Conclusions and Recommendations Based on Research Essay

This chapter will show the decisions and recommendations which are obtained during the research findings. The decisions will be presented by the four different research inquiries that were answered in the old chapter.

The 2nd portion of this chapter consists of the recommendations which are derived from the research findings and decision explained in the old and current chapter.

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Decisions of first research inquiry

The chief motivations to put in sustainability can be derived into economic, societal and environmental grounds.

The most of import economic grounds to put in sustainability have to make with bring forthing more net income. If a company can be successful in working more expeditiously than costs can be saved which generates more net income. In this instance of working more expeditiously besides environmentally motivations are being addressed.

If a company works more expeditiously than is does non necessitate as many resources, or it can cut down transit clip which are good for the environment. When a company succeeds to cut down its CO2 emanations it does non merely profit the environment but besides saves money. In this manner less rights have to be bought for the emanations of CO2 gasses.

Social motivations are a spot different than the two motivations stated above. Companies feel it as their duty to put in societal motivations. You work with people so you besides have to take attention for them. Looking to the instance of DHL than this is a nice illustration. They provide their cognition of puting up logistic activities in catastrophe countries. They have setup the logistics activities after the hurricane Katrina and the temblor in Haiti. They merely do this because they feel it as their moral duty.

Decisions of the 2nd research inquiry

The function of sustainability frogmans per subdivision in the logistics sector. A survey by the Florida International University College of Business Administration revealed that in the transit and logistics sector 85 % of the companies are either in the early phase or do non hold a green scheme yet. This reveals that the function of sustainability does non play an of import function in logistics. However, the interviews I had with the leader houses did non give such a black scenario. A batch of houses do hold a green scheme, although one house operates more sustainable than the other. Within the logistics sector the transit companies are the most behind when it come to a sustainable scheme. Most of these houses do non hold a green scheme and when they do hold it than it is in a batch of times obliged by the paying client which is the transportation company.

There are some really large transportation companies who have because of their size and market place the power to compel their transporters to hold a sustainable scheme. They do this chiefly because these companies feel it is their responsibility. If you are a leader house than you should give the right illustration and motivate others.

In some other instances the authorities or other external factor can convert a company to develop a sustainable scheme. In the instance of ECT, the Port of Rotterdam has setup ends to do us of more inter-modal transit. Without the committedness of the ECT they would non hold received the right to open a new terminus on the Maasvlakte 2.

Decisions of the 3rd research inquiry

The most normally recognized definition of sustainability national every bit good as international is the definition stated at the World Commission on Environment and Development ( WCED ) in 1987. The WCED was a committee of the United Nations. This definition is normally known as the Brundtland definition and most of the authoritiess universe broad accept this as the definition of sustainability. One of these authoritiess is the Netherlands, but besides the European Union ( EU ) accepts this as the general definition of sustainability.

However, the leader houses indicated that the Brundtland definition is non specific plenty. They feel the definition does non embrace the three dimensions of sustainability.

The basic construct of sustainability can be divided into three facets ; economic, environmental and societal facets. Some administrations prefer to name it the three Paa‚¬a„?s, People, Planet and Profit. But there is no difference between it, merely an other name.

Economic sustainability or net income, concerns as the ability to bring forth incomes and employment to prolong the populations. It should nail out what the administrations economic impacts are at local, national and planetary degrees.

Environmental sustainability or planet, concerns the administrations impacts on the life and inanimate natural systems.

Finally the last the dimension is the societal sustainability or people. This dimensions encompasses subjects like human rights, labor rights and corporate administration.

The most normally accepted sustainable indexs are provided by the Global Reporting Initiative ( GRI ) . The GRI is a guideline for companies who want study about their sustainable activities. These different indexs are divided into the three dimensions of sustainability.

Decisions of the 4th research inquiry

The different constituents of sustainability in the logistic concatenation differ from subdivision to subdivision. The writer has made a distinguishing between transporting companies, transporters, trans-shipment companies and forwarders/logistics service companies.

The transportation companies focus to sustainability in how they can better the production of the merchandises. Furthermore, some of these companies are leader houses and because of their size they have the power to compel transporters to work harmonizing to a sustainable scheme. The transporters themselves do non hold the motive to put in sustainability unless it is required by the paying client ( transporting company ) , or it is obliged by the authorities and therefore they can avoid mulcts and bad repute.

The trans-shipment companies are usually in a place where it is hard to compel their clients to work more sustainable. So they work more sustainable themselves by for case working more expeditiously what is both good for the profitableness of the company and is besides better for the environment. Is some instances sustainable companies have a lead compared to other companies when it comes to the appellation of new terminuss.

The forwarders/logistics service companies are more or less in the same place as the transporters. In many instances they are obliged to hold a sustainable scheme because the paying client demands it. In some instances it is a typical factor. In this manner they can demo their consciousness and hopes to pull more clients.

Extra decisions

These recommendations are based on the interviews held with the leader houses, the meeting with the expert group at Connekt in Delft and the symposia attended in June and July.

In the adept meeting with Connekt the importance of a pilot period was mentioned. The scan should be extensively tested to extinguish mistakes. This is perfectly critical in order to do the scan successful.

On the symposia sustainable mobility I attended in July I have spoken with pupils who developed an emanation scan. They developed an emanation scan which can cipher the emanations of trucks. The scan takes several factors into history like the sum of traffic visible radiations. This can give a really clear illustration of a companies emanation. The scan they developed is really specifically aimed at one portion of sustainability, the environmental sustainability.

Recommendations

Recommendations sing the first research inquiry

In the literature portion it was described what sustainability is. It can be divided into three dimensions ; economic sustainability, societal sustainability and environmental sustainability. The interviews I had with the leader houses it was non so obvious that the societal dimension should be included.

Therefore I recommend adding inquiries in the scan about how a company thinks about sustainability. In this manner the cognition Centre receives information about what the companies think sustainability is. This could intend for case that if companies indicate that societal sustainability is non of import is could intend that Rotterdam University should accommodate its programmes about sustainability. In other words ; the result of the scan is input for the educational programmes of the Rotterdam University.

Recommendations sing the 2nd research inquiry

As mentioned in the old chapter, research findings, 85 % of the companies in the Transportation & A ; Logistics sector are either in the early phase or do non hold a green scheme yet. When this is compared by the Manufacturing & A ; Retail sector 60 % of the companies already past the early phase of traveling green.

The scan that is developed should give penetration if this survey is right. It should therefore include inquiries about the current state of affairs regarded to sustainability inside the company. This outcomes of the scan can than be compared with other sectors. In this manner it can be proven if the sector is behind compared with others.

It is non merely of import to mensurate the current state of affairs, but besides the aspiration degree should be measured. The logistics sector has had some really hard old ages due to the economic crisis. For a batch of companies this was a ground non to put in sustainability, although possibly some companies understand the demand and benefit of puting in sustainability, they merely do non hold the money for it.

The scan should include an aspiration degree. It could be that a batch of companies are waiting to put in sustainability boulder clay when the loses are transformed into net incomes. To mensurate this an aspiration degree should be included into the scan. Questions sing to the hereafter should be asked. This should be in a clip graduated table of 5 to 10 old ages.

Recommendations sing the 3rd research inquiry

The World Commission on Environment and Development ( WCED ) formulated in 1987 a definition about sustainability that is accepted by a bulk of the authoritiess universe broad. Since this definition is so widely accepted by authoritiess around the universe it should be included in the scan.

The basic construct of sustainability can be divided into three dimensions. Economic sustainability, societal sustainability and environmental sustainability. These three dimensions are besides known as the ternary P ; People, Planet and Profit. Furthermore, the Global Reporting Initiative ( GRI ) recommends companies to describe about sustainability on the footing of these three dimensions.

Since the construct of sustainability is so clearly defined into these three subjects I recommend to develop around the three dimensions. This means that inquiries should be asked in the field of economic, societal and environmental sustainability.

The GRI has set up per dimension several indexs that should be covered when a company reports about sustainability. A bulk of the subjects of the indexs are relevant to inquire in the scan and should hence be included in the scan.

Recommendations sing the 4th research inquiry

In the interviews that were held with leader houses several different definitions of sustainability were raised. The interviewer asked the companies representative enchantress definition they though is the most complete definition of sustainability. The beginnings of the definitions were non addressed. Non of the companies indicted the Brundtland definition was the best definition stated. Therefore, I recommend to include inquiries in the scan how sustainability can be defined.

Furthermore, an other result of the interviews was that the sentiment to include the societal sustainability is non the most of import. Some of the companies indicated non to see the importance of the societal facet. Since in the literature it is stated that societal sustainability is one of the three facets every bit good as the GRI indicates it, I recommend to include inquiries about societal sustainability in the scan and to analyze the result to research the importance of societal sustainability.

Extra recommendations

These recommendations are based on the interviews held with the leader houses, the meeting with the expert group at Connekt in Delft and the symposia attended in June and July.

The symposium sustainable mobility I attended on 2 July, I have spoken with pupils from the automotive programme. Some pupils of this programme developed an emanation scan. This emanation scan takes several conditions into history to cipher the entire emanation. It can be a value to include some facets of the emanation scan into the sustainability scan. In this manner the cognition to cipher a companies emanation can be improved.

Furthermore, the community of Rotterdam has the aspiration to cut down 50 % of its CO2 emanations in 2025 compared to 1990. This is aspiration is know as the Rotterdam Climate Initiative ( RCI ). For the RCI the results of the scan can be interesting to understand if the logistic companies are on path to cut down its CO2 emanations. Therefore, it is recommended that Transurban informs RCI about the activities that are performed sing to the scan and investigates if there are possibilities to join forces between Transurban and RCI.

An of import facet in the success of the scan prevarications in the pilot period. The scan should be tested and the results should be analysed. Important in this is that the scan should be tested at companies from who is really clear what they do in the field of sustainability. In this manner the results of the scan can be compared to the information that was known on forehand. Furthermore, the pilot version should be performed in the logistics sector in general, so from transporting companies to forwarders/logistics service companies.

A good manner in conveying up a trial version is by utilizing pupils from the survey programmes Logistics & A ; Economicss and Logistics & A ; Transport Engineering. Second twelvemonth pupils have the ability in block 2 to take part in an external undertaking. This external undertaking is deserving 5 ECTS, which is 5 Ten 28 = 140 hours. This is rather some clip for the pupil to analyze the subject of sustainability and to understand the scan. In this manner the pupil can explicate the companies, if necessary, some of the theoretical inquiries which are included in the scan. Furthermore, the pupils are take parting in a relevant subject and have the ability meet the some interesting companies in the sector.

The Knowledge Centre Transurban should farther look into the abilities to join forces with Connekt. Connekt is seeking for 250 a “front-runnersaa‚ in the field of sustainable logistics. During the pilot version Transurban can place relevant companies that can be identified as favorite. This information can be passed on to Connekt. In add-on, it can be interesting for Connekt to go to some of the interviews that will be done during the pilot period. On the other side, Transurban can do us of the web of Connekt. Transurban can see some of the favorites identified by Connekt. These companies have indicated that they want to cut down their CO2 emanations with at least 20 % by 2012. These companies should hold a sustainable scheme and when make fulling out the scan the result should besides bespeak this.

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