Show a tabular array of consequences of the blood glucose samples from all the topics in your practical group. Calculate the mean and standard divergence of the blood glucose measurings for each of the three groups at each clip point, and give these values to two denary topographic points.
One of the topics i.e. capable 9 had a surprisingly low blood glucose degrees when checked during the fasting province i.e. 2.2. The ground for this could hold been either a drawn-out fast which could hold led to such low degrees or some strenuous activity before the trial.
The other topic to hold abnormally low blood glucose degrees is capable 6. The topic had a normal fasting degree glucose which should hold gone up after consuming 200 ml Lucozade. The reading at 30 proceedingss did non demo any grounds of glucose degrees lifting. The measuring at 60 proceedingss is besides in sync with the other topics. However the sudden dip in the reading at 120 proceedingss is implicative of a few things. There could either hold been a human mistake while proving ; it could hold been low blood sample volume for trial at 120 proceedingss or the patient could hold been hypoglycemic.
One of the topics Sara had unnatural consequences as she had a thyroid job which led to abnormal blood sugar form after consuming lucozade drink.
B ) What are the two major beginnings of fluctuation in the consequences?
The graphs give a clear indicant that imbibing Lucozade has a greater consequence on the plasma glucose level than eating the diabetic cocoa saloon. If we analyse the average blood glucose degree values after 30minutes of taking the repast, it is apparent that those topics who drank Lucozade had an addition in plasma glucose to about 6.5 mmol/L, while those topics who ingested the diabetic cocoa saloon merely had a little addition in plasma glucose degrees to about 4mmol/L. This can clearly be attributed to the changing glucose contents in the two trial repasts.
The diabetic cocoa saloon consists of xylitol which is sugar substituent which is a low-calorie option to postpone sugar. It is absorbed at a much slower rate as it has a low glycemic index than normal sugar so it does non lend to hyperglycaemia caused by deficient insulin response while Lucozade contains glucose sirup and has a really high Glycemic index and is therefore absorbed quickly demoing a sudden addition in plasma concentration.
There could besides hold been inaccuracies while mensurating consequences
It could hold been the:
Strip factors e.g. outdated strips, improper storage of strips etc
Physical factors e.g. temperature etc besides can do fluctuations
Patient factors e.g. manus lavation, taint can change consequences
Pharmacological factors e.g. medicines etc
Or besides familial factors, age sex etc could hold played a function in changing consequences.
4. Are the alterations in blood glucose concentration what you expected for each trial repast? Did the voluntaries who ingested lucozade base on balls the OGTT? ( 8 Markss )
The alterations are as per outlook except for a few topics.
As the graph shows, after consumption of Lucozade the degrees of blood glucose rise when checked at the 30 minute interval and when checked once more at 60 proceedingss. The degrees come down as insulin degrees shoot up and they lower the glucose degrees by a assortment of tracts.
If after a 2 hr period the topic has plasma glucose concentration & A ; lt ; 7.8 mmol/L so he is considered to hold normal glucose tolerance. The glucose tolerance is impaired if after a 2 hr period the value is between 7.8 – 11.1mmol/L
As shown diagrammatically the glucose degrees are within the defined scope when checked at those peculiar clip intervals and this indicates that all the topics have passed the Oral glucose tolerance trial with one capable demoing abnormally low degrees of glucose which could hold been caused due to assorted other factors.
5. For each trial repast, execute a mated t-test on blood glucose values at each clip point ( 30, 60, 120 proceedingss ) and compare it to the resting values ( 0 proceedingss ) .
a ) Present the P values from each t-test in a new tabular array ( make non give the values of T or other statistics.
B ) Explain what the P value means?
degree Celsius ) A p value of & A ; lt ; 0.05 is normally taken to stand for a statistically important difference. Look at your informations and remark on its significance.
Paired T-test values ( pre-test vs. 30, 60, and 120mins )
Lucozade P =
Diabetic Chocolate P =
P-value is the chance value runing from 0 -1. P-value in this experiment identifies the significance of the consequences obtained at 95 % assurance bound. If the P value is less than the threshold value so that difference is statistically important. If the P value is higher than the value it is compared to so the void hypothesis is non rejected and the difference is non statistically important
For the t-test consequences to hold a important statistical difference, they must hold a value below 0.05. The tabular array above shows that merely the Lucozade values at 30 and 60mins had a important statistical difference. This is because the Lucozade increased the degrees of glucose in the blood well, so the consequences were significantly different compared to the values obtained at fasting. However after 2 hours the degrees of glucose go down every bit insulin is released in response and it conducts a assortment of tracts to metabolize glucose degrees and therefore the consequences non statistically important.
The consequences for cocoa do non demo any important difference at any point of clip as they are rather similar to the pre-test values and did n’t hold every bit large an addition as with the Lucozade as they are non meant to promote blood sugar degrees. They contain polyols ( as sugar replacing ) which do non interact much with the blood sugar degrees and therefore do non promote the sugar degrees.
The consequences for H2O excessively do non demo any important difference as H2O was non meant to interfere with the blood glucose degrees.
6. Design an experiment to prove the preciseness and truth of the glucometers. Answer the followers:
a ) define truth and preciseness.
B ) explicate how you would really execute the experiment.
( degree Celsius ) depict how you would show your consequences of truth and preciseness.
Accuracy of a blood glucometer is the step of the intimacy of the average value of the series of values against the mention value. The average value of a series can be absolutely accurate whilst none of the single values might stand for the mention.
Preciseness is the duplicability of a series of values independent of the intimacy of any values against the mention.
An experiment can be designed to prove the truth and preciseness of glucometers. Different types of glucometers can be assigned to different pupils. They are to be provided with glucose criterions and unknown aqueous samples. They so measure the glucose criterion and the unknown mixture several figure of times. The pupils will so be required to execute t-test, F-test and Q-test to measure the informations obtained.
The experiment can so be designed on the factors below:
Calibration of glucometers
Method of readying of samples
Dynamic scope of the glucometers
Volume of the sample applied
Preparation of samples and if the sample composing affects consequences.
If the out-of-date strips give the same consequences.
We will hold informations taken from changing glucometers utilizing same aqueous glucose samples. Each set of values will stand for the preciseness and truth of the peculiar glucometer.
7. Research and depict a trial of long term glucose control suited for patients with diabetes. What does the trial step, why is it used, and what are the mark values? ( 5 Markss )
One of the trials suited for long term glucose control for patients with diabetes involves supervising the degrees of glycated hemoglobin or glycosylated hemoglobin.
Haemoglobin A1c is a signifier of hemoglobin which is majorly used for designation of mean plasma glucose degrees over drawn-out periods of clip. Normal exposure of hemoglobin to high plasma glucose leads to the formation of HbA1c in a non enzymatic manner. This fond regard of sugar to Hb is called glycosylation. This monitoring HbA1c degrees may be helpful in handling the symptoms on long term footing.
This procedure of glycation occurs over a 120 twenty-four hours life span of the ruddy blood cell. But recent glycaemia has major influence on HbA1c degrees. Measuring the degree of glycated hemoglobin ( by mensurating serum glucose degrees ) determines the sum of sugar attached to the hemoglobin. .
This trial should be done at least twice a twelvemonth. It should be done a little more frequently for people already diagnosed of diabetes.
Glycation of hemoglobin has been linked with nephropathy and retinopathy in diabetes mellitus, take downing the hemoglobin A1c figure can cut down the development of serious kidney, oculus and nervus disease in people with diabetes
This trial is used to name the blood sugar degrees in a patient over a 3 months period.
The current UK guidelines suggest a mark between 6.5 % and 7.5 % ( depending on the presence of any type of complications or high arterial hazard ) 7 and in the USA a value of 7 % is now recommended in all state of affairss.
Findingss have shown that people who manage to maintain their Hba2c degrees below 7 have a greater opportunity of maintaining healthy and cutting out on diabetes linked kidney and oculus jobs etc
Target values of below 6.5 % are being eyed as per the new bill of exchange guidelines for UK for Type 2.