Contributing Factors To Bad Weather Construction Essay

Road accident is the planetary calamity with ever-raising tendency. In Malaysia, it represents a major populace job because of the high figure of victims involved and besides the earnestness of the effects for the victim themselves and to their households as good. There are many factors that can lend to the route accidents. Some research workers have made several researches and agreed that the major factors that lending to the route accidents is because of the bad conditions, status of route, human behaviour when drive, status of the vehicle and the lenience of the jurisprudence enforcement.

Associating to the old researches, the focal point of our survey is to place the tendency of route accidents in Shah Alam and the factors that lending to the accidents. Besides that, the survey besides focuses on the schemes and ways to cut down the rate of route accidents in Shah Alam. The survey will be conducted in Shah Alam which the respondents are among the route users including walkers, motorcyclists, auto drivers and etc.

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2.2 Conducive Factors

2.2.1 Bad Weather

Harmonizing to a study from the Institute for Road Safety Research ( SWOV ) in Netherland, the term conditions can be described as the province of ambiance in term of air force per unit area, temperature, humidness, clouds, air current and precipitation. The conditions conditions will impact the accident rates and exposure to the traffic jeopardies. A bed of H2O on the route surface due to rain can do the vehicles to lose contact with the route surface and to skid.

Besides that, Ellinghaus ( 1983 ) has stated that the object carried due to the strong air current, fallen trees and broken subdivisions can besides do the traffic perturbation. Gusts of air current can force the high vehicles such as coachs and new waves particularly when they are on the Bridgess.

A survey from Saudi Arabia ( Al-Ghamdi, 2009 ) reports the figure of clang being higher during the fog compared to the other conditions status. The clang happened because of the limited visibleness during driving due to the fog. In a fog, the droplets of H2O are so little and light that they remain drifting in the air. This will take to limited visibleness to the drivers because the visible radiation is diffused by the fog droplets.

As a consequence of bad conditions, route surfaces may go slippery or slipperiness. Accretion of H2O, slush, ice and snow can show jeopardies to automobilists. The mode in which other drivers react to the conditions, whether through an utmost surplus of cautiousness or a neglect of the dangers posed by the conditions conditions, can besides lend to the chance of an accident. When conditions conditions render driving insecure, drivers should try to happen a safe topographic point to acquire off the route and delay for the conditions to better. If you are driving at a clip of twelvemonth when you are likely to hold your windscreen splattered with soiled H2O, clay, slush, or salt, before driving brand sure that you have a good supply of windshield dissolver.

In Malaysia, The bulk of the investigated instances occurred during all right conditions. The proportion of investigated instances during all right conditions for 2008 is over presented, with more than 70 % , and is significantly higher than those that occurred in any other conditions status, particularly in 2009 and 2010. Based on MIROS the information in footings of illuming status show that for the entire figure of investigated instances from 2007 through 2010, clangs that occurred during daytime, when it is safe to state that visibleness is non a major concern. However, clangs during dark status and without lighting, which is related to the said issue, are besides important and come in 2nd topographic point after daytime in all four old ages in footings of the figure of investigated instances.

Through study by MIROS, the KSI and human death indexes harmonizing to the environmental constituents of the clangs, viz. the locality country, weather conditions and illuming conditions. In footings of the environmental constituents of the clangs, human death index is recorded highest for clangs go oning at agricultural countries ( 2.86 ) , during mizzling status ( 4.84 ) and when the surrounding is dark without any lighting ( 2.67 ) . Meanwhile, KSI index is highest for clangs that occurred at agricultural countries ( 3.97 ) , during showery twenty-four hours ( 7.56 ) , and during morning or twilight ( 7.44 ) . This shows that bad status of conditions and surrounding may impact the driver position which can do a higher inclination of accident to happen during that peculiar state of affairs.

2.2.2 Driving attitude

Whilst commercial vehicles have often been found to hold high accident engagement rates, merely one commercial driver developing plan has been identified so far in this Asia part. As portion of the two twelvemonth input in Pakistan funded by DFID in the early 1980s, a two hebdomad coach driver re-training plan was provided. Bus drive criterions are observed before and after the class and while coach drive criterions showed betterment when drivers knew they were being observed, this betterment did non transport over to other times. This demonstrated the difference between driving accomplishment and driving behaviour and the demand of enforcement and inducement strategies to promote good drive criterions.

Surveies in driver cognition and driver behaviour were undertaken in several states worldwide including Pakistan, Indonesia, Thailand and Sri Lanka. Driver behaviour was assessed at prosaic crossing, traffic signals and precedence junctions. As a follow up driver cognition studies were conducted in Pakistan and Thailand and both these surveies have been published as separate Transport Research Laboratory ( TRL ) studies.

While the Central Road Research Institute ( CRRI ) besides worked on the country of private cognition with drivers surveyed on mark comprehension and traffic consciousness, the CRRI has spent much attempt in developing a driver reflexes proving system ( DRTS ) which seeks to extinguish human prejudice and includes psycho physical trials. Work in this country has continued over the past decennary with a few DRTS systems in usage in India.

Human mistakes play an of import function in lending to the increasing Numberss of accident rates. Peoples acute to disregard this factor as they feel they can manage the state of affairs and avoid accidents. There are many types of human mistakes during driving such as inordinate hurrying and aberrant behaviour, taking intoxicant during driving and failed to obey the regulations and ordinances of the route. All of these can be categorized as the hazardous drive attitudes which may do route accidents.

Many of accidents that were reported are caused by human mistakes. Harmonizing to Nasasira ( 2009 ) , there are about 80 % of the route accidents reported in Uganda are related to the attitude and behaviour of the drivers. This information shows that the impulsive attitude is the major cause of route accidents.

Harmonizing to Sabey and Taylor ( 1980 ) , 95 % of the accidents caused by the human factors. Driving attitude was identified as the most cardinal of these factors. Besides that, research by Jashua and Garber ( 1992 ) besides stated that the most common accident type have resulted from drivers ‘ mistakes.

Driving attitudes besides include the behaviour to excessive hurrying. Vehicle velocity is frequently credited as being an of import cause and conducive factor of route accidents. This behaviour may do danger non merely for the driver himself but besides for other drivers. Most drivers tend to rush transcend the bound fixed by the authorities. For illustration, the National Speed Limits is 90km/h but drivers tend to rush transcend the bound which may do danger to themselves and others.

Harmonizing to Solomon ( 1964 ) , Munden ( 1967 ) and Bohlin ( 1967 ) , all claimed that the chance of serious hurt or decease are greater at high impact velocities. This shows that the impact of inordinate hurrying may non merely do accident but may besides do a serious hurt and decease.

2.2.3 Road Condition

Geometric design criterions are frequently taken from motorised states and therefore are non ever allow given the presence of walkers and other vulnerable route users and non-motorised vehicles in the route traffic watercourse. There has been much attempt in safety technology research to understate the hazard of accidents and DFID sponsored the development and publication of Towards Safer Roads ( TSR ) which was the first major manual to turn to safety technology and planning in developing states. TSR besides introduced the pattern of safety audits ( a standardized process for look intoing the safety concerns of route undertakings from the feasibleness phase through to concluding building and operation ) . Formal safety audits have besides begun to be used late in Nepal, Malaysia, Fiji and a figure of other developing states including Bangladesh.

Identifying safety impacts of geometric design alterations was a research focal point in PNG and was late reviewed for the latest version of the Highway Design and Maintenance Programme ( HDM4 ) . Recent research funded by Sweroad included the development of a traffic safety effects catalogue to include the assorted findings of the impact of geometric design and traffic control features on route accidents and accident rates.

Several undertakings both on execution and the research side have focused on traffic technology and traffic direction issues with applied route safety benefits. For illustration, Australian Aid undertakings in Papua New Guinea and Western Samoa follow this form as does the past research in CRRI on wayside development and route marks. The research late started on the design and execution issues of average installing for illustration are exemplifying of the types of research being undertaken in this country.

In Malaysia, it was reported that many of the instances of route hit involve the vehicle go forthing the roadway and hits the fixed objects along the wayside such as the trees and safety rails. This may do by the slippery route due to the rain and even because of the poorly designed and constructed roads.

Most of the roads in Malaysia are pavement designed. In pavement design, there are several features that need to be considered such as skid opposition and the texture deepness. These features will find the status of the route whether it is hazardous or non. Harmonizing to Davis ( 2001 ) , the wet on the pavement surface may forestall vehicle tyres from doing equal contact with the route surface. This will increase the degree of slippery on the route which may do route accident.

2.2.4 Vehicles status

Vehicles are one of the factors which can lend to the route accidents. This is because the vehicle that we ride is a medium for us that put us in the route and if the vehicles itself are non in a good form and status, the inclination for the accident to happen is more likely comparison to a good manage vehicle status.

A well-designed and well-maintained vehicle, with good brakes, tyres and well-balanced suspension will be more governable in an exigency and therefore be better equipped to avoid hits. Based on the statistics which have been produced by MIROS, during 2007-2010, the brake defects in vehicle have recorded 20 instances while tyres defect have recorded 14 instances. So, that is why some compulsory vehicle review strategies include trials for some facets of roadworthiness have been conduct by the JPJ in order to do certain that the vehicles that is traveling to be used are in a good status,

The design of vehicles has besides evolved to better protection after hit, both for vehicle residents and for those outside of the vehicle. For illustration, in modern twenty-four hours auto, a batch of safety characteristics have been include likes Anti-lock braking system ( ABS ) to forestall skidding leting the driver to stay in control. The vehicle stops more rapidly as there ‘s more clash between the route and tyres, grip control to prevents skidding while speed uping so the auto can rapidly get away a unsafe state of affairs and safety coop to beef up the cabin subdivision to protect people in a roll-over accident. Much of this work was led by automotive industry competition and technological invention.

Some clang types tend to hold more serious effects, Rollovers have become more common in recent old ages, possibly due to increased popularity of taller SUVs, people bearers, and minivans, which have a higher centre of gravitation than standard rider autos. Rollovers can be fatal, particularly if the residents are ejected because they were non have oning place belts ( 83 % of expulsions during rollovers were fatal when the driver did non have on a place belt, compared to 25 % when they did ) . After a new design of Mercedes Benz notoriously failed a ‘moose trial ‘ ( sudden swerve to avoid an obstruction ) , some makers enhance suspension utilizing stableness control linked to an anti-lock braking system to cut down the likeliness of rollover. After retrofitting these systems to its theoretical accounts in 1999-2000, Mercedes saw its theoretical accounts involved in fewer clangs. Now about 40 % of new US vehicles, chiefly the SUVs, new waves and pickup trucks that are more susceptible to rollover, are being produced with a lower centre of gravitation and enhanced suspension with stableness control linked to its anti-lock braking system to cut down the hazard of rollover and run into US federal demands that mandate anti-rollover engineering by September 2011.

Harmonizing to the research by Chin Shu Pei ( 2009 ) , she has stated that the relationship between the route surface and the type of tyre, tread form, tyre force per unit area and tyre status may impact the route surface clash and do the vehicles to skid off the route. She besides added that tyres in hapless status will non hold equal braking clash on any pavement surface.

Motorcyclists have small protection other than their vesture ; this difference is reflected in the casualty statistics, where they are more than twice as likely to endure badly after a hit. In 2005 there were 198,735 route clangs with 271,017 reported casualties on roads in Great Britain. This included 3,201 deceases ( 1.1 % ) and 28,954 serious hurts ( 10.7 % ) overall. Of these casualties 178,302 ( 66 % ) were auto users and 24,824 ( 9 % ) were motorcyclists, of whom 569 were killed ( 2.3 % ) and 5,939 earnestly injured ( 24 % ) . In Malaysia, it is recorded that 4,067 motorcyclists died in 2010 by MIROS. This represents about 60 per cent of the 6,745 route human deaths. In 2008, 3,898 motorcyclists were killed out of a sum of 6,527 human deaths. Motorcyclist deceases on norm accounted for 60 per cent of the entire route human deaths in the last decennary. MIROS route safety technology and environment research manager, Jamilah Mohd Marjan said the spike in deceases was due to the rise of the figure of riders.

As we can see in the another state where both Transport Research Laboratory ( TRL ) in United Kingdom and Indian Institute of Technology ( ITT ) IN India have conducted a research into vehicle design and hurt control. In Papua New Guinea the MAAP system identified many casualties happening in run-off accidents in unfastened top pickups. Open top pickups are a common public conveyance manner and are frequently to a great extent loaded with riders in Papua New Guinea. TRL concluded research into vehicle design to minimise such hurts.

IIT have modeled crash impacts of coach foreparts and three Wheeler motorized scooter taxis to find how the design can be altered to cut down hurt badness to walkers hit by coachs and the Three Wheeler Scooter Taxi ( TST ) drivers, riders and walkers in TST clangs. TSTs are found to be insecure for all three user groups ( drivers, walkers and riders at speed impacts every bit low as 15 to 20 kilometres per hr ) . Minor alterations were found to do a important difference in the safety to all three user groups in clangs up to velocities of 25 to 30 kilometres per hr.

IIT research besides identifies structural failing in motor rhythm helmet design. Earlier work had identified a bulk of caput impacts and two wheel clangs to be sustained on the side of the caput yet VIS criterions did non include a side impact trial. IIT devised and implemented a side impact trial and when all helmets in general were found to be unequal in side impact, BIS amended the bike helmet criterions. Delhi Police have sponsored this research and subsequently publicized the findings and distributed guidelines for clients and the comparative rankings of the different helmets.

Around the same clip that ITT was analyzing the comparative safety of bike helmets in Delhi, Central Road Research Institute ( CRRI ) was besides analyzing the usage of bike helmets and carry oning sentiment studies on the usage of bike helmets in several metropolitan metropoliss where bike helmet use was compulsory. These surveies all helped to act upon route safety policy in India.

2.2.5 Leniency of the Law Enforcement

While most if non all states in Asia and Pacific have revised their route ordinances in the past 15 old ages, small bilateral proficient aid seems to hold been provided in this sector nor does at that place look to hold been local research attempt in such states despite many states sharing the same base for route ordinances ( The British Motor Vehicle Code 1939 ) . Small exchange of information and experience has occurred and traffic ordinances have by and large been revised separately by each state. No regional manual has been produced similar to such manuals that exist in Africa and other parts of the universe.

Traffic Police developing programmes have been developed by the Central Road Research Institute ( CRRI ) with sponsorship from the Ministry of Surface Transport. National workshops on traffic constabularies preparation were besides organised in 1992 and 93. Traffic constabulary from 23 metropolitan metropoliss were trained before the undertaking was discontinued. Ongoing at the same clip was CRRI research undertaking analyzing the past 10 old ages of traffic misdemeanors from Delhi covering 1980 to 1990. The analysis revealed ill-conceived precedences with administrative misdemeanors being enforced more often than the more unsafe traveling misdemeanors.

Highway patrolling was rather effectual when it was introduced in Pakistan in the early 1980s as it discouraged catching and targeted route safety parking, both of which were known to lend to route accidents in Pakistan.


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