Computer security and risk management Essay

1. Introduction

In our day-to-day life computing machines have become the built-in portion due to their huge use, and innovations that has been taking topographic point twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, and besides the use of nomadic devices PDA ‘s, Smart phones have been well increased. These devices are used for salvaging concern informations and most of the confidential information. As per the study done by Nokia in the twelvemonth 2005 says that 21 % of the US employees are utilizing PDA ‘s and 63 % uses nomadic phones for concern intent, which has improbably increased by now. With this huge development the menaces caused by them are besides increasing at a same gait. To cut down these hazards a proper information security policy is really much needed for all the companies, administrations should n’t see these policies as erstwhile event and they must update these policies every clip with response to new menaces. In this papers I am traveling to discourse about some of the menaces and nomadic security policies that has to be takes by an organisation.

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2. Information Security

For so many decennaries information security has been considered as the most of import undertaking for the decision makers of an organisation. Where information security is chiefly maintained on three major rules known as CIA three ( Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability ) .

Confidentiality: –

This is the procedure of forestalling from revelation of the information to unauthorized users or systems. This may takes topographic point in many ways, while reassigning the information from one topographic point to another topographic point by coding the information and doing it seeable to merely authorized users. In this instance an entree to any confidential information that has been stored in nomadic devices to eavesdroppers is considered as a breach of confidentiality.

Integrity: –

The procedure of salvaging the information from modifying are pull stringsing by the unauthorized users for their personal benefits. It can be violated in many ways, by merely utilizing a malicious codification and pull stringsing the codification, or by merely an employee wittingly or unwittingly stating incorrect information to their clients.

Handiness: –

This is the procedure of doing the informations available when it is needed. This means that the systems salvaging the information demand to be available all the clip and any viruses or hackers go againsting the codification and stop deading the systems will be considered as breach to handiness.


The protection afford to an automated information system in order to achieve the applicable aims of continuing the unity, handiness, and confidentiality of information system resources.

Security Policy: – to guarantee that CIA three is working decently every company must and should follow some security policies. These are nil but a set of general statements, which has to be followed by each and every person to be considered as an authorized user.


While nomadic phones, PDA ‘s, smart phones and many figure of manus held devices are widely used as an built-in portion of concern intent, menaces and insecurity caused by these devices are besides widely increasing due to the sensitive information that has been carried by these devices. These hand-held devices are non much capable of security characteristics that a personal computer ‘s are capable of, which makes them easy exposed to menaces.

Due to the restrictions they have these devices are non even able to centrally monitored and keep in an administration. With the latest emerging engineerings these devices are holding a memory capacity peers to a computing machine. This makes life easier for an employee to hive away sensitive organisational and personal information such as watchwords, electronic mail histories, company ‘s orders, latest monetary value updates and companies fiscal statements, which consequences in high insecurity. Highly possible hazard that these portable handheld devices made is the handiness of these devices utilizing wireless web.

Here are the some of the menaces caused by the handheld devices, which are similar to the menaces that have been found by the desktop computing machines.


Due to the portability of the handheld devices they have the more opportunities of loss or malposition. Opportunities of larceny of these hand-held devices are even more and due to the weak informations security they have, informations in these devices can be easy manipulated and stolen. In malice of the proper radio VPN ‘s being installed one time these hand-held devices are stolen by the hackers whole administrations intranet will be threatened.

Hence to protect this proper security watchwords must be configured to these devices. In instance of disposal of the devices proper manual resetting of the devices is needed which clears all the stored informations and any sort of cache information and convey the device to its original scenes. This is non yet procure at because of the latest engineerings all the erased informations can be recovered from the brassy memory of the handheld devices. Harmonizing to the figure of study ‘s across the universe figure of nomadic devices left behind by the users in airdromes and cab ‘s and eating houses are improbably increasing, administrations must educate their employees sing the use and safeguarding of their devices transporting sensitive information continuously.

Hackers: –

The word hacker is nil but a individual who tries to accesses the devices without mandate it can be done in any signifier from the outside universe. In malice of proper security steps has been implemented in the signifier of watchwords and certificates there is a possibility of checking these certificates by random guesswork or cognizing the personal information of the user. Harmonizing to the study of the web forensic section it is stated that most of the menaces are caused because of the weak watchwords like 1234, 0000… etc are utilizing their ain day of the month of births, which are the common certificates that can be guessed by the eavesdroppers.

To avoid this sort of menaces employees must be given proper counsel in puting their watchwords and besides they need to reset watchwords most frequently. There are besides devices which provide two manner entree mechanism which are a basic phone lock to entree the device and the other is the security codification to reset the device phone lock in instance if it is forgotten. In this most of the user forgot to alter the security codification which makes a manner for the hackers to entree the information. There are some of the instances that the makers incorporate back doors into device for proving the devices for the maker intent.

The most common illustration for the hacker ‘s menace is, interrupting down into the public telephone system by which they trap the employee ‘s devices by which they crack the informations from their handheld devices. This can non be identified by the user and which makes a major injury to the company ‘s information. The most common grounds for this hackers menace is


It ‘s nil but the viruses, worms, logic bombs, Trojan Equus caballuss and other sort of ads that we get on the web pages that pops up when we are at work. These sorts of menaces are more prone to the devices which have Software Development Kit ( SDK ) so the devices which do n’t back up Software Development Kit ( SDK ) as these malware ‘s ca n’t be developed. This can be affected in any signifier while synchronizing nomadic devices with the storage devices for the information transportation. Some of them are discussed below.

O Employees seeking to entrees files from cyberspace, surfing on the nomadic devices, look intoing their mail history, accessing media sites are some of the major menaces. At this clip malicious codifications are downloaded at the back terminal and they give entree to the nomadic informations with out any intervention of the user. These are known as the back door exposures.

O With emerging engineering MMS ( Multimedia Message Service ) is widely used and most popular sort of messaging service that a nomadic devices can present. But this is going the most baleful signifier of virus that these devices are impacting because of the sort of viruses they can do. So users must aware of these menaces and they must be careful while opening unknown messages.

O One more advantage that nomadic devices provide is the Bluetooth engineering. This is the most inexpensive and convenient manner of informations reassigning from one device to another in a limited scope. Menace caused by this service is extremely vulnerable to the devices informations, because of the easy entree of the device by any other Bluetooth enabled device These viruses are a sort of serious menace to the informations one time they attack our systems they start making their work by retroflexing the same information and making multiple figure of transcripts in our system, and viruses does their work by canceling the information and some by deactivating our entrees to the device.

Once if a device is attacked utilizing any of this sort eavesdropper will be holding full entree to the device and they start copying sensitive information, canceling files, directing mistreating messages, naming tool Numberss like 0845 0807, they can come in in to the company ‘s web and besides disenabling the device. One of this sort called 911 virus discovered in Japan effected 13million I-mode user to name Japans exigency figure.

Cloning: –

As we know that all the devices have alone identifier codification which is utile to place the device globally, if such an identifier is copied and placed for an another Mobile a ringer is formed which acts as an original Mobile. Compared to analog devices which came early digital devices are more secured and transmits informations utilizing cryptanalysis which is extremely is extremely secured to check compared to analog devices. But still accessing the device physically may assist to utilize the information and do a ringer device of early coevals.


As we had discussed use of nomadic devices is really effectual and profitable in footings of cost, clip and productiveness. But there was a treatment for the use of nomadic phones in the work topographic point due to the security measures they cause. Though the use of nomadic devices owned by employees are most cost effectual for an administration compared to the devices given by the company ‘s, cardinal administering of the employee owned devices are really hard compared to the devices given by the company ‘s.

A policy should run into some basic standards before implementing them: –

O A policy must efficaciously pass on with the employees what the direction is anticipating them to follow.

O It should be able to defy legal scrutiny to contend back for the companies rights in instance of judicial processing

If some of these policies are non met by a company before presenting some policy, so it can non be considered as Effective. Hence the policies that have to be followed are divided in to two types User-oriented policies and organizational orientated policies.

User- Oriented Policies: –

* First and first measure that has to be followed is the physical safety of the device. It should non be left unattended with out attention.

* Offering work device to others may do menace to the confidential information that is stored in the device and besides to the other devices that are approachable utilizing it.

* Security scenes for the devices must be decently configured and besides it ‘s the responsibility of the security decision maker to do certain that these scenes are non changed by the users. This may open doors for the security menace.

* Users must be given proper counsel to describe the doomed of the devices every bit shortly as it comes to their notice, to cut down the menace.

* Supplying high degree hallmark is really much of import, watchwords are the basic barriers for come ining a device.

* Using memorable information for puting watchwords must be avoided ; utilizing same watchwords for come ining into different degrees must be avoided.

* There must be stairss to follow for the choice of watchwords like the length of the watchwords ; it must be a mixture of characters, alphabets and Numberss.

* Users must be given really rigorous entree to derive sensitive information ; any sort of incorrect use must do the device inactive.

* Changing of watchwords at regular intervals must be recommended by the decision makers, without utilizing the same watchword once more and once more.

* A threshold bound must be made for the watchword entries, one time it reaches the threshold bound device should do inactive.

* Data backup should be done in a really regular procedure, to avoid the doomed of informations in any sort of natural or physical jeopardy that taken topographic point.

* Security decision makers must do certain that merely limited sum of user required informations is stored in the device.

* Users should be given a proper counsel of synchronizing the device to authenticated desktops, non to public computing machines.

* Other agencies of informations backup is the memory card and one should do certain that these memory cards are placed in a secured topographic point, so that it does n’t goes in the custodies of unauthorized users

* Saving of history Numberss, pins, watchwords and memorable information must be avoided.

* Device users must be given a complete consciousness of viruses, worms, malware and the menaces that can be caused by the use of the devices irresponsibly.

* While surfing on nomadic devices unauthorised sites and mails or messages should non be opened.

* Checking unauthorized sites may download malware on to the device and it manipulates the sensitive informations or transcripts and sends the information to eavesdroppers.

* Users should avoid accessing bank histories, linking to corporate webs when they are on public wireless local area network as they are easy prone to menaces.

* Use of automatic books to VPN login must be avoided.

* While utilizing devices over WLAN high degree nomadic encoding techniques such as IPSec and besides 802.11 security criterions such as EAP ( extensile Authentication Protocol ) WAP ( Wired Encryption Privacy ) must be used to avoid any sort of menaces.

Administration Oriented Policies: –
* Every administration must hold a security policy determined in use of nomadic devices. It should be explained clearly about the regulations, rules.

* Policy must find clearly weather the devices are issued by the administration or employees can utilize their ain 1s.

* Administrations must do certain that employees are given proper preparation and thought about the policies.

* These policies must be reviewed for every frequently as they come across new menaces.

* Policy should province clearly about the stairss that has to be followed at the clip of lost, stolen, larceny or complete deleting of informations when diposing the device.

* They should do certain that hallmark is decently implemented and strength of watchwords is maintained decently and the watchwords are changed for every figure of logins.

* Policies should be written in such a manner that nomadic devices are deactivated after limited figure of incorrect login efforts.

* While composing new policies administrations should see about the latest menaces and besides about the menaces that have been in a class of clip.

5. Decision

From the above study we came to reason that the Software related company must follow some policies and regulations, by which the menaces can be avoided to a company. These policies must be maintain on altering from clip to clip harmonizing to the menaces that are impacting to a company at that clip. The consciousness of the menaces to the employees is mandatory.

6. Reference
1 ) This article helps me to happen the information about the nomadic menaces that may take topographic point. hypertext transfer protocol: //

2 ) This article gives me the information about the use of the nomadic devices, PDA ‘s and smart phones in the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life. Besides about some of the security measures that have to be taken. hypertext transfer protocol: //

3 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //

1 ) Computer security and hazard direction Teach mate. hypertext transfer protocol: //

2 )

3 )

4 )

5 ) id=935 & A ; p=1

6 ) Information Security – Principles & A ; Practices by Merkow M.

7 ) Stealing the web by alder, brain-hatch, encephalon


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