for production in the sector or there is a deficiency of replacements ;

The production of the group of providers is diverse or there are large direction costs for exchanging to another provider ;

The group of providers has existent chances to set up integrative links with its clients who compete against each other

Third. Intensity of competition additions when new companies enter the industry or the section. This impact is visualized by R3. These new companies enter the market with new power, with greater resources and desire to derive market portion. This necessarily affects existing houses and their market portions. Therefore, when analysing the menace of new entrants it must be clarified whether the barriers to entry in the section and industry are low or high and they should be compared to the possible barriers to go out, but besides sing the reactions of rivals.

The worst scenario is when the barriers to entry for new houses are low, and barriers to go out – high. Attracted by good conditions, new houses enter the industry ( section ) easy taking to an addition in the available resources and capacity which increases the strength of competition. In ‘bad times ‘ , nevertheless, it is hard to go forth the industry coercing all rivals to fight for endurance. Best scenario for a company is when barriers to entry are high and barriers to go out – low. Barriers to come ining a new market can be a consequence of:

Economies of graduated table in production. They compel emerging companies to come in the market either with large-scale production or industry in really little graduated table. The standard here is the consequence of optimum graduated table of production ;

Diversification of production and merchandise placement on the market – bing houses in the industry have secured client committedness to the purchase of their well-known merchandises ;

Entree to distribution channels. The more limited the distribution webs, the more they are controlled by bing houses, the higher the barriers for market incursion ;

Extra costs that do non depend on economic systems of scale – these costs can be for patents, licences, advertisement, etc. ;

State regulative policy – it may restrict or except new entry to certain sectors by supplying sole rights, licences, grants and more.

The menace of entry of new rivals is high when:

Economies of graduated table are little ;

Product distinction is low and it can non be expected that clients will stay loyal to the same merchandise ;

The demand for start-up capital is low ;

The shift costs to another merchandise are low ;

There is non a company which controls the distribution channels and deters new entry ;

Knowledge and accomplishments are non an indispensable barrier to entry of a new organisation ;

Entree to raw stuffs is easy ;

There are authorities subsidies ;

Access to engineering and know-how is easy ;

No important consequence of the experience curve ;

Lack of authorities ordinance and other administrative barriers to entry.

Fourth. A serious menace for altering the competitory strength of a company lies in the possibility of visual aspect of replacement merchandises or services. All this is determined by a alteration in R4. The province of competition in an industry is capable to force per unit area from manufacturers of these replacement merchandises. Interchangeable merchandises limit the degree of monetary values, and therefore net incomes or lead to decrease or even discontinuance in their hunt. Market incursion of one or several types of replacing merchandises may pull the attending of clients and increase the menace of replacement merchandises in the undermentioned instances:

When the effectivity of the companies that produce replacements is high – merchandises have better public presentation in footings of monetary value and quality compared to the features of the industry ‘s end product – a possibility of merchandises comparison appears and it is in favour of the replacement ;

The costs of exchanging to replace merchandises are low ;

New production from industries that have big net incomes enters the market. When there is a diminution in production, most companies in these industries will seek new countries for their merchandises.

Fifth. The grade of competition among bing rivals in an industry ( indicated through R5 ) depends on the strength of these rivals. It leads to frequent monetary value wars, advertisement conflicts, and frequent debut of new merchandises. That costs the companies a batch of attempts and disbursals, and leads to take down net incomes. Competitive battle is increasing under the undermentioned conditions:

When the market has many rivals ;

When in the relevant industry the rates of economic growing are low ;

Fixed or storage costs are high ;

The degree of merchandise distinction is low ;

There is a strong growing in production capacities ;

There is a presence of monetary value dumping ;

In the industry of assorted merchandises from rivals.

We will do an effort to sum up the popular theoretical account of M.Porter by showing it with the undermentioned expression:

, where

KStn – competitory advantage of the firm/industry

R1aˆ¦R5 – factors that influence the competitory advantage of the house – the comparative monetary value, the comparative quality, production capacity, distribution power and the advertisement power

q1aˆ¦q5 – coefficients that reflect the strength of influence of the different factors and by and large take values aˆ‹aˆ‹to 1.

2.2 Toyohiro Kono ‘s theoretical account
Another theoretical account that can be used to measure and plan fight is the so called ‘model of competition and cardinal factors for success of the company ‘ developed by Toyohiro Kono[ 1 ]

This theoretical account is based on a hierarchy of the cardinal factors for accomplishing competitory advantage. It is meant that the scheme of each company in the competitory battle is aimed at bettering or keeping its market place ( portion of merchandises sold by the company, no affair if traditional or new ) . The market portion ( F ) of the merchandise of an endeavor can be presented as a map of several factors, or F = degree Fahrenheit ( Q, P, S, C ) , where:

Q – comparable quality of goods ;

P – comparative monetary value of goods ;

S – factor taking into history the velocity of motion of the merchandise to the market ;

C – factor taking into history the power of the distribution web of the company.

Quality of the merchandises in this map reflects the design, size and degree of the house ‘s ain quality. It includes merchandise distinction and cleavage of the market. Cost decrease, individualisation ( positioning ) and market cleavage have a prima function in the competitory scheme of houses. These are different points of position of competition, and all three are included in the above mentioned map.

Consequences from the old period

Top direction potency

‘Product-market ‘ scheme

Ability for development

Production power

Distribution web power

Market portion = F ( Q, P, S, C )

I level

II degree

III degree

IV degree

Figure 2: T. Kono ‘s theoretical account for competitory advantage appraisal of the house, Source: aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦aˆ¦ .

As it can be seen in the rating of the assorted factors of the theoretical account we would observe:

On the first degree in the hierarchy of factors lies the fight, which must be supported by the three most of import factors – the ability to develop, production power and trade power.

On the 2nd degree fight is derived from corporate scheme, variegation of production and usage of latest engineering.

On the 3rd degree, fight is dependent on the ability of the top direction of the company to follow such solutions which in pattern can implement the three factors of the first degree of fight of the company.

On the 4th degree, fight is dependent on the operation of the company over the past period. The accomplished net income is of peculiar concern as a beginning of fiscal resources in the battle for markets. The higher the net income the higher the competitory advantage and frailty versa, higher competitory advantage is a beginning of higher net incomes.

2.3 The Value Chain
The value concatenation analysis for rating and design of competitory advantage of endeavors, developed by Porter, aims to supply an chance to explicate rational solutions in the most of import countries of their concern.

At the nucleus of the theoretical account lays the premise that companies perform many activities that are valued by clients ‘ payments in the execution of the goods and services. These payments determine certain value ( monetary value ) of all activities. The assorted activities of the house are divided into nine different groups – five primary and four support activities.

Harmonizing to the theoretical account, the five primary activities include:

1 ) material-technical supply ( inbound logistics ) ;

2 ) fabrication operations ;

3 ) distribution and motion in the channels of realisation ( outbound logistics ) ;

4 ) selling and gross revenues ;

5 ) client service.

These primary activities constitute the on-going operations of the house. Support ( supplying ) activities include:

1 ) house substructure ;

2 ) homo resource direction ;

3 ) engineering development ( including invention ) ;

4 ) procurance ( material-technical supply ) .

They form the footing for the on-going operations of the house and operating costs and investings may be allocated to different activities.

Figure 3: The Value concatenation, Beginning:

As it can be seen, the theoretical account can be a starting point for placing and measuring alternate schemes for economic growing and fight design. In this instance we have the undermentioned state of affairss in head:

When rapid alterations in the competitory environment appear it may be necessary to alter both the value concatenation and market scheme of the house, given that the answer how this should be done might non be known in progress. This theoretical account allows explicating of import determinations and wider options for action that are appropriate for bettering fight.

When altering the market place of the company or the competitory environment this should be followed by a alteration in many activities involved in the value concatenation. Such alterations may be directed towards widening or shortening of the activities performed by the company – reallocation of labour sing clients or providers. Changes in the alleged perpendicular division of labour are related to the type of client and provider. The house may necessitate to function specialised groups of clients from different sections of the domestic and international markets. In such a state of affairs there are requirements for greater alterations in the perpendicular division of labour.

There might be alterations in the division of labour between endeavors of the same industry. This is associated with the alleged horizontal division of labour. Shift in the market and the common mutuality can take to alterations in the distribution of activities between endeavors. Some activities may be carried out more efficaciously together with other endeavors. For other activities it could be more effectual to be executed by a house specialising in them moving like a subcontractor ( outsourcing ) . Another type of activities may be more suited for execution in each company in the sector.

What costs are necessary for the alteration in the division of labour would be a deciding factor in different state of affairss. The more this alteration leads to take down operating costs and investings in fixed assets per unit, the more the benefits of streamlined operations will take to an increased fight. This should be decided after treatment whether the merchandise offered will fit the market quality demands.

Another attack to the same job is to see each activity individually and make up one’s mind whether the house will execute this activity by itself or it will buy it from another company. This appraisal can be a starting point for a displacement towards more appropriate alternate economic solutions.

The determination whether an entity should go on to execute a certain concern activity or to give manner to other houses is related to the mode in which this work can be best performed in the hereafter. Any activity that is portion of the value concatenation theoretical account will be subjected to a set of effects that are specific to a given activity. Depending on the strength and extent of the impact of the competitory environment, alterations may happen in different activities without altering the rules of division of labour in the endeavor.

2.4 ABC Analysis

ABC-analysis is a method that allows classifying, managing and commanding the resources of the concern organisation by grade of importance. It is based on the Pareto rule, which can be expressed as follows: dependable control of 20 % places allows commanding 80 % of the resources. These resources ( elements ) can be:

Supplies of stuffs ;

Product terminology ;

Assorted activities ;

Clients ;

Documents ;

Corporate web.

They are grouped into three classs ( A, B and C ) in footings of their expected value. Elementss of group ‘A ‘ are really of import, ‘B ‘ are of import, ‘C ‘ are of minor importance. For illustration, the best clients ( normally 20 % of entire clients ) who bring the highest income ( normally 80 % of entire grosss ) are in group ‘A ‘ . They are served by the gross revenues director and have the most attending. Clients classified in groups ‘B ‘ and ‘C ‘ require less attending and are served consequently.

Figure 4: Graphic visual image of the ABC method, Sourcea

The demand for such an attack in the analysis and rating arises because if a company wants to be successful, it must be familiar with the market on which it operates every bit good as its participants. The consequences of the market analysis aid to cut down the degree of uncertainness in which the company exists and directors are able to do more sound determinations for the development of their concerns. By analysing, directors receive valuable information harmonizing to which they decide what action to take in exigency state of affairss caused by alterations in the external environment.

It is impossible to supervise all your clients, providers and rivals. Much more sensible is to specify our key clients, providers and rivals and observe alterations in their behaviour towards the market. It is hence appropriate to use ABC analysis, which is realized in the undermentioned phases:

I stage – we separate the focal point group ( clients, providers or rivals ) into three groups.

II phase – for each group we define standards based on which the topic would fall in Group ‘A ‘ , ‘B ‘ or ‘C ‘ .

III phase – we observe Group ‘A ‘ of the three types – these are our cardinal clients, providers and rivals.

The application of this methodological analysis for the analysis and rating allows more focussed observation of the alterations in the external environment of the company. The consequences of the monitoring carried out in order to construct early warning system could be really good to better the efficiency of selling and gross revenues of the company.

In our sentiment, to hold a complete image of what is go oning in the external environment it is necessary to supervise the alterations in authorities policy and alterations in engineering that could better the fight of the company. Therefore it is really of import to invariably supervise the market and believe in progress how we can protect our involvements and places on clip, non afterwards when the failure is a fact.

2.5 Balanced Scorecard

Balanced Scorecard is the most popular modern methodological analysis for public presentation direction. ( Norton, 2008 )

The footing of the balanced scorecard construct is the thought of making a new system for mensurating the activity of the companies. Harmonizing to Norton companies presently operate a new type of economic system based on cognition, where practically unpredictable activities must be measured such as invention direction and human capital. He argues that organisations understand how the new type of economic system brings new things transporting value – people ‘s cognition, package and new engineerings, organisational civilization that supports invention. Simultaneously, Norton reported that companies do non hold the right tools and the biggest challenge is the execution of their concern scheme and therefore they frequently fail. In his words, 9 out of 10 companies fail in the effort to implement their scheme, which gives an unbelievable competitory advantage to those which manage to make so.

As a consequence of a survey of best patterns among companies that implemented and utilize balanced cards Norton presents a theoretical account of five rules that organisations could follow in interpreting scheme into action.

The first rule provinces that alteration must get down at the highest degree. The thought is that senior direction initiates the execution of the scheme by first saying clearly the vision and aims of the company, demoing personal involvement, doing certain to win the Black Marias and heads of people about alteration.

The 2nd rule says that the scheme should be translated into operational programs and deadlines. At this phase is the creative activity of the strategic maps depicting the relationships between the elements of the scheme, ends and indexs are defined to place strategic enterprises. Harmonizing to David Norton it is non possible to pull off something that you ca n’t depict.

The 3rd rule is to set the organisation into a place that would let it to implement corporate scheme. Balanced Scorecard with indexs for each concern unit ( section ) should be developed to place chances for synergism in order to accomplish maximal value.

The 4th rule is realisation of the scheme to go a portion of the occupation of every employee in the company. This is a hard procedure as it is connected to the development of single balanced cards that contain single ends and explicate the relationship between the single parts of each employee to implement the scheme of the company. At this phase, personal development programs are created. It is of import to happen the intersection between single and corporate involvements. The success of this phase is critical because although the scheme is formulated by the direction, its execution depends on the people working in the company.

The last rule is to turn scheme into an on-going and uninterrupted procedure. Here are modeled assorted patterns related to resource direction, uninterrupted acquisition and control.

As noted, the Balanced Scorecard of public presentation indexs is a practical tool that helps companies implement their concern scheme. In its original signifier the map covers a system of public presentation indexs, steps and predicts the public presentation of the organisation on the footing of choice of quantitative indexs that are grouped into four chief countries ( positions ) , depicting the most of import facets of its operations:

1 ) Financial consequences – this includes parametric quantities such as growing, profitableness, stockholder value ;

2 ) Customer dealingss – in this section are introduced steps that provide information on client satisfaction with the merchandises and services offered by the company ;

3 ) Internal processes – identifies those internal procedures that achieve maximal value for stockholders and clients ;

4 ) Training and Development – associated with uninterrupted larning and development of the company.

The strategic map of the balanced scorecard is a model theoretical account that shows how the scheme as a competitory factor incorporates intangible assets and procedures of value creative activity.

As can be seen, the rating of the fiscal position nowadayss consequences from the execution of the scheme with traditional fiscal constructs. Indexs such as ROI ( rate of return on investing ) , stockholder value, profitableness, gross growing and cost decrease are indexs with deferred action, which testify to the success or failure of the company ‘s scheme.

Customer value position determines the value proposition for targeted users. Value proposition for consumers is one context in which intangible assets create value. If clients appreciate extremely the quality and clip of bringing, therefor?µ the competences and accomplishments of employees, systems and processes that create and supply quality merchandises and services have a high value to the organisation. If clients show a penchant for inventions and greater effectivity, greater value get those accomplishments, systems and processes that create new merchandises and services with typical functionality. Changeless synchronism between actions and chances on the one manus, and the value proposition on the other manus, is important for the execution of the scheme.

Financial position and client value position show the coveted consequences from the scheme. They are both characterized by multiple indexs with deferred action.

In the internal position we identify those few critical procedures that are important for the execution of the scheme. For illustration, an organisation can increase investings and development and debut of new merchandises and engineerings for their production so that as a consequence its clients to have a new hi-tech merchandise. Others, in an effort to supply similar value offer to their clients can concentrate on developing new merchandises through joint ventures and partnerships.

In the ‘learning and development ‘ perspective those intangible assets that are most of import for the scheme are reflected. The aims of this way is to place which types of activities ( human capital ) , which systems ( information capital ) and what organisational clime ( organisational capital ) are needed to back up the procedure of value creative activity. All of them should be connected and synchronized with the chief internal procedures.

The procedures and activities in the four countries are connected to each other in the aims system through cause-and-effect relationships. Above all stands the hypothesis that fiscal public presentation can be achieved merely if there is a client satisfaction. Customer value proposition shows how to bring forth gross revenues and construct trueness among mark clients, and intangible assets that support internal procedures are the base of scheme. Appropriate alliance of the aims of these four countries gives the key to making value and hence to a focussed and consistent scheme.

Visual representation, analysis and confirmation of the organisation ‘s scheme are facilitated by the development of alleged ‘strategic map ‘ that represents the supposed cause-and-effect relationships between aims on different positions of the system of indexs.

The construction of the cause-and-effect relationships that connect the four waies determine the footing on which strategic maps are made. Strategy maps assist the organisation to concentrate on the clear logic: how and who will make value.

Performance direction is based on identifying and prioritising the execution of enterprises, undertakings and plans that aim to convey the values aˆ‹aˆ‹of specific public presentation indexs to predefined mark degrees. Planning of this executing is a powerful tool for resource allotment and budgeting of the organisation.

By sharing duties for accomplishing mark degrees of public presentation of the effectivity of different organisational units and single employees a high degree of motive and committedness of human resources is achieved, particularly if their payment is linked to public presentation.

Harmonizing to Norton, it is perfectly impossible to successfully implement the balanced scorecards in a company, if it has no chiseled mission, values, vision and scheme. Harmonizing to him, the deficiency of these elements significantly interferes the effectual direction of intangible capital as people and know-how. So he considers it normal that in developing economic systems frequently human resources director initiates the procedures of specifying the mission, vision and values aˆ‹aˆ‹of the company.

Analyzing the balanced scorecard method should observe that the writers offer specific theoretical accounts for organisations with more specific range of concern activity – theoretical accounts for Information-advertising concern, for advanced and hi-tech organisations, for intangible assets, etc.

Regardless which theoretical account for competitory advantage rating we will utilize, it is highly of import to hold information on how macro environment will alter, peculiarly the purpose of the authorities and regulators to impact the relevant sector of the economic system. We think that is what defines greater practical benefits from the application of any theoretical account in which this influence can happen a quantitative step. We mean an impact on:

the sum of revenue enhancement grosss ;

tax write-offs from income ;

societal security environment ;

expected gross revenues ;

expected net income and more.


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