Creating Motivation Of Public Servants In Brunei Commerce Essay

You got to wish your work. You have got to wish what you are making, you have got to be making something worthwhile so you can wish it – because it is worthwhile, that it makes a difference, do n’t you see?

This paper attempts to research the motive of one of sections in Ministry of Finance in Brunei which is Royal Customs and Exercise Department. In item, it is to discourse how to develop the motive in utilizing the theory of motive. It besides wants to seek the things that may lend to the motive of public retainers in their occupations which are peculiarly absent in the section.

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This paper concludes with the treatment in which, the section should make motive through account by utilizing one of the motivational theories i.e. Maslow ‘ theory of Hierarchy of Needs. Therefore in order to actuate the public retainer, this essay is seeking to place the possible suggestion to promote their motive.


This essay is developed into several parts. The first portion is under instance survey, is to analyze the kernel of motive in the sections. This portion will place the nature of the motive in public retainers and the effectivity of those factors. This is besides explained by utilizing the current article depicting the public retainers associated with the section holding less motivated in executing their good occupations therefore indulging in immoral activities. Most of employees are experience both positive motive and loss or deficiency of motive would hold deficiency of enterprise, low morale, errors and high worker turnover in the public service. Thus the employees could non acquire rid from holding failures and populating a second-rate life. These employees besides could non defy themselves to make certain things that break the Torahs in the public service every bit good as in the state. Therefore, above accounts are correspond with the quotation mark above in a manner that, they got to make their occupation because they like and worthwhile in return they got wagess by making their occupations.

The 2nd portion is presenting the literature reappraisal on the development of motivational theories. This theories aid to explicate how the people in the organisation can be motivated through phases. This paper illustrates how to actuate the public retainers with peculiarly one of the motivational theories which is the Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs. In add-on, the theory is seeking to discourse the absence of the factors will take to motive and suggest the better ways to actuate them. Following portion is to reason the overall essay and foregrounding the better understanding the importance to supply full satisfaction of the degree of demands of public retainers and bring on better occupation public presentation in the section.

The nature of the motive in the Royal Custom and Excise Department.

The motive of public retainers in public organisation is pursued by the wagess and inducements they receive per se and extrinsically. The employees in authorities are given inducements in footings of wage, vacations, allowance, occupation assessment, publicities and within themselves, they are self- motivated in a manner they like making their occupations non because of external wagess. Harmonizing to the writer of Public Employees with High Levels of Public Service Motivation, Bright 2005, the public employees may pull to the authorities due to these three classs. One of these is pulling to public policy doing gives them to be arrogant, in add-on is to keep societal equity and convicting to the of import of services.

The Ministry of Finance is at the same time head by His Majesty himself. It is responsible for the control and direction of public fundss of Brunei. There are five sections and bureaus reside under the Ministry of Finance and one of them is The Royal Customs and Excise Department. This section had developed its vision, mission and strategic ends as its basic way. Its vision is to keep and developing peace, prosperity and security in the state. While it mission is to promote gross aggregation, facilitate and protect the society every bit good as the state.

Some of its strategic ends are ; to update Customs statute law, regulations, ordinances and process and taking into history from the international patterns, to roll up gross for Customs, heightening the services quality, expeditiously and efficaciously, heightening the quality in direction and professionalism, beef uping the functions and abilities of operations and bar Acts of the Apostless last but non least is following progress in engineering. Furthermore, the section besides human resource development by supplying the preparation strategy for the usage functionaries, manpower and sequence planning and etc.

Above those are the counsel and way which are genuinely giving a sense of motive to the public retainers in the section itself. They direct the public retainers to accomplish the sections ‘ outlooks and betterment of people lifes.

Insufficiency of motive

However, few current issues are demoing these public retainers are developing deficiency of motive in the public services. The Anti-Corruption Bureau ( ACB ) in Brunei has told to Brunei Times during briefing to PWD that there are high incidences of graft in authorities section conspicuously in Ministry of Development ‘s Public Works Department ( PWD ) , constabulary and imposts functionaries. This is due to they are covering with the populace on a regular footing and there are so many chances because the staff have to run into with the populace. It was stated that 33 % of public retainers in Brunei, believing to be affected with graft ( Brunei Times, April 2010 ) . The section besides experienced hold activities at port clearance including slow reviews by usage functionaries reported by importers of goods. This incidence happens due to their deficiency attempt and loss of involvement on their occupations.

They missing of these attitude may due to certain things that do non do them to be felt motivated. Therefore the kernel of motive nowadayss in the section could non sufficient and fulfill plenty to drive them to the better public presentation. There are certain factors that could lend to the motive that are absent in the section. They have base salary, but some of them are non satisfy, they lack of acknowledgment, dissatisfy occupation content, undeveloped preparation and creativeness every bit good as promotion in thought. The vision, mission and ends are non the lone factors that would drive their motive every bit good as inducements the authorities given to the public retainers.

Literature Review

Motivation can be defined in many ways. Broadly, it defines as a driving force that initiates and directs person ‘s behavior or it can be an internal energy thrusts a individual to make something in order to accomplish something. It can be mutable harmonizing to certain clip within a individual which is non concerned with person personality ( Romando, 2007 ) . Harmonizing to John Baldoni, a leading adviser and talker and writer of six books, including Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders ( McGraw-Hill 2005 ) states “ Motivation is an intrinsic response ; it comes from inside and can non be imposed from the exterior. Motivation comes from desiring to make something of one ‘s ain free will. If you are free, you can take to make something. ” Motivation can be positive and negative. A positive and good motive is a cardinal to success and a function in an effectual public presentation of the employee. The public presentation of public organisation is depends on the employees itself. In fact that difficult working and adept employees have drive to productiveness, credibleness and efficiency. Therefore, it ‘s really of import to maintain the employees motivated and infuse high degree energy within them that drive them to work more harder.

From the article of An Honest Day ‘s Work, 1988, Twyla Dell wrote on the employee motive, “ The bosom of motive is to give people what they truly want most from work. The more you are able to supply what they want, the more you should anticipate what you truly want, viz. : productiveness, quality, and service. ” Many innovators of motive theories have been explicating ways to develop motive in the homo. The motive theories province that there should be certain things that will drive the individual to work better, things that what the individual wants and motivated to make their occupations.

Such motivational theories are listed harmonizing to three distinguishable classs of content theories, procedure theories and reinforcement theories. Under content theories, stipulate the demands that motivate the worker and concentrating on the basic motivational demands of the worker. These theories are the theory of Maslow ‘ Hierarchy of Needs, Alderfer ‘s ERG theory and Hertzberg Two Factor theory. While the procedure theories depicting the apprehension of the procedure that influence worker ‘s behavior which theories are Equity theory, Expectancy theory and Goal puting theory in add-on, reinforcement theories focuses on the worker acquisition of the work behavior and this s by support tools i.e. positive support, turning away acquisition, penalty and extinction.

Need- based model of employee motive

When we look at the content position in explicating the motive, it emphasizes the basic demands should be achieved towards actuating the employees. Peoples have different wants. In world, we come across some state of affairs that one individual value things the other have but really do n’t and the other value things he have but the really do n’t. Therefore, in the organisation, the employers are need to cognize how to manage assortment of demands in order to understand how maximize productiveness.

Let ‘s take the theory of Maslow ‘s Hierarchy of Needs, the most celebrated motive theory to explicate more item and use it to the section. The Hierarchy of Needs was officially introduced by Abraham Maslow in his book called Motivation and Personality ( 1954 ) . The necessity of Maslow ‘s theory is that the human existences are fundamentally motivated by the demands that they non fulfill yet and therefore the lower factors need to be satisfied before the higher demands. The lower demands take precedence. Harmonizing to Maslow, there are five celebrated general types of demands ; self-actualization, regard, belongingness, safety and physiological. He besides called these as “ lack demands ” because as one individual needs to accomplish the lower demands and deficiency of other following demands are deficient. The individual should be able to fulfill towards every degrees and therefore accomplishing a healthy motive while missing of satisfaction consequences in illness. As shown in the below hierarchal diagram, it is called ‘Maslow ‘s Needs Pyramid ‘ or ‘Maslow ‘s Needs Triangle ‘ .


Esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety Needs

Physiological Needs

Figure 1

The physiological demands are the demands that required to prolong a individual ‘s life. These are such as air, H2O, nutrient and slumber. This theory explain that, if the individual is non satisfy with these cardinal demands, the societal and esteem demands are non traveling to be recognised until he satisfy with those existence basic demands. Following degree of demands is the safety needs. Once a individual meets the psychological demands, a individual will happen for safety and security in order to be safe and off from physical and emotional menaces. Such demands to fulfill a individual are by populating in a safe country, a medical insurance, occupation security and fiscal militias. Harmonizing to Maslow, if a individual feels threatened, he will non happen for farther demands as he is non satisfy and feel motivated.

When a individual achieves the lower degree of psychological and safety demands, he will seek for the higher demands i.e. societal demands. It is refers to a sense of belongingness as it involves the interaction with others for case friendly relationship, belong to a peculiar group and demands of giving and having love. Subsequently during the phase of the regard demand, the individual finally achieving a sense of being of import. Esteem needs can be internal and external incentive. The internal incentives are such as achievement and self-respect while external incentives are like acknowledgment, attending, societal position and repute.

Self-actualization is the highest attainable of accomplishment of this theory. This is the demand that developing one individual ‘s full potency. Maslow claimed that merely a little per centum of universe ‘s population reaches the degree of self-actualization. The self-actualized people tend to possess truth, justness, wisdom and significance.

Specific illustrations for these types of demands are given below, in context of in the workplace and at place.





instruction, faith, avocations, personal growing

preparation, promotion, growing, creativeness


blessing of household, friends, community

acknowledgment, high position, duties


household, friends, nines

squads, depts, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subsidiaries


freedom from war, toxicant, force

work safety, occupation security, wellness insurance


Food, H2O, air

Heat, air, base wage

From the tabular array above, we can explicate the motive of public retainers work in the Department of Royal Customs and Excise. The public retainers in the section hold given such monthly wage, have entree to strategy of service for case pension for retired at age 60, TAP ( Employee ‘s Trust Fund ) of taking 5 % of salary accumulated as future economy every bit good as the SCP ( Supplementary Contributory Pension ) required to bit in minimal 3.5 % of their wage and the section besides provides preparation, sequence planning in which the populace retainers will be promoted to upper degree station in the section if they perform good depends on the classs of public presentation.

However, it has been shown that these public retainers are missing of motive in a manner that certain factors that drive them to actuate to make plants are absent in the section itself. This can be proven in which few instances affecting with usage functionaries were charged in transporting out immoral activities and inefficient occupation done alternatively motivated in lending their attempts with the section.

Therefore, in making motive of the public retainer is by carry throughing their demands to run into their satisfaction. Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s theory, one time the workers satisfy with demands carry throughing by the organisation, therefore they will motivated to make their work and execute good. Few instances affecting the usage functionaries indulging with graft refering on the dealing of money in return, demoing that they have non satisfy good the wage they receive or the shelters they have. In relation to Maslow ‘s theory, the some workers will seek for the physiological demands in footings of better wage and lodging therefore fulfill their demands in bend motivate them to work. Thus the public retainers should be provided better salary that plenty for them to feed themselves in add-on increasing allowances every bit good as provide better lodging.

Some of the public retainers are satisfy with the safety needs they gain in the section. The occupation security provided for every public retainer such as TAP and SCP are fulfilling plenty for their future necessity. In add-on, the demands of belongingness has been achieved through development of relationship in the section between coworker, the employers for case during the cleansing run and aerophilic activities on World Customs Day this twelvemonth.

Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s theory, in order to make motive in public retainers, they needs in footings of regard must be fulfilled. In few instances, the usage functionaries experienced inefficient occupation public presentation. To promote their public presentation, alternatively through the acknowledgment plan giving out certifications and keepsakes to the long-serving usage forces, the section should besides recognized those who work harder and achieved better public presentation than the others non merely based on the period of their helping. Furthermore, the section should delegate some public retainers to keep higher duties for case to head up undertakings or squads. The section can spread out the occupation to include new, higher degree duties ( M. Heathfield, 2009 ) . Therefore, finally they might experience arrogant and addition position within the squads.

To carry through the demands of some public retainers in the section to be self- actualised, such demands like promotion, preparation and occupation that provide them with creativeness should be established. The section has provided preparation as portion of their human resource development plan for them to heighten their capablenesss and committedness. Once they have trained, they should be put in certain undertaking and so defined the work boundaries, this will take them freedom to work with their ain wisdom. It will allow them experience free to alter the on the job manner or modify the undertaking if they feel it is better and promote them take their ain determinations and if it is something large they can inquire for the higher blessing before implementing. Harmonizing to Don Jacobson, do them prosecute and be originative employees ( i.e. the “ Master Sergeant Romeros ” of the operation ) , inquiring them to place a long list of things that can be improved to do the client ‘s experience more comfy, crystalline and efficient. During this phase besides, the public retainers are induce with high morale and honestness.


The fulfillment of demands to the public retainers in the section could bring on a positive effect to the public presentation as a whole. For case, when they reach to the degree of demands of regard and satisfy with the acknowledgment and position he have so overtime they become self-actualized individual and this are the happy and successful people. Together with this, they in bend understand the aim of the section as a whole in lending to the prosperity, security of the authorities and heightening quality of the section every bit good. However, in carry throughing these demands to some of public retainers in the section may hold hard in a manner that the nature of the human being of holding assortment of demands. It is hard to keep and do sufficient demands available to every populace retainer. Therefore it is imperative, for the section to acknowledge each demand of the public retainers that presently being pursued. Importantly, in order to actuate them, leading must beA understood the current degree of demands of the public retainers. The workers will follow and make the things if the employer does things to actuate them.


As a whole, some public retainers in the section can be motivated in footings of providing them with basic demands identify in Maslow ‘s theory motive. Motivation in public retainers will bring on the effectivity of their public presentation at plants. Person with self-actualization does hold a sense of morality therefore when every populace retainer have achieve this degree of demand, finally the occupation efficiency and deficiency of morality will be diminished. However, there is no 1 right theory, to explicate in developing motive of the workers. Goal- puting theory emphasizes that the workers are motivated when they have clear and understanding ends they strife to accomplish. Therefore, harmonizing to that theory, the section besides need to do certain that every populace retainer have clear ends and accomplishments to assist them to accomplish.


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