Construction Waste Management Essay

Construction Waste Management

  1. Introduction

The building sector is an of import solid waste generator. In Brazil, the recent economic and political relations growing has quickly encouraged further development and investing in the building sector. However, such rapid growing of the Brazilian’s building has brought an elevated concern and attending to the waste job and its direction for a underdeveloped state growing like Brazil.Nagalli, 2012

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Like in Europe, Brazil has a mandatory ordinance on building undertakings to cut down the building and destruction waste. The national Torahs obligate the builders to be responsible for the waste of their plants. It is lawfully amalgamate and requires the builders a proactive position in sense to be aftering the waste direction.Nagalli, 2012.The municipalities are the responsible party on the waste direction in Brazil, except for the private investings such as ( industries, private buildings or destructions, etc. ) .Baez et Al. 2012.

However, merely ( 11 ) which presents ( 0.25 % ) of about 5000 Brazilian municipalities have building and destruction ( C & A ; D ) waste recycling centre Equally good as there are ( 13 ) stationary workss and recycling waste centre produced in local communities. Therefore, it’s rather clear that a big portion of the waste is non recycled in Brazil. It is besides deserving adverting that since the established of CONAMA 2002 ( Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency ) ; things are traveling better and all Brazilian local authoritiess are today obliged to fix and follow schemes for sustainable direction of C & A ; D waste.MMA,2002.All investors are obliged to bring forth feasibleness surveies programs of the production and usage of building and destruction ( C & A ; D ) wastes stuffs of each undertaking. Notwithstanding, a really small sum of researches have been conducted to show the feasibleness of the building and destruction ( C & A ; D ) waste recycling centres. Professional enquiries illustrated that private undertakings which produces 20 dozenss per hr ( t/h ) or less of C & A ; D waste processing flow will likely non be met financially to go on, due to the low productiveness and deficiency manufactured merchandise monetary values, as the usage of manufactured merchandises are still non widespread so the investing in recycling on big graduated table with complex installations centres will non be cost-efficient neither.

02-Feasibility Analysis:

Many surveies and researches are taken topographic point to develop programs for the feasibleness survey for the complex undertakings and the ( C & A ; D ) waste recycling centres in Brazil. One of this survey was byUNIDO( 1987 ) , which presented a structural theoretical account for feasibleness surveies to complex undertakings, including a immense investings from different beginnings of support and simplify the survey and construction so adding control elements described by another of import survey fromKohler( 1997 ) , the following chief phases were identified in preliminary feasibleness surveies for building and destruction ( C & A ; D ) waste recycling centres as follows:

  1. Analysis of market demands and the sum of bing competition from different beginnings. Depends on the geographical location of the centre.
  2. Assessment and estimated of waste coevals. Depends on the geographical location of the centre.
  3. The estimated incomes and cost from the building and destruction waste.
  4. Investing analysis in building and destruction waste field.
  1. Market & A ; Competition survey analysis:

There are plentiful resources for civil building uniting several elements in Brazil. The chief consumer building and destruction waste centres are located in countries with good and convenient quality of different militias.

Harmonizing toDNPM( 2003 ) , “sand and crushed rock are low in monetary value and produced in big measures. Conveyance costs correspond to around 2/3 of the terminal monetary value of the merchandise, which make it necessary

to bring forth sand and crushed rock every bit near as possible to the consumer market, which are the urban agglomerates” .

In Brazil, which is one of the development states, the rate of ingestion is estimated at about (2) dozenss /inhabitant a twelvemonth.Sindipedras (2004 ) . Comparing that figure with Europe states, we found that Brazil has low ingestion where the mean ingestion in Europe ranges (8-10) tons/inhabitant a twelvemonth. Taking into history that the population in Brazil is about (180million )IBGE( 2000 ) , so the entire ingestion estimated to about (270) dozenss a twelvemonth about (175) million three-dimensional metre.

Table no.1: The rate of building sums monetary values without conveyance. (SINDIBRITA.2004 ) .

Sums Aggregate rating

Monetary values ( excl. revenue enhancements ) ( Prices ( incl.taxes )

( diameter in millimeter )

( GBP $ /m? )

( GBP $ /t )

( GBP $ /m? )

( GBP $ /t )

Littorals

& lt ; 5.0

3.10

1.80

4.00

2.35

Rock pulverizations

& lt ; 5.0

3.10

2.00

4.00

2.55

Gravel 0, 1, 2, 3

from 5.0 to 75.0

3.80

2.60

4.85

3.36

Mixed Gravel

from 5.0 to 55.0

3.10

1.75

4.00

2.27

  1. ESTIMATED PRODUCTION OF C & A ; D WASTE:

We should cognize the productiveness and aggregation of ( C & A ; D ) waste to happen out the demands and the involvement of developing and set uping recycling centres. From Table no.2 below, estimations from the production and aggregation of building and destruction ( C & A ; D ) waste in some of the chief Brazilian Cities:

Table 2: Estimative for production / aggregation of C & A ; D waste in some Brazilian metropoliss (Nunes, 2004 )

Cities

Estimative of C & A ; D waste

Year-

Population

( IBGE,

Production per dweller

( kg/inhab.day )

Collection per

dweller

Produced

Collected

2000 )

( kg/inhab.day )

Riode Janeiro

n/a

1,100

2003

5,850,000

n/a

0.20

Salvador

n/a.

2,750

2000

2,450,000

n/a

1.15

Sao Paulo

16,000

3,400

2001

10,440,000

1.55

0.40

Ribeirao Preto

1,100

200

2003

505,000

2.00

0.55

Sao Jose

740

n/a

1995

540,000

1.50

n/a

Piracicaba

635

n/a.

2003

330,000

1.88

n/a

Vinhedo

n/a.

10

2003

48,000

n/a

0.32

Guarulhos

n/a.

n/a.

1,100,000

n/a

n/a

Ribeirao Pires

n/a.

n/a.

105,000

n/a.

n/a

Sao Jose do Rio Preto

690

n/a.

1996

360,000

1.92

n/a

Santo Andre

1,000

n/a

1996

650,000

1.56

n/a.

Belo Horizonte

n/a.

2,300

2000

2,240,000

n/a

1.05

Londrina

1,300

n/a

2003

450,000

2.86

n/a

Brasilia

n/a.

n/a

2,055,000

n/a

n/a

Macae

40

2003

133,000

n/a

0.34

Florianopolis

635

n/a

2001

286,000

2.23

n/a

Averages2.000.65

The Rio de Janeiro metropolis estimates a aggregation of1,100ton/day (0.20 kg/inhabitant.day) , an sum below the norm in other metropoliss under survey. The ground that some municipalities are less than the norm for the disposal of waste is the illegal and calculated within the general waste in official statistical tabular arraies.IBGE( 2000 )

  1. ESTIMATED REVENUES AND COSTS:

In Brazil, the equipment used in the ( C & A ; D ) waste recycling centre requires big investing. Most equipment used in the excavation sector, which is one of the largest and powerful sector in Brazil, this was calculated when analysis or gauge the net incomes and benefits of investing. The Table no.3 below shows the signifier of the fixed capital investing required for (20) tons/hour which we can name it as a little centre and ( 100 ) tons/hour as a medium centre depending on the size of the production and the new or used equipment. It’s possible to add some cost with equipment and site, the costs with site acquisition, transit and the manner of disposal the recycling centre culls.Nunes (2004 )

Through audiences to many professionals, it was found that the minimal size of a site for

a recycling centre would be: (a)6.000m? the appropriate country for the (20 )tons/hour recycling centres ; (B)30.000m? country for the (100 )tons/hour recycling centres.

Table 3:Investing in fixed capital and the operational costs ( drumhead ) .SINDIBRITA( 2004 ) .

Operational Costss

Fixed Costss

1

Labor

26,250

26,250

56,500

56,800

2

Other fixed costs

65,450

76,000

280,250

307,400

Variable Costss

3

Variable costs

24,000

24,000

94,000

94,000

Entire

115,750

126,300

430,000

457,100

  1. Decision:

The Brazilian civil construction’s sums are available in broad scope with good quality and stopping point to the urban consumer centres. It’s worth adverting that both sums every bit good as several new building undertakings monetary values have been low for some clip. Hence, and in order to pull more clients and convey better attending to such industry, the monetary values of the recycled sums must be competitory with the natural sums. Meanwhile, the ( C & A ; D ) waste response every bit good as the recycling centres has to vie with the landfills. Harmonizing to the Brazilian state-of-art, big sums of inert stuff are normally needed to cover the landfill cells. The stuff is besides required to construct the entree roads and steering countries for the waste aggregation trucks on the landfills. Therefore, the inert landfills do set as high rivals with recycling centres in relation to response of ( C & A ; D ) waste. It was hence recommended that two different recycling centers’ undertakings should be analyzed in order to capitalise and hike such industry forward: one, a little graduated table (20 t/h) , and the other midsize (100 t/h) with the premise of the usage of processed merchandises and the absence of ( C & A ; D ) waste recycling undertakings in the state due to the deficiency of such industry tradition, the feasibleness of future private recycling centres will ab initio be someplace between the two aforementioned capacities.Nunes( 2004 )

Mentions:

  1. Andre Nagalli,( 2012 ) “Quantitative Method for Estimating Construction Waste Generation”
  2. Baez AG, Saez PV, Merino MR, Navarro JG ( 2012 ) . Waste Management.
  3. MMA( Ministry of the Environment ) ( 2002 ) CONAMA Resolution no. 307.
  4. UNIDO( United Nations Industrial Development Organization ) ( 1987 ) .
  5. Kohler, G. ( 1997 ) , Practice of Recycling: Construction Materials.
  6. CONAMA2002 ( Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency ) .
  7. Angulo, S. C. ( 2002 ) ( Development of new markets for the recycling of C & A ; D waste ) .
  8. DNPM( National Department for Mineral Research ) ( 2006 ) .
  9. Sindipedra( Federation of the Gravel Mining Industry of the State of Sao Paulo ) ( 2004 ) .
  10. IBGE( Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ) ( 2000 )
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