Since Sweden experienced industrialisation, which occurred late but rapid, the state is characterized by a good organized trade brotherhood motion and powerful employer organisations. The public assistance province and employment system shows a high grade of societal protection which is grounded in cosmopolitan coverage and solidarity, a well public sector, relatively low unemployment rate every bit good as a labor market ordinance chiefly resting upon corporate understandings ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
When looking at the nucleus features of the employment relation system one has to see the legal context. In this context three Torahs will be discussed in the followers. The Codetermination Act ( Metbestammandelagen, MBL ) regulates employee audience and engagement in working life. The MBL is the chief jurisprudence for the system of corporate ordinances, which is realized through corporate understandings. Acting like corporate agents for its members, trade brotherhoods are empowered to elect their representatives, obtain information, or inquire for advice about direction determinations ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . The Employment Protection Act ( Lag om Anstallningsskydd, LAS ) is an indispensable jurisprudence in the Swedish labor market which sets and find how and when employees can and can non be dismissed. The Work Environment Act regulates the work environment in the labor market. The Swedish Work Environment Authority ( Arbetsmiljoverket ) is concerned with supervising the execution of both the Work Environment Act and the Working Time Act. The authorization conducts labour review ; still it has been late decreased by about 40 per cent ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
Refering work stoppages one can state that the figure in Sweden is really low and their scope is limited compared to other European states. The National Mediation Office ( Medlinginstitutet MI ) was established in 2000 and takes action if struggles or work stoppages occur. It is an bureau which deals with cardinal authorities activities in the mediation field. MI mediates in instances of labour differences with the end to advance an efficient procedure in pay formation ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . Besides, it is in charge of public statistics refering rewards and wages. During the last old ages, there have non been many work stoppages in Sweden which can be ascribed to the function and work of the National Mediation Office. If the societal spouses need aid they ask for it themselves, accordingly, forced intercessions in mediations are non required ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
Since the 1930s there are treatments traveling on whether the “ Swedish theoretical account ” exists or non. Originally the theoretical account was in topographic point with respect to developments in the Swedish labor market. The “ Swedish theoretical account ” is characterized by brotherhoods ‘ and workers ‘ turning away of labor arguments and state-intervention. In 1938, the Saltsjobaden Agreement created a labour- employers dickering system which worked for many old ages. The trade brotherhood motion and its direction opposite numbers were well-known for their sense of duty and subject ( Ronnmar, n.n. ) . The term “ Swedish theoretical account ” was associated with the system of centralized pay bargaining at the national degree. Subsequently the term was referred to Sweden ‘s domestic stableness in peculiar and societal public assistance system. In contrast to most other developed states, after Second World War, Sweden focused on two ends of economic and societal policy: economic security, integrating full employment, and equalitarianism, including income equality and the easiness of poorness ( Brewster, Mayrhofer, Morley, 2004 ) . Consequently the “ Swedish theoretical account ” of employment dealingss characterizes a successful balance of power among work and capital. Besides, the “ Swedish theoretical account ” shows peculiar elements of cooperation between the societal spouses and the province, sharing societal duty ( Ronnmar, n.n. ) .
After holding mentioned the features of the “ Swedish theoretical account ” , of import challenges and alterations within the “ Swedish theoretical account ” can be reported since its beginning in the seventiess. Since a few old ages, there has been slow economic growing every bit good as a strong economic recession which has weakened the public assistance system ( Ronnmar, n.n. ) . Besides in the last old ages, per-capita income has decreased which is today even lower than the norm for the EU. Within 60 old ages, unemployment has reached its highest degree. With 5.7 per cent it is, of class, rather low compared to other European states ( Brunk, 2009 ) . Thus the traditional public assistance system and accordingly the “ Swedish theoretical account ” is criticised and earnestly questioned more than of all time before ( Ronnmar ; n.n. ; Brewster, Mayrhofer, Morley, 2004 ) .
Corporate bargaining and corporate understandings have ever played a critical function in the ego ordinance of the Swedish labor market, and traditionally made up the most of import legal beginning in the country of labour jurisprudence. Therefore three-part dialogues are non common because the societal spouses do non desire the authorities or any other party to step in in corporate bargaining ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
There are assorted other subjects which are covered by corporate bargaining such as work-life balance, flexible working hours, telework, long-distance working with the intent to increase flexibleness of workers, uninterrupted vocational preparation ( CVT ) , gender equality, working clip etc. ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
In Sweden, corporate bargaining has been really centralised and the corporate bargaining coverage about completes ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . However, during the last 15 old ages, the corporate bargaining construction in Sweden has shown a displacement towards decentralization. The societal spouses thin towards delegating the power to negociate rewards and working clip to the local degree. In some instances corporate understandings make up one’s minding on pay formation and pay rate scenes are concluded by local parties ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . Still employer and trade brotherhoods alliances decide upon certain types of cross-country understandings as for case pensions and corporate insurance ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . Not least due to the fiscal crisis, the employment passage understanding has become more of import. It implies that a certain per centum of the entire wage goes into a fund which finances steps which supports redundant workers acquiring a new occupation or instruction. This understanding is called the Employment Security Council ( Trygghetsradet, TRR ) . In instance of redundancy or dismissal, TRR enables to offer both employers and trade brotherhood representatives ‘ support and advice. In the populace sector similar understandings are applied, stated in the Employment Security Fund ( Trygghetsfonden ) , ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
The room for bargaining for local parties was limited up until 1975. The cardinal dialogue theoretical account was abolished in the 1980s, which means that societal spouses started to negociate at sectoral degree. Then, in 1997, the dialogue theoretical account has changed once more due to an addition of the sum of coordination in dialogues. One cardinal component was that dialogues in the fabrication sector became normative every bit good as the dominant degree for other sectors of economic activity ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . Today, the coverage rate of corporate bargaining is 100 per cent nowadays within the public sector and 72 per cent within the private sector ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
In Sweden, two different degrees of corporate bargaining have to be distinguished which cover issues such as relation to pay, pay formation and other on the job conditions: national or sectoral degree and local ( company ) degree. Still both degrees have a auxiliary relation due to industry-wide understandings which contribute room for company understandings on distinction and individualisation of wage ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . By this, some parts of the centrally agreed wage addition are allocated at local degree appropriate to the penchants of local histrions ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . In Sweden, corporate bargaining is the alone system of pay formation, in the private sector every bit good as in the populace sector. In dialogue with the societal spouses on the employer side, trade brotherhoods at sectoral degree trade majorly with wage bargaining. In some instances, employees have some kind of pay flexibleness, as for case based on working public presentation ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
During the 1980s and 1990s the brotherhood rank rates, in peculiar in the populace sector, were comparatively stable and high. The Swedish trade brotherhood motion is centralized and composed of nation-wide industrial brotherhoods. Whereas trade brotherhood denseness indicates the possible bargaining strength every bit good as the bond between employees, dickering coverage is an index of the strength to which employees profit from union-negotiated footings and conditions of employment ( OECD, 2004 ) . Roughly 79 per cent of blue-collar workers and 78 per cent of white collar workers and professionals are brotherhood members. On the employer ‘s side the organisation rate is every bit high. One ground is the unemployment benefit system which is administered by brotherhoods. Still since the early 1990s the brotherhood rank rates have been diminishing. This tendency is described more elaborate in Part.
In Sweden, there are three chief trade brotherhood associations which are assorted harmonizing to business and stated in the followers: The Swedish Trade Union Confederation ( Landesorganisationen i Sverige, LO ) consists of 1.28 million members ( blue-collar workers, skilled every bit good as unskilled ; frequently integrating clerical employees and lower class public retainers ) . The Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees ( Tjanstemannens Centralorganisation, TCO ) consists of 950,000 members ( chiefly white-collar workers ) . The Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations ( Sveriges Akademikers Centralorganisation, SACO ) consists of professional brotherhoods organizing 460,000 civil retainers and professional employees who by and large possess an academic grade ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
In the following the development and tendencies of trade brotherhoods will be stated. LO and to some grade TCO rests upon the “ industrial rule ” which means that trade brotherhoods are instead constituted harmonizing to the economic sector in which employees perform than harmonizing to the employees ‘ businesss. Whilst LO and TCO report a autumn in rank Numberss, SACO records a little addition in rank Numberss ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
LO incorporates a sum of 16 brotherhoods with a rank of more than two million people, affecting retired members. This means that LO covers approximately 90 per cent of blue-collar employees, reflecting a really high denseness by international criterions ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . The bulk of the brotherhoods which belong to LO are organised on an industrial footing, with one brotherhood at each company or site ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . The largest brotherhoods within LO are the Swedish Municipal Workers ‘ Union- Kommunal, dwelling of 610,000 members ; and the Swedish Union of Metalworkers- IF Metall, dwelling 420,000 members ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . The ladder 1 has arisen from the amalgamation of two brotherhoods: the Swedish Metalworkers ‘ Union-Svenska Metallarbetareforbundet and the Swedish Industrial Labour Union-Industrifacket ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . LO acts for the brotherhoods in two Fieldss: economic and societal policy. Until recently, the LO besides bargained jointly by order of all members in the private sector. Still, the two major brotherhoods bargain straight in the populace sector, missing the direct engagement of the LO ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . TCO incorporates 18 brotherhoods with a rank of around 1.2 million. TCO is non involved in corporate bargaining, but in preparation and represents its brotherhoods together with the authorities on general economic and societal policies ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . A trade brotherhood within TCO is the Union of White-Collar Workers-Unionen which incorporates 491,000 members. It is the largest brotherhood for white-collar workers and has arisen from the amalgamation of two brotherhoods in 2008: The Union of White-collar Workers in Industry ( Svenska Industritjanstemannaforbundet, SIF ) ; and the Salaried Employees ‘ Union ( Tjanstemannaforbundet, HTF ) , ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
One trade brotherhood within SACO is the Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers-Sveriges Ingenjorer, which consists of 120,000 members. It has arisen from the amalgamation of two brotherhoods in 2007: The Association of Undergraduate Engineers-Ingenjorsforbundet ; and the Swedish Association of Graduate Engineers-Sveriges Civilingenjorsforbund ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
In Sweden there are three chief employer organisations. The Confederation of Swedish Enterprise ( Svenskt Naringsliv SN ) has arisen from the amalgamation of two organisations in 2001: The Swedish Employers ‘ Confederation ( SAF ) and the Confederation of Swedish Industry. It is the largest employer organisation ; it represents little, average and large- sized endeavors with a sum of 1.7 million employees in the private sector. It consists of about 50 employer organisations from different industries. In 2008 its denseness rate was at about 80 % , transcending the trade brotherhood denseness in the private sector. The 2nd employer organisation, the Swedish Association of Local Authorities represents the governmental, professional and employer-related involvements of Sweden ‘s 290 municipalities ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . The 3rd employer organisation is the Swedish Agency for Government Employers ( Arbetsgivarverket SAV ) which represents the national authorities governments. It is a province bureau which is responsible for the employer policy of bureaus in the populace sector at national degree and negotiates in the involvement of approximately 270 public governments ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
Besides the above mentioned three chief employer organisations, one should advert two smaller organisations which do non hold the authorization to negociate corporate understandings: The Swedish Association of Entrepreneurs-Foretagarforbundet which consists of 35,000 members and chiefly incorporates little companies. The Federation of Private Enterprises-Foretagarna consists of 55,000 members ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
In Sweden, a chief understanding, Saltsjobadsavtalet, between the parties at national degree sets the model of their functions and ordinances between them. It is the base for the cooperation between the societal spouses in the Swedish labor market theoretical account. At sectoral degree, general understandings with warrant or lower limit degrees are negotiated for salary and on the job clip. Those understandings are the foundation for dialogues at local degree ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
As already mentioned in Part, in Sweden there are several tendencies which can be observed. Some of them are issues such as work-life balance, flexible working hours, telework, long-distance working, uninterrupted vocational preparation ( CVT ) with the aim to set the worker ‘s competences to the demands of the labor market, gender equality, working clip and so on. In the following a few tendencies will be discussed more elaborate.
In Sweden a tendency towards decentralization can be reported. Its corporate bargaining system has shifted to be more decentralised during the last 15 old ages. As already said before, dickering takes topographic point at company, sectoral and cardinal degree. However there is a displacement from cardinal bargaining to sectoral bargaining ( Traxler, n.n. ) . The societal spouses show the inclination to reassign the power of pay and working clip dialogues to the sectoral degree. It is frequently the undertaking of the local parties to put the inside informations of their dialogues on pay formation and pay rate scenes. This is ascribed to some corporate understandings which are concluded without definite figures on wage of merely stipulating warrant degrees ( Eurofound, 2010 ) . The employer and trade brotherhood alliances still decide peculiar types of cross-country understandings as for illustration pensions and corporate insurance. Not merely due to the fiscal crisis, has the employment passage understanding become of high importance. By this understanding a certain sum of the pay amount is paid into a fund, called the Employment Security Council ( Trygghetsradet, TRR ) , which is already mentioned beforehand ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
Decrease of Trade Union Membership
The bulk of Swedish workers regard it as reasonable to belong to a brotherhood in order to be protected against possible unemployment ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . Still, as can be seen in and, the rank rates have been diminishing since the mid 1990s. Between 2004 and 2008, trade brotherhood denseness has declined by eight per cent which is loosely based and every bit distributed among white-collar and blue-collar workers, work forces and adult females. The building sector, in peculiar, has to observe the largest diminution of trade brotherhood members, from about 82 per cent in 2006 to 74 per cent in 2007 ( Brunk, 2010 ) . One peculiar job is that immature employees normally depreciate to go members of trade brotherhoods ; hence there is a really low trade brotherhood denseness among this group. ( Bamber, Lansbury, Wailes, 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Kjellberg ( 2008 ) a chief ground for the general lessening in trade brotherhood denseness can be found in alteration of jurisprudence which incorporates increasing fees to the unemployment financess in January 2007 ; every bit good as increasing rank fees. It is stated that people might associate rank fees to the benefits one will do usage of when being a member ( Eurofound, 2010 ) .
As already said before, between 1996 and 2006, particularly among immature people ( 16-24 old ages ) , the trade brotherhood denseness has declined from approximately 70 per cent to 50 per cent. There are several grounds which have to be taken into consideration. In Sweden, more people are employed in the industry sector ( former trade brotherhood denseness: 90 per cent ) compared to the service sector ( former trade brotherhood denseness: 70 per cent ) . There are a turning proportion of people working in the service sector. While significant diminutions do non hold such a strong impact on other groups, they seem to hold a strong consequence on younger people. The chief ground for the diminution among the above mentioned group is the displacement in the type of employment ; from lasting places through to different types of impermanent businesss. That means that the rate of people busying impermanent occupations is increasing. Besides there might be a alteration in attitudes among younger people which means that they merely might non be interested in such a rank ( Kjellberg, 2008 ) .
Figure: Trade brotherhoods rank and denseness rates, 1990-2007
( Beginning: Derived from Kjellberg, 2008 ; National Institute for Working Life, 2000 ; Statistics Sweden )
Figure: Union Membership and Density in Sweden
Beginning: Pedersini ( 2010 )
In order to move contrary to this tendency several actions could be undertaken. As a response to the diminution assorted trade brotherhoods have implemented schemes such as direct runs and contacts with workers at workplaces, widespread public communicating, information- and web runs in order to pull particularly immature people to go a brotherhood member ( Brunk, 2010 ) . These include new stairss as for illustration the launch of web sites every bit good as the execution of services addressed to immature people. An illustration might be the debut of well reduced subscription fees for pupils. Besides traditional methods such as reaching worker at workplaces are followed and realized ( Brunk, 2010 ) . In order to antagonize to the diminution in brotherhood rank, the following trade brotherhoods have introduced enterprises:
In the followers, the diminution of brotherhood rank every bit good as the reaction of brotherhoods towards that tendency will be discussed more elaborate. In 2007, the Swedish Trade Union Confederation LO had to enter a diminution in rank of approximately seven per cent ( 130,000 members ) . As already stated before, besides LO has recognized that there is a job in enrolling younger people every bit good as people with impermanent businesss. Therefore LO undertakes several actions in order to antagonize against the tendency. The aim of its enterprises is to acquire all its incorporating trade brotherhoods to concentrate on enrolling new members by indicating out the importance of a high trade brotherhood denseness within society and to advance employees ‘ rights ( Brunk, 2010 ) . The brotherhood which incorporates all trade brotherhoods that are members of LO is the cardinal trade brotherhood with the largest bead in rank. Its run on “ higher brotherhood rank ” ( Hogre organisationsgrad ) has originally been a general run, nevertheless, LO focused on immature people, the capital metropolis Stockholm every bit good as service and commercial companies. Activities of the run were to construct a direct contact with immature people at schools, internet-based information, phone services every bit good as aid with longer working hours ( Pedersini, 2010 ) .
The Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees TCO besides has to enter a lessening in ranks because younger people decide non to be a member of TCO and its member brotherhoods. As opposed to LO, the aim of TCO is to reform TCO and its members. That means that the end is instead to make a new image of TCO and its members every bit good as to indicate out the importance of corporate representation. TCO and its attached administrations have implemented an enterprise “ Transform the trade brotherhood now ” which has besides attracted great media attending. This run focuses on younger professionals between 20 and 35 old ages every bit good as impermanent workers. TCO has besides launched a nation-wide advertisement run every bit good as a particular website www.facketforandras.nu. The intent of the web site is used as a forum where one can discourse the function of trade brotherhoods and the outlooks towards them. In add-on, impermanent workers were addressed within specific actions ( Pedersini, 2010 ) .
Since the reform of the unemployment benefit fund, Handels has lost a batch of members, a bulk of them besides being younger people. The brotherhood wants to set up new activities in order to pull new members ( Brunk, 2010 ) . Another inaugural “ Commercial Employees ‘ Union ‘s thrust in big metropoliss ” was introduced by Handels which besides focused on younger workers in three metropoliss Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmo ( Brunk, 2010 ) . This inaugural includes the launch of a website www.handelscity.se to give information and advice every bit good as a forum to discourse issues which are of import at work. Besides, the run incorporated wireless advertizements and granted two- month free rank for new members ( Pedersini, 2010 ) .
In order to respond to the diminishing Numberss on could besides seek to pull workers with contractual agreements as for illustration parttime workers, impermanent bureau workers, freelance people and free-lances. As stated by several trade brotherhoods, it is disputing to enroll those sorts of people ; still they try to pull them to go a member ( Brunk, 2010 ) .
Alteration of Work-Time Agendas
The European Framework Agreement on parttime work defines “ parttime worker ” as “ an employee whose normal hours of work, calculated on a hebdomadal footing or on norm over a period of employment of up to one twelvemonth, are less than the normal hours of work of a comparable full-time worker ” ( Corall, Isusi, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to the ILO, Convention No.175 a “ parttime worker ” is “ any employed individual whose normal hours of work are less than those of comparable full-time workers ” ( Corall, Isusi, 2007 ) . In Sweden, a lifting alteration of work-time agendas can be reported. The most evident index is the addition in the rate of parttime work compared to full-time work due to several grounds such as stronger international competition, advanced production methods and signifiers of organisations, increasing unemployment, increasing female engagement rates and so on ( Corall, Isusi, 2007 ) . Part-time work might integrate assorted manners of employment as for illustration job-sharing, uniting work with preparation ( such as apprenticeships ) , and semi-retirement ( Vielle and Walthery, 2003 ) . With a proportion of 22 per cent, Sweden is ranked in the center ( in comparing to other European states ) . As can be seen in much more adult females are employed part- clip ( MPT=up to 19 hours per hebdomad ; SPT= 20 to 34 hours per hebdomad ) . Still in Sweden the lowest differences between male and female parttime workers can be found ( Corral, Isusi, n.n. ) . The bulk of female parttime workers are in significant parttime occupations ; some of them have similar working times to full-time workers. In Sweden in peculiar labor jurisprudence enforces equal intervention between full-time and parttime workers in order to forestall to utilize parttime workers as inexpensive work beginning. Thereby it is avoided that parttime employee ‘ working hours or salary do non fall below a certain line which expels them from coverage under certain Torahs ( Kalleberg, 2000 ) .
Figure: Proportion of FT, SPT, and MPT ( in % )
( Beginning: Derived from Corral, Isusi, n.n. ; European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions )
In the following the development of telework will be looked at ( Andersson, 2007 ) . Teleworkers can be understood as “ the employees who need to work outside the company premises for half a twenty-four hours a hebdomad while holding entree to the company ‘s IT ( information engineering ) system ” ( Andersson, 2007 ) . Even before the European Framework Agreement on telework was signed in 2001, in Sweden such an understanding was already existing in the populace sector both at municipal every bit good as regional degree ( Welz, Wolf, 2010 ) . Due to fast development of telecommunication tools every bit good as the fact that more and more employees tend to hold computing machine entree at place, telework has been increasing as a sort of employment since the 1960s. Particularly in economic sectors as for illustration communications, fiscal intermediation and services teleworkers are present. By 2005, around 230,000 teleworkers were present in Sweden ( Andersson, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to findings of the EWCS ( 2005 ) in Sweden 9.4 per cent of all employees are “ involved in telework at least “ a one-fourth of the clip ” or more. 0.4 per cent is involved in telework “ about all of the clip ” ( Welz, Wolf, 2010 ) . In Sweden there is an above-average rate of telework. Refering telework there is an overall tendency which indicates that employment relationships affecting “ parttime ” telework are on mean four times more common than “ full-time ” telework. This indicates that telework is used in order to do employment relationships more flexible, while at the same clip avoiding possible troubles that arise when employees are invariably separated from the working environment at the employer ‘s premises ( Welz, Wolf, 2010 ) .
To reason one can state that the so called “ Swedish theoretical account ” is characterised by alterations. The corporate bargaining system shows a displacement towards decentalisation ; off from cardinal bargaining through to sectoral bargaining. Besides, the trade brotherhoods have to cover with a diminution in ranks. Therefore, one attempts to recover members by several activities. Besides certain tendencies can be stated such as decentalisation of corporate bargaining, a diminution in trade brotherhood rank, every bit good as an addition in parttime work which might go on to turn in the hereafter.
List of literature
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