Cover the various aspects of Information system Essay


The chief purpose of this assignment is to cover the assorted facets of Information system/ Information engineering development. In the procedure of information system development we will look into the constructs of manner of question, this is utile in for the procedure of determination devising. Why a peculiar method is used to make up one’s mind on system development. The impact of Technology on the nutrient retail sector with respects to online shopping. The Soft system methods used to develop initial phases of Information system development. Then we will cover the assorted jobs associated with the information system strategic planning procedure. Over the class of this assignment the chief subject will be information systems determination, development, execution in the MNC ‘s operating in the nutrient sector with particular concentration on on-line shopping.

Undertaking I

A ) . Types of Enquires:


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The different types of manners of question are listed below:

  • Simple Mode
  • Complex Mode
  • Advanced manner

The manners separate the system into smaller parts and so concentrate on each portion In order to get at the end to be achieved.

Boundless System Thinking

These manners allow us to farther segregate a system into smaller sub-system and concentrate on how every bomber systems performs an of import function in explicating the Goal of the system.

In the existent universe each manner of question will be judged for single strengths and failings.


This attack permits us to do a decision on the footing of a confined set of observations.We must see merely one decision utilizing these observations.

  • Historical
  • Analogous
  • Multiple independently sourced

The above are the 3 types of analysis may be used in this method. Hence before saying any solutions or Observations the determination shaper must first explicate a job. Inductive-consensual can be utile in many ways in the procedure of doing a determination. One manner is it allows the individual doing the determination to utilize brief observations refering to the state of affairs or job ( Mora to ) ( NCC survey notes ) .


This manner views the whole universe as expression and largely emphasises on logical consistence. Analytic-Deductive method alone ability is to breakdown job into different parts utilizing reductionism this is really utile to place a likely solution. This method strongly goes by the belief that everything leads to merely one reply that is Truth. This manner of enquiry attempts to analyze the job base or issue on a categorized portion in order to derive inside informations and solution portion by portion. ( Mora to ) ( NCC survey notes ) .

Multiple Worlds

This is one of the manners of question used in the procedure of doing a determination. It is really similar to the other 2 manners that are analytic-deductive and inductive consensual methods but one major difference is that this method uses a batch of complex informations and information and requires more scientific and strategic ways in order to get at a solution. Besides this method has a really wide and broad position of jobs to concentrate on, it does non travel merely by discouraging a peculiar result or solution. In this manner the directors and the individual doing the determination have to acquire more involved in the determination devising procedure and can take from a assortment of factors. ( Mora to ) ( NCC survey notes ) .


Dialectic manner uses complex informations for doing a determination. This method does non accommodate for puting informations, issues or observations nevertheless it may be used to stress the different traditional and typical premises. Dialectic manner gives a different position to common information which is utile in Decision doing. Management is able to expect result or impact caused by use of this information engineering to the concern. ( Mora to ) ( NCC survey notes ) .

Unbounded Systems Thinking

This advanced manner of question enables the direction or decision-maker to take what harmonizing to him/her would be the most effectual and appropriate question system to use for a certain issue. This question method allows the decision-maker to be involved in all subjects and context to come up with the most appropriate actions, solutions or decisions. Furthermore the decision-maker is non confined to a certain thought ; instead, he or she can supply infinite factors and issues about the given informations. ( Mora to ) ( NCC survey notes ) .

B ) . Multiple Worlds:

I fell Multiple Realities is the manners of question suited for analysing the impact of online shopping on MNC ‘s. Analytic -Deductive method is besides suited but Multiple Realities is a more suited method as it is similar to analytic -deductive and Inductive-Consensual manner of question, when a research is to be carried out. This method of question this method uses a batch of complex informations and information and requires more scientific and strategic ways in order to get at a solution. Solutions are found to these little parts with a really high engagement of the determination shaper.

The consequence derived by this method of analysis are really strategic and have really high impact on the determination doing procedure of the company. For deducing the consequences a determination shaper will hold to analyze assorted informations from high street shops or physical shops. These consequences will drive the planning of Information systems. As this method scrutinizes all the facets of available informations to its really minute inside informations, this scrutiny in-turn will assist be aftering the Information System to minimum mistake. To analyze the impact of online shopping on MNC ‘s these methods would analyse the assorted sale figures i.e. stock lists of shops, day-to-day gross revenues, hebdomadal and monthly gross revenues, one-year gross revenues figures and compare them with that those generated by on-line shopping, monthly, quarterly and annual tendencies, higher volume of gross revenues of a peculiar merchandise etc.

C ) .Multiple Worlds

Multiple Realities is another manner of question used in decision-making procedure. This manner of question is slightly similar to inductive consensual and analytic-deductive enquiry system. However, in this manner of question, the information or information used are more complex and needs more strategic ways to get at a certain solution. In add-on, the multiple real properties attack does non merely adhere to the finding of a specific solution or result. This is because, multiple worlds, focal points on stand foring jobs in a broader and wider positions. In this mode, the direction or the determination shaper, will go more involved to the decision-making procedure and may hold more factors to take from.


In Comparison to other methods of question, multiple worlds have really few restrictions:

  • The factors for appraisal utilizing multiple worlds are non limited to a certain figure. Thus, all aspects, issues and solutions related to the theoretical account or job can be included in the analysis.
  • The development of the analogy is more accurate in the sense that all factors are considered.
  • The decision-maker can easy make a holistic position of the job.
  • Bias determinations are besides less likely to happen.
  • As there are no mathematical expression or calculations involved, the decision-maker could easy analyze the issue or theoretical account.
  • The multiple worlds allow the decision-maker to foretell possible jobs or
  • This manner of question prepares the concern for the hereafter.


One of the drawbacks of the multiple world manner of question is hope. This means that the result of the analysis is mostly dependent on the position, abilities and readings of the decision-maker. In a manner, the inherent aptitude of the decision-maker is the major result dictator of this method. The job on subjectiveness and prejudice become major drawbacks of multiple worlds. The duty and strain of the analysis is place chiefly on the custodies of decision-maker, doing the development of a decision more hard and boring. ( Mora to ) .


Impact of E-commerce or cyberspace shopping on MNC ‘s

Meaning: E commercialism is a type of concern section which allows a house to carry on concern utilizing an electronic web ( Internet ) . E Commerce can be concern to concern, concern to consumer, Consumer to Business or Consumer to Consumer. ( wiki ) .

In assorted Surveies carried out over the last five to six old ages the latest one been done by computing machine hebdomadal magazine, it is been found that the cyberspace was the fastest turning retail sector, pulling one in four shoppers. Online gross revenues increased another 19 % in January 2010as compared to December 2009. The cyberspace continues to infringe and rule on the high street ‘s traditional retail sod. January was a surprisingly cheerful month for retail merchants in general. With the overall like-for-like gross revenues increasing by 1.1 % , harmonizing to figures released by the British Retail Consortium ( BRC ) on 10th February 2010. Internet shopping grew in December, this was due to Christmas shoppers remaining indoors and boosted growing by a monolithic 30 % of on-line retail. ( Thomson )

The tendency is of on-line shopping is going progressively difficult for retail merchants to disregard. It is on-line retail merchants such as Amazon that are bucking the glooming economic tendencies, and companies will necessitate well-performing web sites to maintain up with the altering wonts of consumers. ( Thomson )

But despite this increasing trust, a batch of analyst thinks the medium is still in its babyhood phases. Online shopping for non-food goods still histories for merely 4 % of retail gross revenues.

Sharon Hardiman, caput of non-store retailing at the BRC, said of the growing, “ Some was due to the assorted publicities and clearance gross revenues. Non-food gross revenues in-store were down on last twelvemonth in contrast to the strong growing among the much smaller proportion of non-food gross revenues that happen online. ” ( Thomson )

The figures for purchasing online are six times better than for the traditional retail market. Part of this success is because of the trebling of shoppers holding more internet connectivity. The analysts suggested that people were non merely shopping in greater Numberss but were besides passing more as companies improved the quality of their on-line offerings. ( BBC )

A study carried out by Capgemini in 2008 showed that the E-Retail Gross saless Index reveal that online disbursement is still at a record high, in recession, where there was falling consumer assurance and the tightening of debt markets. IMRG and Capgemini have discovered that UK consumers spent ?13 billion in the first one-fourth of 2008 – an equivalent of ?2132 for every individual in the UK. Shoppers spent over 50 % more than the first one-fourth of 2007. UK shoppers do non look to be controling their disbursement online as they are now passing a 3rd more per online visit ( ?12 ) compared to five old ages ago. In add-on, about ?850 million was spent online in the hebdomad of the Easter vacations, harmonizing to the Index. Online gross revenues for vesture, footwear and accoutrements have fuelled growing – people spent about a one-fourth ( 21.8 % ) more in March compared to February2008. ( Fashion united )

E Commerce or Online Shopping has going the new tendency in purchasing and selling retail trade goods from Big Trade names and MNC ‘s all over Europe and most of the Western states. However this turning tendency is making Opportunities and adding more force per unit area on the retail concerns. The figure of people when geographically divided is really dynamic and about 10 times more so regular retail stores. Online shopping is turning with addition in figure of people utilizing the cyberspace it is going more attractive and convenient manners of shopping and gross revenues. Traveling frontward in old ages to come the cyberspace retailing will take a much bigger ball of the market portion depending on the handiness of physical infinite for retail mercantile establishments or shopping promenades. Peoples in the UK and U.S are more inclined to shopping online as it gives them the convenience to take from 1000s of merchandises from all over the universe at a individual chink of the mouse. Experts predict that in future Internet gross revenues will account for more than half of the entire gross revenues grosss for major retail merchants and MNC ‘s all over the universe. ( OIRM )

P.E.S.T. Analysis of MNC ‘s in nutrient retail sector:

Political Factors

Globalization: With the universe acquiring smaller Globalization has decidedly affected the E commercialism trade, now cyberspace has become a practical planetary market with any type of merchandise from any state, make or Brand available at the chink of a button. The challenge here is to re chief competitory against merchandises offered by other rivals from other states at a well less monetary value. Besides many new corporations are come ining the market through Amalgamations and Joint Ventures in order to perforate these markets.

  • Monetary value Repairing: It has been brought to detect that some of the Up ‘s large retail corporations are evolved in Price repair and an question is traveling on the same. Such cases will impact the image and good will of these companies and have a negative impact on the gross revenues, Furthermore the clients will believe these nutrient companies are dishonest in their trading.
  • Corporation Tax and Trade ordinances: In this instance of the political analysis revenue enhancement plays a really important and of import function, when the company is working in the good place it means they should keep the good revenue enhancement rates and they have to pay the revenue enhancement in clip. Besides it is their duty that they provide e good quality of merchandises to the client. The companies must stay by the Trade ordinances laid down by the authorities. Government Torahs should be adhered to purely and in the right manner whenever any publicities or strategies formed. The UK authorities is to cut down the Corporation Tax on companies from 30 % to 28 % which will decidedly profit the companies which are runing on a big graduated table.

Economic factors

  • Inflation: There has been important rise in the buying cost of nutrient with lifting nutrient monetary values in about all states of the universe. These lifting nutrient monetary values straight affect the merchandising monetary value and the net income borders of the supermarkets selling these merchandises. It means that this rise in procurance costs will be added to the terminal merchandising monetary value this taking to costlier nutrient merchandise on the shelves of all nutrient retail merchants be it large or little. High gasoline and Diesel monetary values result in hiking in costs throughout the supply concatenation ensuing in high merchandising monetary value.
  • Exchange rates and Government outgo: Currency Exchange rates keep changing everyday the discrepancy might be positive or negative depending how the planetary economic system is executing and this factor must be considered while making the analysis. Besides addition in authorities outgo and consumer disbursement power will come into consideration while making the PEST analysis.
  • Recession and Credit Crunch: The twelvemonth 2008 -2009 is marked as a twelvemonth of recession worldwide, Credit crunch is a term where people tend to pass less sum of money or purchase comparatively inexpensive and necessary goods e.g. Food Clothing etc. this means they will non purchase instead expensive or luxury goods which are high priced and hold higher net incomes.
  • Competition: With the market going so competitory, Reducing monetary values and offering inducements and price reductions has become inevitable for all retail merchants. The monetary values are frequently merely to cover the costs or breakeven with really little or at times no net income border at all.

Social factors

  • Consumer Behaviour: This is the most of import societal factor that must be looked at while making the PEST analysis ; Consumer Behaviour is really unpredictable and hence must be studied in item to get at a concrete result.

    Health Conscious: Today the people have become more wellness witting and stress more on purchasing and eating fresh and healthy nutrients as compared to debris nutrient. The large retail merchants can look at this chance and develop new nutrient merchandises which are Fresh, easy to cook and healthy. There is decidedly an upward tendency in the ingestion of Nutritious and healthy nutrient.

  • Manner and Lifestyle Changes: The manner in the market is invariably altering and so is the life style of the people. Corporations must see these alterations while planing and developing their merchandises to accommodate the gustatory sensation and likes of the people. Change in Lifestyle and life criterions are besides of import factors.


  • World Wide Web: Online shopping has become a new tendency all over Europe and other developed states and will shortly be the most widely used shopping attack in the hereafter, The Internet non merely provides clients with a assortment of merchandises from all over the universe but besides helps the companies to cut assorted operating expenses and runing costs such Infrastructure, staff, Merchandising etc. Many big retail merchants offer particular trades and monetary values for goods purchased online, besides the other advantage is that they are home delivered to the consumer sometimes at no excess cost! Sainsbury ‘s and Tesco ‘s offer particular Bonus trueness points for goods purchased online.
  • User Friendly Software: Technology is altering everyday, Food corporations and MNC ‘s must look at this position when developing package that should be easy to utilize by staff and clients and therefore salvage on clip and better efficiency with better gross revenues. A individual who is working for a company as proficient support should be ever believing the undertaking in the invention because in this analysis there should be ever new innovation of the package and to acquire that in to the market will be good for the MNC and there net incomes
  • In shop Self Shopping Kiosks: People at times who come for shopping in a supermarket are Old or have walking troubles besides some people ( e.g. Pregnant Women ) are excessively tired to travel around the shop for making their shopping. For the benefit of such Customers the shops can hold Self Shopping Kiosks wherein the clients can sit in these booths and do all the shopping by accessing the shops Virtual shopping cart, The purchased goods will so be collected and brought to them by a store helper. This will assist the clients to roll up their goods quickly and besides consequence in higher gross revenues within the shop.

From the Above Surveys and Analysis a decision can be drawn on Impact of E-commerce on MNC ‘s:


  • Increased gross revenues: E commercialism has lead to an addition in gross revenues and grosss.
  • Increased Profitableness: there is an addition in net income due to riddance of traditions cost of retails.
  • Lower Cost
  • Additions disbursement: It is observed that clients do more shopping online because of the fact that there is a broad assortment of goods and merchandises available to take.


  • Perishable merchandises: Selling perishable merchandises online is a challenge. This incurs losingss to the companies as merchandises can non be put for sale and necessitate to be disposed.
  • Loss of clients: There is no trueness of the clients as on-line gross revenues lack personal touch and direct communicating at the clip of the sale. This finally consequences in loss of clients.
  • Extra Merchandises: Online shopping has given rise to gross revenues of Duplicate merchandises, Similar goods are advertised and put on sale online by rivals normally at a lower monetary value than the original merchandise. Consumers shopping on-line attempt to acquire the best trade and frequently buy these bogus merchandises, thereby diminishing the gross revenues of the original.

Impact of IT/IS on Strategic Planning


Soft Systems Methodology ( SSM ) was developed by Peter Checkland in the late 60 ‘s at the University of Lancaster in the UK. Originally it was seen as a modeling tool, but in subsequently old ages it has been seen progressively as a acquisition and significance development tool. One of the interesting things about SSM is that it constrains your thought in order for you to spread out your thought. Like many other systems approaches the bosom of SSM is a comparing between the universes as it is, and some theoretical accounts of the universe as it might be. Out of this comparing originate a better apprehension of the universe ( “ research ” ) , and some thoughts for betterment ( “ action ” ) .

In authoritative SSM the research workers begin with a real-world job ( or possibly “situation” is a better word ) . They study the state of affairs in a reasonably unstructured manner. Following this, they develop some theoretical accounts of that state of affairs. The peculiar strength of SSM for judges is that it can be used to extricate the appraising lessons from plans with multiple ends and multiple positions on these ends. It does so by developing specific positions on the plan, strictly constructs some theoretical accounts based on these positions and so compares these with existent life. ( Williams )

The authoritative SSM enquiry has seven phases. Some of them address the “real” universe, and some of them – possibly the most of import parts – reference a conceptual universe.

In SSM the research workers begin with a real-world job. They study the systems which contain the job. Following this, they develop some theoretical accounts of that system that bring forth penetrations into the manner the “real-world” job might be addressed. As SSM is a systems methodological analysis, the theoretical accounts must be formed utilizing systems regulations and constructs.

These theoretical accounts are so compared to the existent state of affairs. Differences between the theoretical accounts and world become the footing for planning alterations.

  1. The job state of affairs unstructured: The job state of affairs is foremost experienced. The research worker makes as few givens about the nature of the state of affairs as possible.
  2. The job state of affairs expressed: In this measure the research worker develops a elaborate description, a “ rich image ” , of the state of affairs within which the job occurs.
  3. Root definitions of relevant systems: Now the “ root definitions ” , the kernel of the relevant systems, are defined.

There are two facets, the logical analysis and the cultural analysis.

For the logical analysis provides the mnemotechnic CATWOE as a checklist for guaranting that the of import characteristics of the root definitions are included:

  • Customers… … … … … … .who are system donees
  • Actors… … … … … … … .who transform inputs to outputs
  • Transformation… … … … ..from inputs into end products
  • World view… … … … ..the relevant universe positions
  • Owner… … … … … … … ..the individuals with power of veto over the system
  • Environmental restraints… that need to be considered ( Williams )
  • Making and proving conceptual theoretical accounts: This is a critical and strict measure. The undertaking now is to develop a systems theoretical account utilizing merely those elements of the root definition,
  • Comparing conceptual theoretical accounts with world: The intent is non to implement the conceptual theoretical accounts. Rather, it is so that theoretical accounts and world can be compared and contrasted.
  • Identify executable and desirable alterations: From the treatment at measure 5, certain possible alterations are identified.
  • They are likely to change in desirableness and feasibleness:
  • desirable: is it technically an betterment?
  • executable: particularly, does it suit the civilization?
  • Action to better the job state of affairs: The most desirable and executable alterations identified at measure 6 are now put into pattern. ( Williams )

Impact of IT/IS on Strategy Planning:

During the strategic planning procedure the impact on CATWOE demands to be considered.

  • Customer: How will the clients benefit from the new IS? One the benefits are indentified they can be they can be incorporated in the IS. E.g. Easy to utilize: hunt for merchandises on-line, order the merchandises on-line etc.
  • Actors: they the people who will treat the client order. How will the order processor benefit from the system? how will they measure the order? This will assist the IS contriver to place the demands of the order processor.
  • Transformation: Once the order is evaluated. How will the order be processed i.e. how easy will it be to despatch the order? Screen the order? etc.
  • World view: for MNC ‘s in the nutrient retail concern it could be the people in charge of looking after the despatch of the order.
  • Owner: in context to MNC ‘s the proprietor could be the warehouse director who could impact the transmutation of the order. so how will the proprietors benefit from the system. what right will they hold to command the IS?
  • Environmental restraints: they are the providers of stuff, web, are the environmental factors.


Problems Associated with IS strategic Planning.

Before originating or implementing any Information security activities, the company must develop and hold a strategic program in topographic point. The jobs which potentially administrations face with Information System Strategy Planning are farther categorised into Hard Problems and Soft Problems

Difficult Problems:

As the name suggests these are jobs which are physical in nature and are frequently associated as possible jobs with Information System Strategic Planning. Networking Security jobs, runing systems, Hardware used, Volume of Data to be stored etc are some of the common Hard jobs.

  • Configurations and Operating Systems: MNC ‘s usage different types of operating systems e.g. Windows Microsoft Office, MacQuintosh and usage made service battalions for bring forthing studies that are used by different sections such as Gross saless and Selling, Purchase, Accounts and Finance, Management. It is really of import that all the systems in the company are configured as per the demand and demand of the individual or section utilizing it for illustration a Shop Floor helper must non hold entree to these studies because he does non necessitate them for his occupation.
  • Information Security: Network and Information security must be of uppermost precedence during the planning of Information System. Today hacking of webs and information is a menace to all information systems, therefore when the security for the Information System is designed the companies must look at developing it maintaining in head the long term benefits with really few loose terminals which can be used by Hackers.
  • Data Volume and Storage: Data volumes and informations storage are a major jobs, Big nutrient retail merchants have an extended database and roll up a really high volume of Data in their Information systems. The challenge is to hive away all this Data in a secured environment and besides do it accessible as and when needed for different intents. ( Bailey )
  • Networking Technology: All information systems need to be networked and are written on certain networking platforms which take considerable sum of clip, Money and energy if they have to be changed or modified, therefore it is indispensable that Whoever does the Planning of Information system must take a networking engineering which can be used in the long tally with or without any nominal alterations.

Soft Problems:

Soft Problems are linked with Ethical, Human, Finance, Governing Laws of IS be aftering. Following are some of these Problems:

  • Resources: Capital, Employees, Building, is the resources available with the company. All these resources play an of import function and have an impact on the Planing the Information System. E.g. Lack of proper edifice or premises will halter the operation of the concern and can take down the efficiency of the staff.
  • Staff Numbers and Skill sets: MNC ‘s retail merchants normally have a big figure of staff with different degree of skill sets and understanding. Not all employees will be familiar with the usage of IT systems and may necessitate extra preparation. While be aftering the information system scheme this soft job must be looked at and should non be ignored. Whatever Information System is planned must be user friendly and easy understood by everyone in the company at all degrees.
  • Communication: Clear and effectual communicating is necessary for the successful execution and Planning of any Information System. Incorrect and misdirected communicating can take to immense losingss and/or punishments for the company.
  • Moral Valuess and Loyalty: All employees are expected to follow the moral values and be Loyal to the company. Information System must be planned maintaining in head this job which is quite common but has top precedence if the company has to be successful in its concern. Besides the security degrees and entree should be granted on the footing of these Factors. ( Bailey )

Ethical motives:

This soft job merely means the manner or mode in which a group of people behave and conduct. Hence Ethics can be related to carry on issue of an person or a group of people. Information System planning revolves round the ethical values and beliefs of everyone working for the company.

Probability of Failure:

Hazard computation and possibility to meet failure can be probably in the procedure of developing any Information system. Management must anticipate this and guarantee that all the hazards are covered and prevented before, during and after implementing the Information System. If these hazards are ignored it will finally take to failure of the whole information system and everything will necessitate to be done from abrasion. Possible solutions must be designed and maintain ready in the event of a failure. ( Morato )

Some of the effects of failure are:

  • Wastage: Scarce and invaluable resources will be wasted. Time, attempt, money and energy used for accretion of scarce resources will travel down the drain and rise operating costs of the company.
  • Decrease in Workforce: Staff might be made excess and workforce downsized due to increase in costs as consequence of Failure of the undertaking.
  • Low Moral: Moral of the employees will be low they will non be motivated and work efficiency will be affected.
  • Loss: Failure will incur immense pecuniary losingss for the company, as the complete Information Planning process will hold to be redone from the beginning. ( Benediktsson )

Code of Conduct:

A codification of behavior is a set of regulations sketching the duties of or proper patterns for an person or administration ( wiki ) .

Each and every member of the staff has to adhere to the standard Code of Conduct and abide by the guidelines at all times when he or she is at work. All sections such as Gross saless and Selling, Production, buying, Housekeeping, Customer Care etc must guarantee that they besides follow the codification of behavior. Even the interior decorators or developer of Information systems have to esteem and follow the codification of behavior. The guidelines refering to the company ‘s Code of Conduct must be displayed in the Employee Handbook and in all sections.

Purpose of the Code:

The chief intent of keeping a Code of Conduct is to guarantee that the work is carried in an ethical and professional mode. It besides assures the public and 3rd parties that the research is ethically conducted as per the Code.

The rules of the Code:

Core rules of the Code of Conduct:

  • All related national and international Torahs must be adhered to by the developer.
  • Ethical behavior is expected by the developer at all times and must non ensue in damaging the good will or repute of the company.
  • While working on undertakings the individual who develops the information system must non personally profit from the design.
  • Developer will guarantee that undertakings and activities are designed, carried out, reported and documented accurately, transparently, objectively and to allow quality.
  • Principles of Fair completion must ever be followed.

Data Handiness:

Data which is easy available is known as accessible informations.

All accessible informations must be classified into Secure, Publicly available, confidential or Internal. Data collected and used for planing the Information system must be classified as confidential and merely really few designated people should hold entree to this information. When an Information System is designed a batch of valuable and cardinal Information relating to the Company ‘s concern will be used. Unauthorized entree to this informations can take to heavy fiscal losingss for the MNC.


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