Costs Quality Management Budgeting And Variance Management Accounting Essay

Cost may be classified utilizing a figure of different standards. Classification us the logical grouping of similar points and the intent of sorting costs is so that meaningful cost accounting studies may by prepared based upon such costs.

The categorization standard chosen will depend on both the intent of the categorization and the type of administration. Some categorizations greatly assist the aggregation of costs. Different categorizations are dealt with below.

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Elementss of cost- The initial categorization of costs is harmonizing to the elements upon which outgo is incurred:

Figure-1 Elementss of cost

Within the cost elements, costs can be farther classified harmonizing to the nature of outgo. This is the usual analysis in a fiscal accounting system, e.g. natural stuffs, consumable shops, rewards, wages, rent, rates and depreciation.

Direct and indirect costs

Direct costs: Direct costs are costs which are incurred for, and can be handily identified with, a peculiar cost unit. The sum of direct stuffs, direct rewards and direct disbursals is known as premier cost.

Indirect costs: Indirect costs are costs which can non be associated with a peculiar unit of end product. The sum of indirect stuffs, indirect rewards and indirect disbursals represents operating expenses.

To determine the entire cost of a cost unit, indirect costs are allotted to be Centres and cost Centre costs are shared over ( absorbed by ) cost units. The topic of allocation and soaking up of operating expense costs is revised subsequently.

Entire cost = Prime cost + Overhead

( Sources- Drury, 2004 )

Functional analysis of cost

Overhead categorization: Overhead are normally categorized into the rule activity groups:

Prime cost categorization: Prime costs are normally regarded as being entirely related to production, and so are non classified.

Normal and unnatural costs: An of import characteristic of direction coverage is that it should underscore the countries of the concern which require direction attending and possible action.

Controllable and non-controllable costs: The demand to underscore unnatural costs to direction has been explained above. The intent of this is to promote direction action. The differentiation between governable and non-controllable costs is dependent on the individual to whom any study is directed. The categorization emphasises the costs which can be affected by the actions of a peculiar director.

Relevant and irrelevant costs: In the context of determination doing direction demands information to help in doing the right pick between options. For these intents and to guarantee that valuable direction clip is non wasted, merely those costs affected by the direction ‘s determination are of import. These are classified as relevant costs, and include chance costs.

( Sources- Drury, 2004 )

The behavior of costs

Costss represent the resources that have to be sacrificed to accomplish a concern aim. The aim may be, for illustration, to a peculiar merchandise, to supply a peculiar service, or to run a peculiar infirmary for a month. The costs incurred by a concern may be classified in assorted ways and one of import manner is harmonizing to how they behave in relation to alterations occur to the volume of activity, and costs that vary harmonizing to the volume of activity.

Variable cost: Variable cost is cost those alterations with alterations in the volume of activity. Combined with fixed costs, variable costs make up the entire cost of production.

& A ; lb ;

Variable cost

0 Volumes

Fixed cost: Fixed cost remains changeless and does non alter with a alteration of activity. A fixed cost is one which does non change in entire when the degree of end product by the concern does vary.

As fixed costs are non dependent upon the degree of end product ( gross revenues ) , they are frequently expressed as being per period of clip, for illustration yearly, hebdomadal or monthly.

It can be helpful to visualize costs in the signifier of a chart.

& A ; lb ;

Fixed Cost

0 Volumes

Semi-Variable cost: Semi-variable cost is a type of cost that starts Begin as a fixed cost and as the volume of activity increases the cost will get down increasing. In some instances, costs have an component both a fixed and variable cost.

Entire cost

& A ; lb ;

Fixed cost

0 Volumes

Stepped cost: Stepped cost is a type of fixed cost that will be fixed for a relevant scope ( RR ) but as this scope is exceeded the cost will be increased till the following relevant scope. Stepped cost is a cost that increases by a reasonably changeless amount each clip volume or activity additions by a predictable, changeless and multiple.

& A ; lb ;




0 Volumes

( Sources-Mott, 2008 )

Different bing methods

Task 1.3- usage of appropriate bing technique-

Estimate the production cost:

Cans made





& A ; lb ;

& A ; lb ;

& A ; lb ;

Variable costs:

Direct stuffs




Direct labour




Operating expenses




Fixed costs:

Indirect labour




Operating expenses




Entire cost




Cost per can




Task 1.4- costing analyzing and showing data-

Budgeted part per unit of A and B, and the company ‘s budgeted net income and loss for two different old ages shown-

A ( & A ; lb ; )

B ( & A ; lb ; )

Total ( & A ; lb ; )

Selling monetary value per unit



Less: variable costs per unit

Direct stuffs



Direct labour



Variable operating expenses



Contribution per unit



Gross saless volume ( units )



Entire part




Less: fixed costs


Budgeted net income or loss


Pricing determination: Costing systems can act upon pricing determinations. Where the purpose of an administration is to do a net income, it is sensible to presume that merchandises or services should be sold at a monetary value in surplus of their cost. Consequently, pricing determinations could be based on a cost-plus attack, by adding a net income mark-up to cost. However, pricing should be based on what the market will bear, and cost-plus pricing, for both selling externally and for internal transportations between net income Centres of the concern, has service restrictions and should be regarded as inferior in most fortunes to a market-based attack to pricing.

( Sources- Gazely and Lambert, 2006 )

Outcome -2

Entire Quality direction: Entire quality direction is technique designed to affect all parts of the concern in the chase of, and committedness to, the highest quality consequence. TQM helps to travel based on information and it is a uninterrupted procedure. Entire quality direction carries six constructs. They are

Doctrine of entire quality direction:

Dr. Deming is recognized with supply the foundation of the Nipponese quality miracle. He developed the following 14 points for pull offing the betterment of quality, productiveness, and competitory place and they are:

Make a vision and show commitment- The direction of every administration should chief ends, aims and values. This should be done by the engagement of all employees. A stability of intent must besides be maintained.

Learn the New Philosophy – It helps to work more towards quality instead than measure but does non accept mistakes and out of order craft.

Understand Inspection- Employees of a company depend excessively much on review but review is ne’er to the full right and is dearly-won. Inspection can merely be used as enlightening excessively.

4. End the pattern of presenting concern on monetary value entirely ; alternatively, minimise entire cost by working with a individual provider.

5. Better invariably and everlastingly every procedure for planning, production, and service.

6. Institute preparation on the occupation.

7. Adopt and institute leading.

8. Drive out fright.

9. Interrupt down barriers between staff countries.

10. Extinguish mottos, exhortations, and marks for the work force.

11. Extinguish numerical quotas for the work force and numerical ends for direction.

12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride in their work, and extinguish the one-year evaluation or virtue system.

13. Institute a vigorous plan of instruction and self-reformation for everyone.

14. Put everybody in the company to work to carry through the transmutation.

Deming ‘s basic quality doctrine is that productiveness improves as variableness lessenings, and that statistical methods are needed to command quality.

He advocated the usage of statistics to mensurate public presentation in all countries, non merely conformity to merchandise specifications.

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Aim of entire quality direction: The purposes of entire quality direction have been defined ; every organisation will put itself a series of aims that they intend to accomplish through TQM. These concern aims are efficaciously the benefits to be gained and l, although they will change from administration to administration, frequently realized benefits include:

The betterment of profitableness by increased operational efficiency

Cultural and behavioral alteration

The bar of waste

The betterment of client satisfaction

Keeping or increasing market portion

The accomplishment of merchandise and concern excellence

Let go ofing administration ‘s people possible

The improving of merchandise or service quality, merchandise safety and dependability

The minimisation of loss to the person, the company and the community

Associated betterments in operational safety, occupational wellness and the environment

Encouragement of each person ‘s personal betterment, invention and creativeness

( Sources-Hakes, 1919 )

Cost of quality: Entire quality direction has evolved ; a more extremist attack to the cost of quality has developed. This theoretical account is used to find the profile of quality costs within an administration against three chief classs ; bar, assessment, internal failure costs and external failure costs.

Classs of Cost of Quality

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Cost of Quality Classification:

1. Prevention: There are the costs of activities that prevent failure from happening.

2. Appraisal: These are the costs incurred to find conformity with quality criterions.

3. Failure: This can be subdivided into failure up to bringing or after bringing to the client.

Internal failure: These are the costs of rectifying merchandises or services which do non run into quality criterions prior to bringing to clients.

External failure: These are the costs of rectifying merchandises and services after bringing to the client.

( Sources-Hakes, 1919 )

Task-2.2.Calculate and evaluate indexs of productiveness, efficiency and effectivity

Gross Profit Margin-

Actual = ( Gross Profit & A ; divide ; Turnover ) 100

= ( 460,400 & A ; divide ; 2,750,000 ) 100

= ( 0.16 – 100 )

= 16.74 %

Budgeted = ( 600,000 & A ; divide ; 3,000,000 ) 100

= ( 0.2 – 100 )

= 20 %

Operating Net income Margin-

Actual = ( Operating Profit & A ; divide ; Gross saless ) – 100

= ( 115,400 & A ; divide ; 2,750,000 ) – 100

= 0.04 – 100

= 4.20 %

Budgeted = ( 240,000 & A ; divide ; 3,000,000 ) – 100

= 0.08 – 100

= 8 %

Tax return On Capital Employed-

Actual = ( Net Net income After Tax & A ; divide ; Net Asset ) -100

= ( 115,400 & A ; divide ; 1,075,400 ) -100

= 0.10 – 100

= 10.73 %

Budgeted = ( 240,000 & A ; divide ; 1,200,000 ) – 100

= 0.2 – 100

= 20 %

Stock Turnover in Months-

Actual = ( 12 – Average Stock ) & A ; divide ; Cost of Sale

= ( 12 – 220,000 ) & A ; divide ; 2,289,600

= 2,640,000 & A ; divide ; 2,289,600

= 1.15 months

Budgeted = ( 12 – 200,000 ) & A ; divide ; 2,400,000

= 2,400,000 & A ; divide ; 2,400,000

= 1 month

Labour Capacity Ratio-

= ( Actual hours & A ; divide ; Budgeted Hours ) -100

= ( 58,200 & A ; divide ; 60,000 ) – 100

= 0.97 – 100

= 97 %

Labour Efficiency Ratio-

= ( Budgeted Hours & A ; divide ; Actual Hours ) -100

= ( 60,000 & A ; divide ; 58,200 ) -100

= 1.03 – 100

= 103.09 %

Efficiency indexs: It will be in footings of entire cost per productiveness aims steady by annual operating budget. The direct cost that is rewarded from proper financess will non be incorporated in entire cost of productiveness estimations.

Effectiveness indexs: This will copy characteristics of the shutting merchandise produced by the motion and acknowledged by the client. Effectiveness indexs should be steady with, but non basically industrial to motion steps for public presentation budgeting and this consist of-




Impact on clients results

Customer dealingss

Profitableness indexs: It merely means the company ‘s net incomes public presentation. To help investors assess the concern ability to bring forth earning compared with its disbursals and other relevant costs incurred during a specific period.

Outcome -3

The intent and nature of the budgeting procedure:

Budget: A budget is a program quantified in pecuniary footings, prepared and approved prior to a defined period of clip, demoing planned incomes to be generated and outgo to be incurred and the capital to be employed in order to achieve a given aim.

Purposes of Budget: A budget serves four chief purposes-communicating, coordinating, planning and control.

Communication: the budgeting procedure establishes a formal system which ensures that each individual affected by the programs is cognizant of their duties and what is expected of them.

Coordinating: The Budget aid to guarantee that the activities of different sections are coordinated to guarantee that there is a maximal integrating of attempt towards common end.

Planning: This happens when every section is signified by the senior members throughout the budget readying. E.g. gross revenues dept represented by the gross revenues manager.

Controling: It involves the rating of the budget and existent effect to comprehend any fluctuations.

The mold: To build budgeted fiscal statement, it needs good theoretical accounts of the net income, hard currency flow, and fiscal status of a concern. Models are designs, or schematics of how things work. A concern budget is, at its nucleus, a fiscal design of the concern.

Motivation: Budgets besides allow a company to actuate its employees by affecting them in the budget. While top-down budgeting does non finish this end really efficaciously, participative budgeting can be actuating. When an employee is involved in making his or her section ‘s budget, that individual will be more likely to endeavor to accomplish that budget. It increases productiveness of employees.

Measuring public presentation: One of the maps of accounting information is that it provides a footing for the measuring of managerial public presentation. By puting marks for each director to accomplish, the budget provides a bench-mark against which his existent public presentation can be assessed objectively.

( Sources-Tracy and Barrow, 2008 )

Nature of Budgets:

Master budget

functional budget

hard currency budget

net income and loss budget

balance sheet budget

behavioural budget

Budget commission

Budget commission means a group of people who are involved to make and keep a budget of a company, this commission normally consists of the top direction and the CFO. Budget committees of course review and agree departmental budgets that are submitted by the different section caputs.

A typical budget commission comprises the main executive, the direction accounting and functional caputs. The maps of the commission are to:

– Agree policy with respect to budgets

– Coordinate budgets

– Suggest amendments to budgets

– Approve budgets after amendment, as necessary

-Examine comparings of budgeted and existent consequences and urge disciplinary action if this has non already been taken.

Role of budget commission

Ensure that the company budget supports the company ‘s mission and ends and links the company budget with company planning.

Provide inadvertence in the development and creative activity of the unrestricted budgets.

Recommend support precedences in the creative activity and execution of the unrestricted budgets.

Review and urge for blessing or disapproval budget petitions beyond the Final Unrestricted Budget based on the impact of such support petitions upon the unrestricted budgets in both short and long footings.

Actively proctor gross and outgos of the Unrestricted, Restricted, and Enterprise financess of the company by reexamining runing fiscal statements for these assorted plans.

The Budget Committee recognizes that the Company needs to take advantage of any grant support chances and as such will non interfere with any grant application procedure.

Provide preparation in budget related affairs to the rank of the commission and other sections of the college as needed.

( Sources- ACCA 2.4, 2005 )

Types of budgets

Incremental Budget: Incremental budgeting takes historic, existent information from the old period and makes a markup ( or down ) depending on how direction expect the company should execute in the following period.

Zero Based Budget: ZBB is a method of budgeting whereby all activities are re-evaluated each clip a budget is prepared. Discrete degrees of activity are valued and a combination chosen to fit financess available.

ZBB makes no initial assumptions-each twelvemonth ‘s budgets are compiled by measuring each possible activity from abrasion ( zero base ) .

ZBB carries some benefits to fix a budget. They are following

It helps to make an organisational environment where alteration is accepted.

It helps direction to concentrate on company aims and ends.

It concentrates the attending of direction on the hereafter instead than on the yesteryear.

It helps to place inefficient and disused operations within the organisation.

It can help motive of direction at all degrees.

It establishes minimal demands from sections.

Activity Based Budget: Activity base budgeting extends the usage of activity-based costing ( ABB ) from single merchandise costing, for pricing and end product determinations, to the overall planning and control system of the concern. It is a method of budgeting based on an activity model and utilizing cost driver informations in the budget-setting and discrepancy feedback processes.

The basic attack of ABB is as follows:

The work of each section for which a budget is to be prepared is analysed by its major activities, for which cost drivers may be identified.

The budgeted cost of resources used by each activity is determined and, where appropriate, cost per unit of activity is calculated.

Future costs can so be budgeted by make up one’s minding on future activity degrees and working back to the required resource input.

ABB carries some benefits to fix a budget. They are following

It takes into history the impact of activity degrees on resource costs, of aid in cost decrease coders and in puting realistic cost mark.

Activity unit costs allow easier analysis of cost tendencies over clip and intra-departmental comparings.

Resource allotment determinations are assisted by the activity related cost information originating from an ABB system.

Rolling based Budgeting: A rolled budget is `a budget continuously updated by adding a farther period, say a month or one-fourth, and subtracting the earliest period. Beneficial where hereafter costs and/or activities can non be forecast faithfully ‘ .

A typical peal budget might be prepared as follow:

A budget is prepared for the coming twelvemonth ( state January-December ) interrupt down into suited, say quarterly, control period.

At the terminal of the first control period ( 31 March ) a comparing is made of that period ‘s consequences against the budget. The decisions drawn from this analysis are used to update the budgets for the staying control periods and to add a budget for a farther three months, so that the company one time once more has budgets available for the coming twelvemonth ( this April-March ) .

The planning procedure is repeated at the terminal of each three-month control period.

( Sources-Tracy and Barrow, 2008 )


Before fixing budgets has to retrieve some functions. They are follows

Forecast gross revenues

Forecast time-lag on change overing debitors to hard currency, and therefore calculate hard currency grosss from recognition gross revenues.

Determine stock degrees, and therefore purchase demands.

Forecast time-lag on paying providers, and therefore hard currency payments for purchases.

Incorporate other hard currency payments and grosss, including such points as capital outgo and revenue enhancement payments.

Collate all this hard currency flow information, so as determine the net hard currency flows.

Fix a hard currency budget below

The readying of hard currency budgets or budgeted hard currency flow statements has two chief aims. They are following

To supply periodic budgeted hard currency balances for the budgeted balance sheet.

To expect hard currency shortage/surpluses and therefore supply information to help direction in short and medium-term hard currency planning and longer-term funding for the organisation.

Cash budget for new market Ltd for June, July and August-





( + ) hard currency influxs:

Cash ( 30 % )

Cash receivable

Raised financess











( – ) hard currency escapes:


Operating expenses

Ad cost

Tax measure



















Balance b/d

Balance c/d










Discrepancy analysis is a agency of measuring the difference between budgeted and existent sum. These can be pecuniary sums or physical measures. Discrepancies will be disclosed where the existent cost of some, or all, elements differ from the criterion cost for the quality really produced. These discrepancies could be expressed as a ( + ) or a ( – ) stand foring an inauspicious or favourable consequence, or the symbol letters ( A ) or ( F ) used alternatively. The disadvantage of utilizing ( + ) and ( – ) marks is that one has to acquire the expression the right manner unit of ammunition. The advantage of utilizing ( F ) and ( A ) marks is that one can utilize common sense regardless of which manner round the expression is put. Basically there are two chief types of discrepancy:

Monetary value discrepancies: Price discrepancies associating to buy of resources.

Volume discrepancies: Volume discrepancies associating to the volume of resources consumed or activity degree.

Categorizations of Discrepancies


Material cost discrepancy Labour cost discrepancy Variable overhead discrepancy Fixed overhead discrepancy gross revenues discrepancy

M monetary value M usage L rate L efficiency V operating expense expen V overhead efficiency Gross saless monetary value Gross saless volume

discrepancy discrepancy discrepancy discrepancy discrepancy discrepancy discrepancy discrepancy

Fixed overhead outgo Fixed operating expense volume

discrepancy discrepancy

( Note: M means stuff, L means labour and V means variable )

( Sources-Mott, 2008 )

Material cost discrepancies

( I ) Material monetary value discrepancy: Material monetary value discrepancy represents the difference in purchase cost caused by a discrepancy in the unit monetary value of the stuff. It is calculated from the difference between the existent and standard monetary value per unit of stuff multiplied by the existent purchased.

Material monetary value discrepancy: existent quality of natural stuff ( STD monetary value -Actual monetary value )

Favorable discrepancy

Material J

Standard monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 4

Standard use per unit 5 metres

Actual monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 3

Actual use per unit 5 metres

Use is the same as criterion ; therefore the lone discrepancy is that of monetary value calculated:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 3-5 15

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 4-5 20

Variance ( favourable ) 5



Price ( & A ; lb ; )

0 5

Quantity ( m )

Adverse discrepancy

Material K

Standard monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 9

Standard use per unit 8 metres

Actual monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 11

Actual use per unit 8 metres



Price ( & A ; lb ; )

0 8

Quantity ( m )

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 3-5 88

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 4-5 72

Variance ( favourable ) 16

( two ) Material usage discrepancy: Material use discrepancy represents the difference in the cost of stuff used caused by more or less efficient usage of that stuff. It is calculated from the difference between the existent and standard measure used evaluated at the standard monetary value.

Material usage discrepancy: STD monetary value ( STD measure – Actual measure )

Favorable discrepancy

Material L

Standard monetary value per ton & A ; lb ; 5

Standard use per unit 100 tones

Actual monetary value per ton & A ; lb ; 5

Actual use per unit 95 tones

Cost is the same as criterion ; therefore the lone discrepancy is that of use calculated:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 11-8 units 475

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 9-8 units 500

Variance ( favourable ) 25


Price ( & A ; lb ; )

0 95 100

Quantity ( tones )

Adverse discrepancy

Material M

Standard monetary value per centimetre & A ; lb ; 8

Standard use per unit 11 centimeter

Actual monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 8

Actual use per unit 13cm


Price ( & A ; lb ; )

0 11 13

Quantity ( centimeter )

Discrepancy computed: & A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 8-13 104

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 8-11 88

Variance ( favourable ) 16

Combinations of stuffs monetary value and usage discrepancy

Favorable and inauspicious discrepancies combined:

Material N

Standard monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 6

Standard use per unit 25 metres

Actual monetary value per metre & A ; lb ; 7

Actual use per metre 24 metres

The net discrepancy is calculated as:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 7-24 168

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 4-5 150

Variance ( inauspicious ) 18



Price ( & A ; lb ; )

0 24 25

Quantity ( m )

Both inauspicious discrepancies combined:

Material O

Standard monetary value per kilogram & A ; lb ; 9

Standard use per unit 13kg

Actual monetary value per kilogram & A ; lb ; 11

Actual use per unit 15 kilogram

The net discrepancy is computed:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 11-15 165

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 9-13 117

Variance ( Adverse ) 48




Price ( & A ; lb ; ) B

0 13 15

Quantity ( kilogram )

Both favorable discrepancies combined:

Material P

Standard monetary value per ton & A ; lb ; 20

Standard use per unit 15 tones

Actual monetary value per ton & A ; lb ; 19

Actual use per unit 13 tones

The net discrepancy is computed:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 19-13 247

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 20-15 300

Variance ( favorable ) 53

20 A Degree centigrade


Price ( & A ; lb ; ) B

0 13 15

Quantity ( tones )

Labour cost discrepancies

( I ) Labour rate discrepancy: Labour rate discrepancy represents the difference in labour cost caused by any fluctuation from normal rates of wage. It is calculated from the difference between the existent and standard rate per hr multiplied by the existent figure of hours paid.

Labour rate discrepancy: existent labour hr ( STD labour hr – existent labour rate )

Merchandise A

Standard hours to bring forth 100

Actual hours to bring forth 100

Standard pay rate per hr & A ; lb ; 0.9

Actual pay rate per hr & A ; lb ; 1.0

& A ; lb ; 1

& A ; lb ; 0.9

Rate per hr

0 100


As the existent and standard hours are the same, so the lone discrepancy will be a pay rate discrepancy, computed as follows:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 1.0-100 100

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 0.9-100 90

Variance ( Adverse ) 10

( two ) Labour efficiency discrepancy: Labour efficiency discrepancy represents the difference in labour cost caused by the grade of dfficiency in the usage of labors compared with the specified criterion. It is calculated from the difference between the existent hours taken and the standard hours allowed, evaluated at the standard rate per hr.

STD labour rate ( STD labour hr – existent labour hr )

Merchandise B

Standard hours to bring forth 400

Actual hours to bring forth 370

Standard pay rate per hr & A ; lb ; 1.0

Actual pay rate per hr & A ; lb ; 1.0

& A ; lb ; 1.0

Rate per hr

0 370 400


As the existent and standard pay rates are the same, and so the lone discrepancy will be a labour efficiency discrepancy, computed as follows:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 1.0-370 370

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 1.0-400 400

Variance ( Favourable ) 30

Combined pay rate and efficiency discrepancy

Product degree Celsius

Standard hours to bring forth 500

Actual hours to bring forth 460

Standard pay rate per hr & A ; lb ; 0.9

Actual pay rate per hr & A ; lb ; 1.1

& A ; lb ; 1.1

& A ; lb ; 0.9

Rate per hr

0 450 506


The net discrepancy can be computed as:

& A ; lb ;

Actual cost per unit & A ; lb ; 1.1-460 506

Standard cost per unit & A ; lb ; 0.9-500 450

Variance ( Adverse ) 56

Note: Labour rate discrepancy is the same as the stuff use discrepancy.

Variable operating expense discrepancies

( I ) Variable overhead outgo discrepancy: Variable overhead outgo discrepancy represents the difference between that existent cost and the entire sum recovered at the standard rate per unit of end product. It is calculated from the difference between existent variable operating expenses and the measure of end product multiplied by the standard recovery rate per unit.

Formula: ( existent rate – criterion rate ) – existent hours worked

( two ) Variable overhead efficiency discrepancy: The difference between the variable overhead cost budget flexed on existent labor hours, and the variable oberhead cost absorbed by end product produced.

Formula: ( existent hr worked – criterion hours ) – criterion rate

Fixed overhead discrepancy

( I ) Fixed overhead outgo discrepancy: It represents the difference between the existent fingerstall and the estimated or budgeted cost of those operating expenses.

Formula: Budgeted fixed production overhead- existent fixed production operating expense

= ( 20-1000 -23000 )

=20000 -23000


( two ) Fixed overhead volume discrepancy: It refers the over or under-absorption of overhead cost caused by existent production volume differing from that budgeted.

Formula: ( existent output- budgeted production ) – criterion cost per unit

= ( 1000-900 ) – 20

= 100-20

= 2000 ( A )

( three ) Fixed overhead capacity volume-

= BOAR ( Actual labour hr – Budgeted labour hr )

= 4 ( 4200 -5000 )



( four ) Fixed overhead efficiency discrepancy –

=BOAR ( STD hr – Actual hr )

=4 ( 4500 – 4200 )

= 4-300

= 1200F

Gross saless discrepancies

( I ) Gross saless monetary value discrepancy: Gross saless monetary value discrepancy refers the net income lost or gained by selling at a non-standard monetary value. It is calculated from the difference between standard and existent merchandising monetary value multiplied by the existent measure sold.

Formula: ( standard monetary value -Actual monetary value ) – existent measure sold

= ( & A ; lb ; 59- & A ; lb ; 57 ) 82400 units

= & A ; lb ; 164800 ( A )

( two ) Gross saless volume discrepancy: It shows the net income borders on the difference between existent gross revenues and budgeted gross revenues. It is calculated from the standard net income border multiplied by the difference between budgeted gross revenues volume and existent gross revenues volume.

Formula: ( Budgeted measure – existent measure sold ) criterion border

= ( 81600-82400 ) – & A ; lb ; 31

= & A ; lb ; 24800 ( F )

( Sources- Wood and et cubic decimeter 2008 )


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