Construction With Respect To Airtightness Construction Essay

During Irelands economic growing, new edifices were constructed with small respect to fuel and energy preservation. Buildings where constructed to the minimal criterions as set out in the Technical Guidance Documents ( TGDs ) Part L. With ego certified conformity over the last two decennaries and limited edifice control officers within local governments to supervise conformity of these, a great trade of edifices hardly run into the minimal demand. Thermal imaging exposures can demo these edifices to execute insufficiently in insularity and air-tightness continuity. Many schools built in Ireland during 1990 and 2007 where built with small respect to the preservation of fuels. With the monetary value of natural fuels going higher with every passing twelvemonth, inactive criterion is going a more feasible method of building compared to the traditional pit wall.

The Kyoto Protocol came into force in 2005 and the proposed marks of cut downing Carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) emanations by 8 % compared to 1990 degrees by the period 2008-2012 became lawfully adhering for EU Member States ( UNFCCC, 1997 ) . Ireland ‘s mark under the Kyoto Protocol to restrict nursery gas emanations to 13 % above 1990 degrees by that period was reached in 1997, and it is likely that the mark will be overshot by up to 37 % ( 74Mt CO2 ) by 2010

We will write a custom essay sample on
Construction With Respect To Airtightness Construction Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

In Ireland the residential sector histories for 26 % of primary energy ingestion and 27 % of energy related CO2 emanations ( 11,376 karats CO2 ) , the 2nd largest sector after conveyance at 32 % . The mean brooding emits about 8.2 metric tons of CO2 emanations, 5 metric tons from direct fuel usage and 3.2 metric tons from electricity usage ( O’Leary et Al, 2006 ) and Irish edifices have a higher ingestion of energy, electricity and energy related CO2 emanations per brooding compared to the norm of the European union-15

There are many benefits to holding an air tight edifice. It provides increased comfort degrees for residents, while besides holding a positive impact on energy usage and quality of the indoor environment. Elimination of these can salvage 100s on fuel costs every twelvemonth, along with cut downing heat losingss.

( O’Leary et Al, 2006 ) . ( EC, 2005 ) .


The writer of this thesis would unfeignedly like to thank the undermentioned people for their support and apprehension:

Table of contents.

Mentions 1

Bibliography 2

Appendixs 3

List of figures 4

Abbreviations 5

Declaration of Plagiarism 7

Chapter 1 Introduction to thesis.

Introduction to chapter. 8


Purposes and aims.

1.4 Parameters and restrictions of survey.

1.5 Outline of research methods.

1.6 Summary of Chapter 1

Chapter 2 Passive house demands and criterions.

2.1 Introduction to chapter.

2.2 What is Passive Standard?

2.3 Where Passive Standard building all began.

2.4 European and Irish, aims and policies.

2.5 Passive criterion elements and engineerings.

2.2.1 Super Insulation.

2.2.2 Thermal conduction and heat transmission.

2.2.3 Passive criterion Windowss and doors.

2.2.4 Thermal bridging.

2.2.5 Passive solar addition.

2.2.6 Space warming and extremely efficient airing systems.

2.6 Summary of chapter 2

Chapter 3 The effects of Air-tightness on edifice design.

3.1 Introduction to chapter.

3.2 What is air stringency?

3.3 Air infiltration within the edifice envelope.

3.3.1 Methods of measuring for air infiltration.

3.4 The associated benefits of understating air infiltration.

3.5 Summary of chapter 3

Chapter 4 Maree N.S instance survey, planing for Air-tightness continuity.

4.1 Introduction to chapter.

4.2 considerations to be taken at design phase.

4.2.1 Action to be taken.

4.2.2 Entrance anteroom considerations.

4.2.3 Choosing appropriate stuffs.

4.2.4 Planing for entree to airtight beds.

4.2.5 Inspection of air tight beds.

4.3 Air stringency inside informations and specifications for Maree N.S.

4.4 Testing for air stringency in Maree N.S.

4.5 Summary of chapter 4

Chapter 5 Decisions




List of figures


BRE Building Regulation Establishment.

SEI Sustainable Energy Ireland.

PHI Passive House Institute.

BIM Building Information Modeling.

TGDs Technical Guidance Documents.

N.S National School.

CO2 Carbon Dioxide.

PHPP Passive House Planning Package.

CEPHEUS Cost Efficient Passive Houses as European Standards.

EU European Union.

DCENR. Department of Communications, Energy and National Resources.

PEP Promotion of European Passive House.

EPED European Performance Building Directive.

IEE Intelligent Energy for Europe strategy.

MVHR Mechanical Ventilation Heat Recovery system.

BMS Building Management Systems.


Low-E Low Emissions.




i?? & lt ; 0.01 W/ ( MK )


Declaration of Plagiarism

Galway Mayo Institute of Technology

BSc ( Honours ) Architectural Technology

Name: Darren Heneghan

Dissertation rubric: The application of Passive Standards in school building with respect to airtightness.

Plagiarism consists of a individual showing another individual ‘s thoughts, findings or work as 1s own by copying reproducing the work without due recognition of the beginning. Plagiarism is the larceny of rational belongings. The institute respects plagiarism is a really serious offense. At the really least it is a abuse of academic conventions or the consequence of hapless referencing patterns. Where it is calculated and systematic plagiarism is rip offing.

Plagiarism can take several signifiers, illustrations of which are given below ;

a Presenting significant infusions from books, diaries, articles, thesis and other published or unpublished work ( eg: working documents, seminars and conference documents, internal studies, computing machine package, talk notes or tapes and other pupils work without clearly bespeaking the beginning of the stuff.

B Quoting straight from a beginning and neglecting to infix citation Markss around the quoted transitions. In such instances it is non equal simply to admit the beginning.

degree Celsiuss Using really near paraphrasing of sentences or whole paragraphs without due recognition in the signifier of mention to the original work.

vitamin D Copying essays or try infusions or purchasing bing essays from cyberspace web sites or beginnings.

vitamin E Closely retroflexing the construction of some 1s statement without clear referencing.

The institute is committed to observing all instances of pupil plagirisum. All instances will be dealt with in conformity with the institute scrutinies ordinances.

a Awarding lower Markss or no Markss for the thesis.

B Awarding a lower category of grade or other academic award.

degree Celsiuss Excluding the pupil from the award of a grade or other academic award which may be either lasting or for a declared period.


By subscribing this declaration, you are corroborating in composing that the work you are subjecting is original and does non incorporate any plagiaristic stuff.

Your Signature: Date:

Chapter 1 Introduction to thesis.

1.1 Introduction to chapter.

This thesis researches and demonstrates the application of air-tightness, an component of Passive Standard building on a National school extension at Maree N.S, Oranmore, Co. Galway. It will explicate the benefits associated with using an air tight constructing envelope. This chapter will give the grounds for taking this subject, the purposes, and aims to be achieved and the methods used to roll up this information. Air stringency is one of the cardinal constructs of inactive building, Often the most noticeable impact of hapless air stringency is draught and noise. Large sums of heat are lost with get awaying air via Windowss doors and blowholes. Any type of constructing building can be designed to passive criterion. Air stringency can be incorporated into assemblies at design phase when sing building mythologies.

1.2 Hypothesis.

This thesis is an effort to turn to how air tightness continuity is achieved and design considerations applied to Maree N.S extension utilizing inactive criterion building methodological analysiss.

1.3 Purposes and aims.

The purpose of this thesis is to find Research will take a conjectural expression at the procedures involved on using air stringency to Maree National School and researching the troubles on guaranting air tightness continuity around the edifice envelope at design phase, building phase and proving upon competition. It will besides compare the basic criterions of the Department of instruction school building guidelines with Passive Standard building. All elements of the Maree N.S extension will be taken into history utilizing a Building Information Modelling ( BIM ) with detailing drawn to distinguish between both signifiers of building to demo how Air stringency is achieved.

With the rise in fuel costs it is going more of import to diminish edifices heating demands, because of this there is a rise in inactive criterion building with air stringency.

The following aims have been derived in order to accomplish this purpose:

To critically measure the issues that arises from using air stringency within a school edifice.

To critically measure the inactive house criterions compared to section of instruction criterions.

To show the methods and processs of using air stringency into Maree N.S extension design.

Case survey on Maree N.S

1.4 Parameters and restrictions of the survey.

The parametric quantities and restrictions of this thesis will be in conformity with Department of Education, Sustainable Energy Ireland ( SEI ) , European embedding of inactive criterions, Building Research Establishment ( BRE ) and Passivhaus Institute Germany. The extension on Maree N.S was non constructed. This thesis takes a conjectural position on successfully using air stringency to the proposed extension. No elaborate surveies for proving of air stringency and thermic bridging could be carried out and concluded.

1.5 Outline of research methods.

The research methods used to finish this thesis are of both secondary and primary research. The secondary research methods where obtained and analysed by agencies of online databases, diaries, articles and books. Primary research undertaken used wharf reviewed diaries and guidelines written by The Department of Education, Sustainable Energy Ireland ( SEI ) , European embedding of inactive criterions, Building Research Establishment ( BRE ) and Passivhaus Institute Germany. All primary research was critically analysed to give a position

1.6 Summary of chapter 1

To recapitulate, this chapter has given the hypothesis, purposes and aims to be determined in this thesis and a brief penetration into the importance of air stringency, an component of inactive building. The chapter examined the secondary and primary research methods and the restrictions inferred on this research.

Chapter 2 Introduction to Passive house demands, E.U and Irish guidelines.

2.1 Introduction to chapter.

This chapter will depict the internationally recognized term “ Passive Standard ” and the constitution of the Passive House Institute by Professors Bo Adamson of Lund University in Sweden and Wolfgang Feist of the Institute for Housing and the Environment in Germany. All associated design elements and engineering that are required for Passive Standard building will be explored with item with mention to minimum specific measurings scientifically proven by the Passive House Institute, Hassan, Germany.

In add-on this chapter will discourse guidelines provided by European Passive House Project CEPHEUS ( Cost Effective Passive Houses as European Standards ) , The Promotion of European Passive House ( PEP ) and Sustainable Energy Ireland ( SEI ) . The hereafter aims and aims of these institutes are discussed and

2.2 What is inactive house criterion?

The term “ Passive house criterion ” refers to an internationally recognized type of edifice building that utilises an array of engineerings, designs and specialist stuffs. The criterion has been called “ inactive ” because of the heat additions delivered externally by solar irradiation that passes through glazing and heat additions from public-service corporations, residents and other heat beginnings maintained internally to basically maintain the edifice at a comfy 20 grades indoor temperature all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. This reduces the infinite warming demands to a lower limit, if it is required at all. However to accomplish this criterion excess investing at building phase are needed but this is offset by the energy nest eggs acquired over a figure of old ages.

“ ” Passive houses ” are edifices which assure a comfy indoor clime in summer and in winter without necessitating a conventional heat distribution system. To allow this, it is indispensable that, under climatic conditions predominating in cardinal Europe, the edifices one-year infinite heating demand does non transcend 15 kWh/ ( M2A ) . ” ( CEPHEUS study July 2001 )

However the inactive criterion is non merely about energy nest eggs. It is besides approximately high indoor thermic comfort for its residents. When the indoor air temperatures are at the optimal 20 to 22 grades, thermic comfort is achieved.

2.3 Where it all began?

The inactive house construct was conceived in May 1988 by professors Bo Adamson of Lund University in Sweden and Wolfgang Feist of the Institute for Housing and the Environment in Germany. Their research was realised in Darmstadt-Kranichein, Germany in 1991 with a house constructed as a agency of researching the Passive Standard of the edifice which established the inactive building criterions. In Hassan, Germany a scientific research group was formed, financed by the Hessian ministry for economic sciences and engineering to advance and command the criterions.

From 1988 to 2011 30,000+ Passive House Standard edifices have been constructed. The Passive House Institute ( PHI ) was established in 1996 as an independent research institute under the leading of DR. Wolfgang Heist. The institute ‘s aims advance the research and development of the inactive criterion constructs. So far it has set the basic edifice conditions to be meet to get inactive criterion and developed package the Passive House Planning Package ( PHPP ) to measure before building that these conditions are meet.

( Sustainable Energy Ireland SEI 2002, PassivHaus Institute )

2.4 European and Irish aims and policies.

To present Passive House construct for a broad market, the European Passive House Project CEPHEUS ( Cost Effective Passive Houses as European Standards ) was founded. The ( CEPHEUS ) undertaking was funded by the EU-commission within the model of the Thermie-Programme BU/00127/97/DE/SE/AT. 221 lodging units where built in several European states and all where closely monitored under ( CEPHEUS ) ; taking into history tenancy behaviour, with respect to larning cognition of edifice engineerings and behaviour under existent interior conditions. The undertaking ran for three old ages between 1998 and 2001.

The Passive House Institute scientifically led the ( CEPHEUS ) undertaking. All of the units followed the Passive House Standard. The U Values of the exterior elements ranged from 0.1 W/M2K to 0.15 W/M2K and had a maximal airtightness Value of 0.6 air alterations an hr at i??50. Measured air rates of mechanical airing where 0.25 to 0.4 air alterations at regular force per unit area conditions. The consequences showed that all edifices within the undertaking consumed highly low degrees of energy with a 50 % decrease in energy usage. This lead to a cardinal set of conditions required for Passive House Standard.

( Passive House Institute ) .

The Promotion of European Passive House ( PEP ) was founded in May 2006 and funded by the European committee of energy and conveyance under the ( IEE ) plan as a agency to advance Passive House construct in Europe by the publication of information brochures on Passive Standard building. This information outlines barriers, inducements, statistics and counsel on Passive House building associating to each states peculiar clime status.

The purposes of the ( PEP ) undertaking are as follows:

Make a study on the Passive House construct and supply specific solutions in different European parts and climes.

Document the possible energy nest eggs brought approximately by usage of the Passive House construct.

The acceptance of the bing Passive House design tool ( PHPP ) to run into the demand of designers in different parts.

Develop practical information bundles Cadmium ROM based, with practical information such as merchandise information, research consequences, computation methods and quality confidence activities.

( PEP May 2006 ) .

Preparation for the international enfranchisement strategy for Passive House enfranchisement was established in relation to the European Performance Building Directive ( EPBD ) . Nine co-operating European states ( The Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Austria and Ireland ) started a undertaking. The undertaking was financially supported by the EC, within the model of the Intelligent Energy for Europe strategy ( IEE ) .

Adapted from — — —

Table 1: annually primary infinite heating energy utilizations per home, per bing, typical new and inactive house physique.

Explain graph

At the beginning of 2004 the term “ Passive House ” was by and large unknown in Ireland. The Passive house construct was foremost introduced to Ireland by the Swedish designer Hans Eek during the solar conference “ see the light 2002 ” organised by the Sustainable Energy Ireland ( SEI ) . The ( SEI ) is Irelands national energy authorization, established under the sustainable energy act 2002 to implement Irish authorities policies and aims on energy use. It is financed by the Irish authorities National development program and portion by the European Union.

The ( SEI ) objectives for Passive House construct in Ireland are as follows:

Helping deployment of superior energy engineerings.

Raising consciousness and providing, advice and promotion on best pattern for Passive design.

Stimulating readying of necessary criterions and codifications.

Printing statistics and projections on sustainable energy and accomplishment of marks.

Stimulating research, development and presentation with the assistance of publications.

“ ( SEI ) Passive Homes. Guidelines for the design and building of Passive House homes in Ireland ” .

“ ( SEI ) Retrofitted Passive places and Guidelines for upgrading bing homes in Ireland to Passive House criterion. ”

( SEI Ireland )

The authoritiess white paper “ Delivering a Sustainable Energy Future for Ireland ” ( DCENR, 2007 ) was the induction of alteration to the Irish edifice ordinances. In 2008 the release of the edifice ordinances amendment S.I. NO. 259/2008 for portion L preservation of fuel and energy of the ( TGDs ) led to a 40 % energy decrease and related CO2 emanations in new build building. The Irish authorities as of last twelvemonth introduced amendment S.I. NO. 259/2011, released with the hopes of cut downing energy ingestion by a farther 20 % . This is in expectancy of the European PEP directive for all new building to be Passive Standard by 2015.

( ) .

2.5 Passive criterion elements and engineerings.

Passive criterion edifice building is really different to standard edifice building. No new edifice stuffs are used within the building but the attack to the edifice design is cardinal to accomplishing the inactive criterion construct. Unlike standard edifice building inactive criterion building uses an array of specific constructing techniques. To accomplish inactive criterion good insulated doors and Windowss need to be fitted, with air tightness continuity through-out the edifice envelope, ace insularity, extremely efficient infinite warming and airing systems and the riddance of thermic bridging. Besides a Passive criterion edifice to accomplish maximal inactive solar additions has to be an optimal orientation of 30 grades either side of South to avoid heat losingss during the winter months.

The edifice envelope consists of all the structural elements which separate the indoor environment from the out-of-door environment. Careful consideration of the edifice envelope inside informations at design phase can cut down the demand for infinite warming keeping the needed 15 kWh/ ( M2A ) per annum. In table 2 a scope of U Values are specified to show the varying demands that are needed for Passive Standard. Air escapes and Thermal Bridgess that would compromise the efficiency of a edifice have to be eliminated by keeping continuity of insularity and air tight beds throughout the edifice envelope.



European GUIDELINES ( P.E.P. )


( S.E.I. )


Insulation walls

U Value & lt ; 0.15W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.10W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.15W/M2K

Insulation roofs

U Value & lt ; 0.15W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.09W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.15W/M2K

Insulation floors

U Value & lt ; 0.15W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.10W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.15W/M2K


U Value & lt ; 0.8W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.8W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.8W/M2K

External doors

U Value & lt ; 0.6W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.6W/M2K

U Value & lt ; 0.6W/M2K

Thermal Bridgess

i?? & lt ; 0.01 W/ ( Mk )

i?? & lt ; 0.01 W/ ( Mk )

i?? & lt ; 0.01 W/ ( Mk )


i?? & gt ; 75 %

i?? & gt ; 85 %

i?? & gt ; 75 %

Max infinite warming

15 kWh/m2 per annum

15 kWh/m2 per annum

15 kWh/m2 per annum


n50 & lt ; 0.6 per hr

n50 & lt ; 0.6 per hr

n50 & lt ; 0.6 per hr

Table 2: inactive criterions for Ireland, Europe and the inactive house institute.

Brief account of graph

2.5.1 Super insularity.

Super thermic insularity is an of import factor for the energy optimisation of the edifice envelope and accomplishing thermic comfort for its residents. To follow with Passive Standard, the most effectual step of extinguishing heat transmission is to guarantee the continuity of insularity around the full thermic envelope. Thermo in writing imagination is used to exemplify the difference between an efficient and non-efficient insularity degrees through the exterior frontages. Heat losingss transmitted through the edifice envelope and around opes are highlighted by blue, green, xanthous and ruddy as seen in figure 1. In a Passive House some heat is lost through the opes, heat lost through the external facade is highly low.

Insulation of the edifice envelope can be divided into four distinguishable countries: External wall, Roof, Floor and windows/doors. Existing Passive Houses in Ireland have U Value for walls, floors and roofs scope from 0.09 to 0.15 W/ ( M2K ) . Common insularity stuffs are mineral wool and expanded polystyrene ( EPS )

( Feist et al, 2005 )

2.5.2 Thermal conduction and heat transmission.

Thermal conduction ( i??-value ) relates to a stuff or substance, and is a step of the rate at which heat base on ballss through a unvarying slab of unit thickness of that stuff or substance, when unit temperature difference is maintained between its faces. It is expressed in units of Watts per metre per grade ( W/mK ) , ( Building Regulations Technical Guidance Document Part L, Conservation of Fuel and Energy 2005 ) .

Materials and buildings, heat transportations from high to low temperature. The usage of peculiar Insulation stuffs for walls, roofs and floors ought to be considered with respect to thermal conduction to cut down the sum of thermic losingss. The conveyance of heat can happen in three ways, radiation, conductivity and convection. Radiation: Is driven by a difference in temperature, heat is transferred from hot to cold. Convection is driven by a difference in force per unit area. Conduction is when there is a difference in temperature. The heat so transfers through the stuff from hot to cold. Heat transportation has to be reduced or eliminated in Passive House design, with the assistance of good thermic features and air stringency.

2.5.3 Passive Standard Windowss and doors.

Passive Standard Windowss and doors can cover a big proportion of the facade of a edifice and so play a considerable portion in finding its energy demands. When planing its best to avoid north oriented glazing and fit big Windowss on the South oriented lift. This is to understate thermic heat losingss through the north side facade, which receives no direct sunshine and maximises solar radiation heat additions on the south facade.

The mean U-value for Windowss ( including glazing and window frames ) in the part of 0.60 to 0.80 W/ ( M2K ) . These U-values far exceed those presently required under the Irish Building Regulations, with the most pronounced difference refering to Windowss, wall and floor U Values. As stated in table 2, Windowss and doors with U Values of & lt ; 0.8 W/ ( M2K ) can be combined with opaque countries at & lt ; 0.15 W/ ( M2K ) this will easy accomplish Passive Standard compared to conventional dual glazed window and door units which have one gum elastic seal. Highly efficient ( low-E ) coated ternary glazed, thermally insulated units include important draught decrease as there are two seals or gaskets and important sound insularity. The Passive House Institute provides enfranchisement for sanctioned door and window industries. For blessing all parts of the assembly are tested exhaustively and merely so awarded enfranchisement. Although it is non required to utilize certified inactive house units, taking approved units that has been tested and certified means the cogency of proficient informations.

2.5.4 Thermal bridging.

Thermal bridging are weak countries in the insularity continuity of constructing envelope. Typical topographic points for thermic bridging are between the roof and exterior wall, opes in walls for windows/doors, overseas telegrams, airing canals and incursions for services. These can history for up to 50 % of all heat lost throughout the edifice envelope. This is normally from hapless design inside informations, deficiency of cognition and hapless building methods.

In inactive house thermic Bridgess have to be significantly reduced. The decrease should be made to the grade that the losingss through thermic Bridgess become negligible. Thermal Bridgess produce unwanted losingss of heat energy and in utmost instances can do surface condensation or interstitial condensation in the edifice construction, which can originate mould growing and wood putrefaction. The additive thermic transmission should non transcend i?? & lt ; 0.01 W/ ( MK ) . This can easy be achieved by carefully placing and turn uping all possible thermic Bridgess before building to supply a uninterrupted insularity bed. Close review of all inside informations are required on site to guarantee high criterion building patterns.

2.5.5 Passive solar addition.

Passive solar addition is the aggregation of the Sun radiation through glazing and solar panels heating the edifice infinite and is optimized by orientation of the edifice 15 grades either side of due South and puting big Windowss on the south lift. As the Sun passes during the winter months the Sun heat penetrates through the glazing heating the infinite within the edifice this reduces the demand for mechanical warming.

“ Very high quality Windowss confronting south will hold a positive thermic balance. it will hold more heat addition than heat loss throughout the twelvemonth. ” ( J. Schnieders, PassivHaus Institute )

There are many additions to be had from big sums of glazing on the south facade. However, there is a point where decreasing returns come from covering the full southern lift in glazing as the heat loss is greater than the heat additions yearly. There is no optimum ratio of glazing to floor country that can be used as a regulation of pollex in make up one’s minding what proportion of a given facade should be glazed. The country of glass has to be determined as portion of the design confirmation process utilizing the ( PHPP ) package.

( inactive house institute )

2.5.6 Space warming and extremely efficient airing systems.

The difference in heat supply in a Passive Standard edifice compared to a conventional edifice is that the heat is transported throughout the airing system, along with the fresh air supply. To run into the inactive criterion heat recovery mechanical airing heat recovery system ( MVHR ) is installed with a minimal efficiency of 85 % . The primary map of the airing system is to keep first-class indoor air quality and to administer the heat additions throughout the edifice. The rate of airing is determined harmonizing to the Passive House Institute guidelines, which recommend a flow rate of 30 M3/h per individual. Cross flow heat recovery systems are normally used in Passive Standard Buildings, cross flow system works by reassigning heat from warm stale air to the fresh cold air through a series of channels that are closely spaced but separated in the cardinal nucleus. This prevents taint of fresh air which prevents hazard of so called “ ill edifice syndrome ” . It is most effectual because it could theoretically reassign all the heat from one side to the other. This eliminates the demand to wholly heat fresh air as it enters the edifice. The air supply can non transcend 52 grades as higher temperatures lead to dust carbonization in the supply air. Dust atoms may fume on hot surfaces within the air supply canals and bring forth poultry odors.

In our clime, with lower outdoor temperatures and low internal heat tonss, airing systems entirely may non be sufficient. Other agencies of heating are required ; the airing system can be used in concurrence with a H2O exchange pump, pellets boiler, solar aggregators or used in combination. The best pattern for cut downing the concluding energy demand is by usage of a solar thermal system. The solar thermic panel collects heat radiation from the Sun which can be connected to the domestic hot H2O or the supply air in the airing system. Harmonizing to the Passive House Standard ; direct usage of electric warming should be avoided because it is connect to the primary energy demand.

( SEI 2002 )

( Passivhaus Institute 2001 ) .

2.6 Summary of chapter 2

This chapter divines the term Passive Standard and how it has become an internationally recognized type of edifice building. Passive criterion requires excess investing at building phase, but this investing is returned by nest eggs on energy and warming costs over a figure of old ages.

Discussed in this chapter is how the Passive criterion construct was conceived by Bo Adamson and Dr Wolfgang Heist 23 old ages ago in 1988. Their research was merely realised in 1991 with a successful paradigm edifice, the result of which was the constitution of the Passive House Institute ( PHI ) . Technical promotions of Passive house elements over the past 16 old ages and the rise in monetary value of fossil fuels has led to many states advancing and set uping their ain agencies of administrating Passive Standard solutions for that states peculiar clime. In 2002, at a “ see the visible radiation ” conference Passive House construct was foremost introduced to Ireland by designer Hans Eek. In 2004 the term Passive House was still by and large unknown in Ireland until paperss where published Ireland and Europe that outlined the aims, constabularies and guidelines to inactive house building as set out by Sustainable Energy Ireland ( SEI ) and the Promotion of European Passive House ( PEP ) .

The importance of the Passive Standard elements and engineerings are explained in some item ace insularity, ternary glazed window and doors, riddance of thermic bridging, extremely efficient infinite warming and ( MVHR ) systems, inactive solar addition and air tightness continuity. All are every bit of import to accomplish Passive Standard edifice enfranchisement.

Chapter 3 The effects of air-tightness on edifice design.

3.1 Introduction to chapter.

The undermentioned chapter explains the importance of air tightness through-out the edifice envelope and its effects both positive and negative. Merely since the debut of Passive Standards has the importance of air stringency been made cognizant to a wider scope of people both in the building industry and at place. Air stringency is a major factor in decrease of a edifices energy use, the design squad and edifice contractor assigned to the building of an air tight constructing demand to be competent and made aware of it importance. Air stringency in edifice design is being made cognizant in Ireland by the ( SEI ) “ Passive Homes. Guidelines for the design and building of Passive House homes in Ireland ” .

This chapter besides discusses climate conditions ie: air current force per unit area, temperature differences, air perkiness and a edifices orientation and there affects on air conditions between the inside and outside. This chapter will analyze how heat loss is connected to an air permeable edifice construction and how air flows through the edifice envelope taking valuable heated air. Besides, it will research thermic comfort degrees and how bill of exchanges and air motion can impact comfort degrees edifices residents.

3.2 What is air-tightness?

Constructing an airtight or leak-free construction is imperative to accomplishing the Passive House Standard. If there are spreads and clefts in the edifice cloth so uncontrolled sums of cold external air can infiltrate the edifice. It is driven by internal and external force per unit area and temperature differences and is extremely variable in response to alterations in the conditions. Achieving a high degree of air stringency eliminates cold checkerss and associated comfort losingss. It besides prevents condensation of indoor moist, warm air perforating the construction, and possible structural amendss due to disintegrate, corrosion and hoar. Air-tightness is achieved by careful application of membranes and tapes eg: lumber frame or steel construction or moisture daubing within the edifice envelope eg: solid block building. Penetrations of the air-tight bed by mechanical and electrical services must be decently sealed utilizing appropriate air-tight sealers.

Build tight, ventilate right. ( BRE )

The most critical issue sing proving for airtightness is clocking during the edifice procedure. It is of import that remedial steps can be carried out in order to rectify any leaks or clefts. The trial should be carried out before 2nd hole woodworking, for illustration, when there are no encircling boards or window boards fitted and where the junctions covered by such stuffs are still accessible and can be sealed. The trial should besides be carried out after all mechanical and electrical services, which need to perforate the edifice envelope, have been installed. Otherwise, put ining such services after the trial could badly compromise the air-tightness of the edifice. The associated 2nd repair could besides take to a rise in the overall building cost of the edifice.

( SEI, 2002 )

( BRE )

( Air-tightness in commercial and public edifices 2002 ) .

3.3 Air-infiltration within the edifice envelope.

Air infiltration is the air escape through clefts and spreads in the edifice cloth and is the measure of the leakiness in the edifice envelope. Air infiltration is frequently non in a direct line for exterior to inside. Air can filtrate through the external coating into a pit going horizontally and vertically, so go throughing through spreads in the building eventually go outing around sockets and hedging. Many air infiltration waies can be minimised by right design schemes and detailing and onsite reviews at critical phases of building. It is moreover affected strongly by design determinations and building quality.

Temperature alterations between interior and the outside of the edifice envelope lead to infiltration and can lift and fall uncontrollably, which is in reaction to fluctuations of external air current velocity and air temperature alterations. Excessive air infiltration will take down the mean temperature to an uncomfortable degree during high air current conditions. Harmonizing to the Passive House Institute there are many illustrations where a leaky envelope has given rise to ailments sing thermic uncomfortableness. Once a edifice is constructed it can be really expensive and hard to rectify.

Wind force per unit area on the edifice facade causes force per unit area differences between the interior and outside of the edifice. The consequence is that, air enters on the windward lift called infiltration and issues on the sides and leeward lifts called exfiltration. The of course happening consequence creates a little negative force per unit area internally.

Air perkiness is created when heat produced by people, heating system, equipment and from solar addition, which makes the internal air more floaty than the external air, a little negative force per unit area easy moves this floaty air through spreads and clefts on the leeward lift.

Where infiltration is minimised, unchanging airing and thermic comfort is easy accomplishable and maintained. In really utmost conditions conditions the residents should hold the option of modulating the airing gaps to understate uncomfortableness.

3.3.1 Methods of air infiltration measuring.

3.4 The associated benefits of understating air infiltration.

In an airtight constructing the energy costs for infinite warming may be significantly reduced compared to those for a comparable but air permeable edifice. Air humidness regulator costs can likewise be reduced by avoiding unwanted air incursion. Trials carried out by the ( BRE ) on an air permeable edifice showed that the ejection of warm air can account for every bit much as 50 % of the entire air loss through the edifice envelope. Entire infinite warming costs in an air-tight edifice may be every bit much as 40 % less.

In a Passive school edifice with 25 students and 1 instructor can salvage 1.5 KW which can easy maintain a schoolroom comfortable for an full twelvemonth. This lowers fuel use well, cut downing CO2 emanations released into the ambiance. The edifice construction needs to be both air-tight and good insulated to accomplish these important nest eggs. Sophisticated energy salvaging heating control systems, constructing direction systems ( BMS ) and heat recovery systems ( MVHR ) are economically executable options for usage in air tight edifice building. In an air permeable edifice, air infiltration may cut down or contradict any benefits of such systems. Exfiltration of warm air through permeable edifice cloth will cut down the heat available to heat recovery systems and can cut down their efficiency by over 20 %

( BRE )

3.5 Summary of chapter 3.

Chapter 4 Maree national school instance survey, planing for

Air tightness continuity.

4.1 Introduction to chapter.

In this chapter, the primary research will take a conjectural expression the procedures involved on using air-tightness to Maree National School and researching the troubles on guaranting airtightness continuity around the edifice envelope at design phase, building phase and proving upon competition. All elements of the Maree N.S Extension Have been taken into history utilizing a BIM theoretical account and detailing drawn to demo how this was achieved.

4.2 Considerations taken at design phase.

It ‘s during the design procedure that all critical determinations on the edifices airtightness are made. Simple particularization of the edifice envelope is cardinal to the success of airtightness. The chief considerations taken into history for the new extension are as follows:

The degree of airtightness required.

Puting out how airtightness is achieved with specification.

Choosing right building stuffs used for air-tight barriers.

Knowing where to seal around the edifice envelope.

First the degree of air stringency for Maree N.S will necessitate to be established utilizing the BRE recommendations for airtightness. As shown in table 2 below:

Type of building

Air permeableness m3/ ( h.m2 ) at 50 dad

Air alteration rate h-1 at 50 dad

Best pattern


Cold shops



— — — — —




— — — — —




— — — — —




— — — — —

Passive house

— — — — —






— — — — —

Table 2: maximal air filtrations for different edifice types.

4.2.1 Action to be taken by client, Architect and edifice contractor.

A program of action will necessitate to be established to guarantee good communicating between the Client, Architect and Building contractor. Sketching the chief concerns early on will extinguish jobs subsequently in the building procedure. The stairss that are taken are as follows:

Constructing assessment: Is to set up the appropriate air stringency for the edifice building. As seen in table 2 the best air filtration Maree N.S is 3 air alterations per hr.

Outline proposals: Decisions on the building type and location of air stringency bed will be located in program and subdivision. as seen in fig — — — — — — –

Detail proposals: Detailss of the edifice building drawn up and location of air stringency bed hello lighted for easy apprehension. As seen in fig — — — — — –

Contractor informed: After stamp paperss are sent and contractor chosen, constructing contractor and sub-contractors are informed on methods of airtightness, with their handling methods and duties outlined.

Practical completion: Before the air tight bed is concealed, constructing reviews are done by the designer by agencies of ocular review and blower door testing.

Completion: tenancy comfort and energy ingestion documented and accommodations made to sign any concerns.

4.2.2 Entrance anteroom

To follow with the inactive criterion and BRE, the chief entryway at female horse N.S is a drought anteroom building. See fig — — — — .For the anteroom to work right, two sets of doors are set at either terminal at a lower limit of 4 metres apart. These are self-closing with an air drape to cut down heat losingss. Revolving doors where non allow as these are used in high traffic edifices, sing the school is at its busiest merely in the forenoon and at aggregation times the human traffic was non equal.

4.2.3 Choosing appropriate stuffs.

An mixture of stuffs can be used as portion of the airtightness bed. These stuffs are to be chosen with regard to effectiveness and how they are substituted in the hereafter will be carefully considered. These constituents can be broken into three countries:


Sealants are one of the most of import mechanisms in vouching effectual airtightness. Regularly used in exterior constituents, as bedclothes stuffs for glazing and drape walling. Efficient sealers are immune to repeating motions at the joint and maintain adhesion to surfaces and be easy exchanged over the life rhythm of the edifice. Manufacturer ‘s instructions for guarantee warrant intents should be followed. See fig — — —


Gaskets are chiefly found in window / door constituents and service incursions ( motion articulations ) and are made from flexible gum elastic. All applicable constituents will hold appropriate gaskets within Maree national school. See fig — — —

Mineral wool

Mineral wool with impermeable coating can be used to supply an air tight seal. Sealing the mineral wool in a polythene tubing will be used around service incursions throughout Maree national school. See fig — — — — –

Breather Membranes

Their primary function is to protect the construction against rainwater perforating the outer tegument. They are vapour permeable and let the flight of moister created within the edifice to vaporize. Check that the breathing place membrane can besides be used for air stringency by mentioning to the specification. In Maree N.S breathing place membranes will be used in the roof building see fig — — — — – the membrane is situated underneath the insularity and is sealed to the exterior wall construction to guarantee the air tight continuity. For the membrane to be effectual all membrane will be fixed utilizing corrosion immune ingredients every 600 c/c to guarantee the membrane is unbroken fast. Membranes should associate with next air tightness constituents, peculiarly around gaps. Flexible tapping that is effectual for the whole of its life should be used to seal between membrane beds is important and should be done by trained secret agents.

4.2.4 Planing for entree to airtight beds

The air stringency beds have to be checked and maintained over the edifices life span and interior decorators need to see in the design how this can be easy achieved. Maree N.S will be standing for many old ages with fix or replacing being really probably. Placement of the air barrier within the wall building is really of import and can be located either inside or outside wall building and both have their advantages and disadvantages. See fig — — — — inside the wall building the advantages are: The air barrier and vapor control bed can be combined with the condensation hazard reduced. The air barrier is kept at a relativity changeless temperature and is less susceptible to thermal cycling with it being easier to keep and mend during building. Disadvantages are chiefly during the building stage. Air barrier is more susceptible to damage during the installing of services in the wall. The building of the air barrio must be sealed to the floor slab, Windowss and around incursions to keep continuity. Outside the wall building have really small advantages. The air bed can be easy continues over the wall and floor junctions and that the air barrier is protected from building activities. The disadvantages of this type building are that long term care and fix is hard. The placement and H2O vapour permeableness of an outer air barrier must be considered with mention to the walls vapour transmittal features to avoid the possibility of making a vapor trap, which could make molds.

For this ground I ‘ve chosen to turn up the air stringency barrier within the wall building, the tendering of a competent edifice contractor in inactive criterion building is critical with review of job countries at regular intervals by the designer.

4.2.5 Inspection of air-tight beds

Inspection of the edifice envelope is the most of import portion of the building procedure. It is an chance to vouch that the building squad has a clear apprehension of the importance of protecting the air tightness membrane and how continuity is maintained. The chief aim should be to guarantee that there is an equal apprehension on site of the air stringency demands at articulations, intersections and junctions of the different wall types, and to guarantee that the air tightness specification is met. Once the edifice is completed it is really hard to analyze the air stringency bed and rectify any defects that can originate. Inspections should concentrate on parts that will be covered in the completed edifice. The undertaking director leads the preparation, coordination and the review process, besides assisted by the design squad. Training will include enlightening briefing. All new forces working onsite will be updated in the intricate design. Any inquiries onsite of the stuffs and detailing will be forwarded to the design squad before any more plants continue.

4.3 Air stringency inside informations and specifications for Maree N.S.

4.4 Testing for air stringency in Maree N.S

Testing of the edifice envelope should be carried out before the air stringency bed is covered up. As see in fig — — – the air tight bed is located behind the interior wall coating. Testing should get down before the battings and gypsum board is constructed. All new Passive Standard edifices require proving for air stringency as stated by the Passive House Institute. There are a few methods of proving for the different constituents of the edifice envelope.

The air stringency of a edifice can be accurately measured by transporting out a blower-door trial. The trial involves puting a powerful fan suspended in a canvas sheet within a door gap and runing the fan at really high velocities thereby making either negative or positive force per unit area within a edifice. By making negative force per unit area within the edifice air is sucked out of the edifice through any spreads or clefts in the edifice cloth. The Passive House Institute ( PHI ) states that force per unit area used for such a trial is 50 Pascal which can be accurately set by the blower door equipment. When set abouting the trial it is normally rather easy to place major leaks due to the presence of a strong draft which can be felt by the manus. Any clefts or spreads can be sealed with appropriate stuffs as the trial is being undertaken. Then the readings are taken. Passive Standard is reached when there are less than or equal to 0.6 air alterations per hr at 50 Pa force per unit area.

A fan pressurisation trial is seting positive force per unit area into the edifice at 50 Pa force per unit area. A fan pressurisation trial can quantify air escape through the edifice envelope but it can non turn up the clefts and spreads which may be situated throughout the edifice. Ocular review can uncover some of these defects in the edifice envelope. Transporting out an air escape audit utilizing either smoke tracers or an infrared camera will place all the major air escape waies. Smoke tracers are in the signifier of pencils or fume machines. Which when put possible air leakage waies will draw the fume through the edifice envelope. There is seldom the demand to make full the full edifice with fume.

Air escape that is associated with a edifice component or constituent can be tested separate by pressurisation. The component eg: a peculiar room of involvement within a edifice is isolated by incorporating the country within a impermanent certain compartment. This compartment is pressurised and the air exfiltration can be estimated.

Chapter 5 Decision



Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out