The athleticss bowl is an equivocal architectural signifier, basically a immense theater for the presentation of heroic efforts. It has been read and written from assorted positions and normally referred as a series of constructions or stand environing a land in the Centre leting an increased figure of witnesss to watch the event. The Coliseum of Rome is known as first great original which so achieve its ideal, but really few bowl since have succeeded every bit good [ 1 ] . The demand and rapid development have urged following advanced attack of project direction ; higher degree of design and building method. Fast path building or known as concurrent technology ; the design and building commenced at the same time has addition popularity in bowl building. Decreased in clip could be achieved compared to conventional method but nevertheless it increased uncertainnesss and complexnesss in the new attack for building bowl. Newly built bowl should besides cover the environing environment: communities ‘ life, political and societal. It should joint as built-in a portion of towns and metropoliss as those other back uping pillars of modern, urban society such as local authorities, instruction, faith, commercialism and industry [ Sports Architecture ] . The part of concurrent technology has been investigated and how far the influence of the application in the bowl building has been discussed in this paper.
This survey was chiefly focused on City of Manchester Stadium. The informations were collected utilizing triangular method which includes interviews, certification analysis and observation. The interviews were conducted with three forces from the Ove Arup and Partners who are responsible for the building of the bowl. The Ove Arup and Partners has served as the Project Management squad functioning the client, Manchester City Council. Structured interviews inquiries were prepared and used during the interview session. Keating has mentioned that instance survey research is surely one means for accounting research to develop on confidant and contextually sensitive cognition of existent direction pattern. Case survey can be seen as an option method which offers better understanding for today ‘s practician and academe for future development. Similarly, Yin besides agreed that a instance survey is appropriate tools as it helps unravel the complex and dynamic nature of building undertaking organisation in exactly [ 2 ] .
APPLICATION OF CONCURRENT ENGINEERING
Arup has adopted concurrent technology pattern in the development of the City of Manchester Stadium. It has proven their success in the fabrication industry to the bowl development. Nine cardinal rules in the concurrent technology viz. ; analysis of client demand, analysis of project life rhythm, development of advanced design solution, integrating of the design and building procedure, minimisation of non value adding activities, execution of uninterrupted betterment and minimisation of design alterations and fluctuation were widely used to some extend but depending on the personals experiences and bowl demands which vary for single undertaking. In general, the concurrent technology has been adopted from the twenty-four hours one until completion twenty-four hours. Based on the interview treatment, the ground being the Arup excel on the building market due to following those coincident technology cardinal rules into the building undertaking which it has proven the virtue in the fabrication and aerospace industry.
The City of Manchester Stadium had undergone a complicated procedure which involved a batch of alterations in construct, thought and intent of bowl before it was finalized. The chief aspiration of the bowl is intended to host the Commonwealth Games. By and large the bowl would be tick overing one time the one-off event over. The metropolis council has approached Manchester City FC to come up with an understanding ; the bowl will be a new place for Manchester City FC. In concurrence with that, Arup has reworked the design to accommodate the demands of both demand of events ; to present sports for the Commonwealth Games and football land. The bowl was besides considered to be utilized for other featuring event like rugger and non featuring events like dad concerts. The demand Games capacity was 38 000 and to be increased to 48 000 for football capacity. In order to finish the bowl for football nine after the Games, the bowl would be excavated 6m lower than sports field which doing remotion of 90 000 M3 of stuffs and hard-on of lasting construction in clip for the 2003-2004 football session [ 3,4 ] .
Arup significantly contributed to develop the design to please all the involved clients. In add-on to that, the bowl is aspired to be an iconic landmark in Manchester to add uncomparably value to a townscape. As mentioned antecedently, the one-off event at the City of Manchester Stadium was to be the Commonwealth Games foremost and football games ahead. This decidedly involved a different construct of design whereby the sports bowl had a seating prejudice skewed towards the place heterosexual and emphasized on the finishing line. Meanwhile for a football game side positions are favored and some preferring positions behind the end. Normally, the west side is considered to be most favorite, antecedently most club began with merely one base and low afternoon Sun break is refrained.
Typically, conventional football field consist of really little useful bases which are owned by football nines in the earlier age [ 3,4 ] . This has increasingly changed and the multi-usage bowl is on demand. Arup has taken this challenge to do it world for Manchester City Council and Manchester City FC. The available fund were maximized by guaranting the design is done exhaustively and really clear by stressing on every component in the bowl to fulfill as many activities as possible without any tolerance to the architectural demands. There are two distinguishable aims that to be achieved in carry throughing the bowl viz. : ( I ) to construct for Manchester a new icon and bettering the metropolis, and ( two ) to plan a bowl that is a great experience in every manner ; non merely for witness sing event [ 3,4 ] . It has been reported, at the current clip there was no bowl in UK addressed the both issues. To avoid any mistake of bing bowl, the City of Manchester Stadium was intentionally designed with signifier, construction and circulation in head. The needed seating prejudice dictated a bowl with high sides on the E and West and low terminals north and south, leting a individual roof geometry to cover all seating and go forthing big clears countries in the corners for pitch airing and picture screen [ 3,4 ] .
Fire technology measurings were besides taken into consideration during the design development phase. It has been anticipated, if devouring intoxicant and sing game jurisprudence of all time changed, the game ‘s play could be brought into really bosom of the edifice when the dividing wall are removed as the chief multitude functioning the largest lower grade is straight behind the last place [ 3 ] .
It ever had been Arup ‘s purpose in accession of design criterion. Because an urban design attack was adopted for bowl, it was able to pull activities doing it a ‘good neighbors ‘ with civic character and intent. It besides made the bowl centrepiece of a regeneration enterprise for an full one-fourth of the metropolis. Ocular deepness and dynamism were created from the edifice ‘s component. It has been disputing to make a sculptural signifier from the ace geometries of roof and bowl for cityscape. An ambiance of featuring breathtaking and comfy environment was incorporated by supplying an first-class pleasant infinite to achieve and watch the game without any fuss.
Development of the City of Manchester Stadium has faced enormous stages in the design procedure. By following their principal, the interior decorator had successfully submitted their design proposal to Manchester City Council with an aim to host the 2002 Commonwealth Games and subsequently to be renovated prior to passing over to Manchester City FC. It ever had been inspiration for uninterrupted use of the bowl at least for 100 yearss in a twelvemonth after the games. The design of bowl should exhibit the metropolis position as a major sporting centre surrounded by assorted usage development which would be lively on non-match yearss [ 5 ] .
The development of the bowl involved two stages. The first stage simply is to construct the bowl to provide for the Commonwealth Games. Meanwhile the 2nd stage involved the concluding building of the bowl for the football nine. The design had taken into history the overall demand and demands of the bowl which need redevelopment and upgrade work from stage 1 to 2. The bowl had to be elongated to let the running path in the athletic field. In stage 1, three sides of the bowl were constructed for good, while one side is impermanent. In stage two, the impermanent side was replaced with lasting construction, erected extra seats and lowered the land 6 m below for the football field.
Distinct component in the bowl is the cable-stayed roof. The roof has adopted a method known as the grounded tenseness ring. A catenary overseas telegram links all the forestay overseas telegrams and the corner tie overseas telegrams were provided to defy the uplift forces. This is an advanced acceptance from the opposing overseas telegram solution [ 6 ] . In the stage 1 the roof were completed in a horseshoe agreement along with the three lasting bases. In stage 2, the full roof system was completed as originally intended.
Initial demands of the bowl was obtained from the Manchester City Council but the interior decorator managed to garner more elaborate demands of the bowl which was developed through their treatment with the clients ; Manchester City FC, Manchester 2002 and relevant athleticss regulating organic structures [ 6 ] . The undertaking awarded in signifier of contract and procurance to a individual building direction, whereby they are in charge for both stages. The scheme adopted by the undertaking direction squad by affecting preferable chief contractor and cardinal sub contractor during the design phase development had been fruitful. The best signifier of contract was established after the engagement of all relevant parties in guaranting the design is buildable within the period of stipulated clip and budgeted cost. The overall procedure revealed the complexness of the design and the interior decorator successfully managed to convey all the multidisciplinary squad to portion the same nonsubjective successfully build the new iconic landmarks for Manchester.
MINIMIZING DESIGN CHANGES
Design alterations occur when there are some demands of amendment to the original design by the client, adviser or contractors. The alterations could be major or minor depending on the necessity. Definitely it would impact to the undertaking cost and clip. Harmonizing to Martin, really less design alterations had been done in City of Manchester Stadium comparison to other bowl which were designed by them particularly in his engagement. It can be seen that, less design alterations has contributed to finish the undertaking on clip and lead to having legion award or accreditation from creditable establishments. The undertaking direction squad has taken proactive action to minimise design alterations by presenting to the involved professionals the important disciplinary actions and preventive steps in the undertaking.
Based on the interviews, it has been indicated that preventative steps were widely adopted in the City of Manchester bowl undertaking to minimise the design alterations. An appropriate window had been provided during the design development phase to capture the clients ‘ demands and demands. Finalization of the design with clients was one of the most of import factors to minimise the design alterations. The clients were involved at the design phase itself to supply their demands as the design developments was in advancement. Regular treatments were conducted to hold both manner communications to ensue the best design solution. As concurrent technology attack was adopted for the City of Manchester Stadium, the interior decorator was under force per unit area to bring forth working pulling in a short period of clip to the contractor who has already started their work at site without endangering the clients ‘ demands. This has to be done to avoid any hold at the sites. Expertness and experiences of the forces involved had played critical function to anticipate the job that might be encountered and resolved it at the design phase itself.