Creative technical development of the fashion Essay


& A ; lsquo ; Technology they say, is the foundation of all occupations within the manner concern ‘

Manner demands depend on the originative proficient development of the manner industry because merely advanced engineering and industry can interrupt through into the on-going fast manner.

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Harmonizing to Tyler ( 2000, p.1 ) , & A ; lsquo ; & A ; lsquo ; vesture industry is an assembly of-oriented activity within a great scope of natural stuffs, merchandise types, production volumes, supply ironss, retail markets and associated engineerings ” .

These yearss, consumers are being influenced by manner tendencies, thereby holding the temptation of the on-going newness and needs to purchase and maintain up with the latest visual aspect have become the order of the twenty-four hours. Peoples believe their expression is what matters most and so are really much keen in updating it with manner.

The term manner describes the current prevailing tendencies in the society for illustration, refering a peculiar manner of dressing, life style, form of idea and the development of the humanistic disciplines ( Eberle et al, 2004, p.217 )

The move towards alleged & A ; lsquo ; fast-fashion ‘ within many retail merchants means that the interior decorators have a much shorter development period so that the shop can react to new tendencies within a affair of hebdomads ( Goworek, 2006, p.31 ) . Hence, because of the increasing demand of merchandises by clients, new engineerings are invariably being introduced to manner industries to better and accelerate production.

Technology in my ain apprehension is the procedure of using proficient devices and cognition to accommodate a peculiar work or aim, therefore manner engineering is the procedure by which these proficient devices and cognition are applied to the building and fabrication of manner merchandises. Therefore, working in the manner industry requires an adapt cognition and apprehension of merchandise design and development.

In general, the purpose of manner engineering is to beef up and accelerate production and fabricating procedure of merchandises. However, to accomplish this, one needs to be familiar with the relevant engineerings that are used in the manner industries ; Textile, Garment, Sizing and CAD Technologies.



The demand for fabrics, and hence for fabric fibers has increased quickly due to turning prosperity in the industrialized states and the big addition in universe population. ( Eberle et al, 2004, p. 9 ) Obviously, without fabrics, there will be no produced garment because production of vesture starts from fiber to the finished garment.


& A ; uarr ;


& A ; uarr ;


& A ; uarr ;


Fibre is the basic unit of garment production. Fibers are used to do narrations which are in bend used to bring forth cloths that are being used in the production of garment. Fibers contribute to the garment ‘s aesthetics, visual aspect, comfort and lastingness. There are two basic types of fibers, Natural and Manufactured fibers.


These are Vegetable fibers which consist of Cellulose ; cotton, linen and hemp and Animal fibers which consist of protein ; silk, hair and wool. The most common works fibers are cotton and flax while the most common animate being fibers are wool and silk.

Man-made FIBRES

These are produced through engineering, chemicals and natural beginnings that can non be used in their original signifier. They can be changed to get the better of jobs that come out in natural fibers. They can be classified further into Cellulosic and man-made fibers.




Man-made FIBRES



Name or

Generic Name



Name or

Generic Name

Vegetable ( cellulose )

Natural Polymers







Modal auxiliary verb




Cellulose triacetate













Animal ( Protein )

Man-made Polymers



Virgin wool




Fine hair





















Vinyl chloride

Vinylidene Chloride



Coarse hair









Wild ( Tussah )


Polyvinyl intoxicant



Rock Fibers







Metallic element


Fibers have different features depending on the manner their internal constructions are arranged. Natural fibers ; cotton, wool, flax and silk are used to do dress cloths, accoutrements and family Textiles. Cotton is comfy, soft, strong, stiff, lasting, easy to manage and color keeping. Wool is lasting, stretches well before interrupting, provides superior comfort, repels H2O and keeps visual aspect. Flax can non arouse allergic reactions but furrows easy, linen is strong, stiff, and feels cool and dry to touch. Silk are good absorbency, cool in summer and warm in winter, it has high strength and retains form.

Manufactured fibers ; polyester, nylon, rayon and ethanoate can hold their internal construction altered by the fabrication procedure and so really high strength or really flexible fibers can be engineered. Polyester is used to do apparels, athletic wear, upholstery and other family fabrics. They are strong, flexible, resilient, opposition to folds and retain form. Nylon is used to do ski dress, collapsible shelters, ropes, etc. they are really strong, flexible, easy to clean, good snap, smooth and non-absorbent. Rayon is used to do rain wear, bed sheets, covers and drapes. They are absorptive, soft, easy to dry and comfy. Acetate is used to do cloths like brocades, crepe and lacing satin. They have epicurean feel and visual aspect, non peculiarly strong but drapes good and purse resistant.

There are other man-made fibers like acrylic, elastine, poplypropylene and modacrylic. Acrylic is used for fleece cloths and pelts. They are soft, reasonably strong, flexible, retains form, resist moths, sunshine, oil and chemicals. Elastine is used for sportswear and other vesture. They are stronger than latex, light weight, elastic and do non annoy tegument. Polypropylene is used for thermic waistcoat and socks, rugs and unreal sod. They are good scratch resistant, have good wicking belongingss and low soaking up. Modacrylic is used for fleece cloths and liners. They are soft and speedy to dry. They are besides flame acid and scratch resistant.

FABRIC Testing

It is indispensable to prove the public presentation of cloths during fabricating so as to look into that cloths conforms to specifications, obtain some indicants of possible public presentation in usage, analyze the interaction of fibers, narrations and cloth belongingss, and aid in the design of a cloth for specific end-use. Fabric testing is done in the Textile Laboratory utilizing standard processs in a specialized installation. Below are different types of fabric testing:

  • Colour speed to rinsing
  • Colour speed to sweat
  • Colour speed to rubbing
  • Interrupting strength and elongation
  • Tearing strength
  • Abrasion opposition
  • Pilling opposition
  • Washing shrinking
  • Crease recovery
  • Curtain
  • Spray trial


The coloring material of most stuffs is due to the presence of colorants used in dyeing or printing of the stuffs or surfaces. Dying can be done in any phase of production, either on fibers, narrations cloths or garments. There are assorted types of dyeing, manufacturer colored, stock dyeing, narration dyeing, piece dyeing, cross dyeing, and garment dyeing. Printing is used to use forms to the cloths. Printing can either be wet or dry printing. There are soluble Dyes for printing and dyeing, and Insoluble Pigments for publishing merely. Frings ( 2008, p. 132 )

FABRIC Coating

Coating is the term used to embrace all procedures used to heighten a cloth ( normally after dyeing or publishing ) . Frings ( 2008, p. 135 ) The basic aim of fabric coating is to do it look more beautiful. There are physical ( mechanical ) coating, whereby a coveted consequence is achieved by a mechanical procedure and chemical coating whereby desired consequence is achieved by chemical reaction. Physical coating is done by Calendaring, Heat scene, Napping, Shearing, Sanding, and Shrinkage control. Chemical coating is done by Caustic decrease, Decatizing, Durable imperativeness, Mercerizing, and Water repellency. Frings ( 2008, p. 135 )


Yarn is an assembly of fibers or fibrils holding a significant length and comparatively little cross-section with or without turn, being the end-product of a spinning procedure and weaving procedure. ( Eberle et al, 2004, p.55 ) Yarns may take two basic signifiers, fibril or long fibers and basic or short fibers. All Silk and all manufactured fibers are produced as filament fibers and are used to do filament narrations while all other natural fibers begin as basic narrations.

Narrations are classified into six types ; spurn, fibril, multi-filament, monofilament, assembled and folded and plied narrations. Narrations can either be Z or S turn. The fiber on the surface of a Z twisted narration are faced to the right when the narration is held vertically while the fiber on the surface of an S twisted narrations are faced to the left when the narration is held vertically. Fabric cloths that are made from narrations are woven, knitted and braided cloths while mated cloths ( felted and non-woven ) are made straight from fibers.






FOLDED Narration





Ring Narration






Sewing Thread

The togss are used to organize stitches on cloths. They are made from the same natural stuffs that are used to do narrations. Cotton is used to do natural fiber togss and nylon is used to do man-made fiber togss. Sewing togss undergo the same procedure of production with narrations. The fibers are carded, combed, drawn and spun into narrations which in bend are twisted into run uping togss. The belongingss of togss and narrations are ; colorss, diameter, finish, size, turn and cord content. Features of run uping yarn are colorss, speed, flexibleness, elongation, strength, shrinking, twist balance, etc.


The most of import engineering in merchandise development is garment engineering because it includes assorted facets of the manner industry, get downing from the maker to the consumer. In absence of garment engineering, the purpose of the merchandise which is quality may non be achieved. In garment engineering, assorted facets has to be taken into consideration and these are ; garment constituents, manner stuffs, fittingness to aim, garment mistakes, stitch and seam, run uping machine acerate leafs and machines, majority production and quality control.

Garment Components: are the chief cloth, liner, interlining, yarn, labels and closings ( slide fasteners, buttons, maulerss and oculus, and snap fasteners ) . All these constituents must be selected right in order to carry through design standards and guarantee fabrication quality and consumer satisfaction.

Manner stuffs:

must right be selected and utilised to fit the cost and quality of the garment under production as pointed out by Cooklin ( 2006, p. 85 ) & A ; lsquo ; & A ; lsquo ; stuffs represent some 40-50 % of the cost monetary value of most mass-produced vesture and are the largest cost constituent of a garment ” .

Fitness to aim:

the intent to which the garment is being produced is really of import because different cloths serve different intents. Winter wears and swim wears are non made with the same cloths, cloths for fire combatants must be fire immune, etc.

Garment mistakes:

see public presentation of different cloths during and after production because mistakes are bound to happen during or after production.

Stitchs and seam types:

Thread and stitches are the primary agencies of garment assembly. ( Glock et Al, 2000, p.427 ) In garment production, the type of seam should be carefully selected sing the fact that they are the most used in regard of forming and determining the garment. After fabric choice, type of garment to be sewed and the yarn to be used, the seam to be used will be the following thing to be selected, this will chiefly be determined by the sort of cloth being sewn as seams have several belongingss ; strength, extensibility, snap, security, lastingness and good visual aspect. If a incorrect seam is used on a cloth, it may ensue to sew or dress mistake. The British criterion classified stitches into six classs ; Class 100- individual yarn concatenation stitches, used for impermanent sewing, Class 200- manus stitches used for run uping borders, Class 300- lockstitches that are suited for shutting, lapping and adorning, Class 400- multi-thread concatenation stitches used as cross over seams and side seams, Class 500- overedge concatenation stitches used to tidy and adhere of cut borders of a woven and knitted cloths, and Class 600- covering concatenation stitches used to do level extensile seams on knitted cloths. Each of the above classified stitches has assorted stitch types within them. ( Eberle et al, 2004, p. 167 )

Sewing Machinesand Acerate leafs:

machine acerate leafs come in assorted forms and sizes and should be used on single machines, stitch types, togss and cloths. There are assorted needle points and cutting points for assorted cloths and in order to avoid amendss on garments, the right pick of acerate leafs must be made. The four different types of acerate leafs are ; cloth point, set point, ball point, and cutting point acerate leafs. The type of needle to be used will be determined by the cloth under production. Incorrect acerate leafs may do serious amendss on garment and therefore should be avoided.

Bulk Production:

this can merely be booked when the full above mentioned have been finalised. It is indispensable to utilize appropriate engineerings during production.

Quality Control:

is the procedure of keeping given criterions in the merchandise, from the design to the consumers ‘ usage of the merchandise, for a given life with given conditions. ( Solinger, 1998, p.562 ) Quality control helps to guarantee that consumers receive goods that are fit for the intended intent so that the maker will non hold big returns at the terminal of the twenty-four hours.


The demand to press garment during and at the terminal of their production is a basic demand in order to determine and complete them ( cooklin, 2006, p.135 ) . Pressing contributes extremely to the quality and visual aspect of a finished garment. Pressing can be used to smooth off unwanted fold and crush Markss, make fold where the design of the garment requires them, mould the garment to the contour of the organic structure, prepare garments for farther stitching and refinish the cloths after fabricating the garment. Tyler ( 2008, p. 254 )

There are two procedures involved in pressing ; In-process pressure which is done when garment are still under building and Finish pressure which is done after the production of the garment but anterior to packing. The indispensable elements for good pressure are ; heat, steam, force per unit area and vacuity. Glock and Kunz ( 2000, p. 498 )

Steam and heat are used to loosen up the fibre construction of the cloth to enable it take a different form, force per unit area is applied to put the fiber into their new place, and vacuity is used to dry and chill the garment to enable it put into the new form. However, the reaction of steam, force per unit area and vacuity on the cloth depends on the qualities and belongingss of the fibers, therefore, different cloths take different clip scope to be pressed.

All cloths have different belongingss and so necessitate different pressing system. One must hence do usage of right heat, steam, force per unit area and clip while pressing to avoid defects. Cotton and linen may necessitate hot Fe but attention must be taken as linen tends to shrivel. Rayon, woven and knitted rayonss demands cool Fe as they have runing inclination, woollen cloths nevertheless requires reasonably hot Fe while knitted cloths requires reasonably cool Fe.

The basic pressure equipments are ; Solid-surface pressure equipment which consist of buck imperativenesss, chainss, blocks, dies, rollers, collapsable signifiers, and wrinkling and turn uping blades and Steamerswhich includes steam jets, steam guns, steam whiffs, and steam tunnels or Chamberss. Glock and Kunz ( 2000, p. 499 )


These are used to back up, reenforce and command countries of garments such as neckbands, turnups, etc. Tyler ( 2008, p. 202 ) ) Interlinings can frequently be referred to as interfacings. They could be the garment and the liner or the garment and the facing. Interlinings are used in garments to retain form, control shrinking, give the garment good visual aspect, make it lasting and recover fold.

There are several assortments of cloths specially used for interlining and they could come in assorted signifiers depending on the belongingss of the cloths they are made to back up. They can be woven, non-woven and knitted interlinings and could be fusible or non-fusible depending on what they are being used for. Fusible interlinings have adhesive rosin on one side which adheres to the garment on confronting subdivision with the right intervention. They are applied with heat and steam with a procedure known as fusing. They can be successfully used in any garment but it is advisable to prove for the 1 that best lucifer the garment it ‘s being used for.


The basic ground for organic structure measuring in the vesture industry is to run into consumer vesture demands, find a niche/target market and develop appropriate size charts.

A size system includes a scope of sizes based on step of dimensions for a organic structure type. In the 18th century, assorted sizing systems such as mensurating tapes and calipers were being used to develop garment. These methods were non working good as it was clip consuming and sometimes inaccurate. Later in the recent clip, the usage of anthropometrics was introduced for more accurate and faster size.

Anthropometrics can be defined as the scientific discipline concerned with the measuring of adult male. The name was derived from the Greek, & A ; lsquo ; Anthro ‘ and & A ; lsquo ; Metreein ‘ which mean & amp ; lsquo ; human ‘ and & A ; lsquo ; step ‘ , severally. ( Ashdown, 2007, p.9 ) Variation in human tallness, size, weight, etc. can be caused by gender, nutrition, age, ethnicity and life style and so regular updating of anthropometric informations aggregations are required.

Barnes stated that doing vesture which truly fits is one of the garment devising ‘s greatest challenges, and important success. No affair how lovely the cloth, how all right the garment design or how adept the stitching, the consequences are dissatisfactory if the garment fits ill. ( Ashdown, 2007, p.196 ) The major intent of vesture is protection, visual aspect, public-service corporation and ornament and to accomplish these, vesture anthropometrics must be considered.

Dressing anthropometrics trades with human physical measurings to better size, tantrum, physical comfort, public presentation and styling. It besides enables the development of size charts based on scientific grounds and aid develop a greater apprehension in data direction and analysis for form development.

The demands and outlooks of consumers for garment must be met and so technological promotion has brought about the debut of ready-to-wear/mass production dress. Garments are frequently fitted to suit theoretical accounts and a set of sizes are proportionally graded from these sizes from which fluctuations within the size are developed into classs based on anthropometric informations. These size classs might be from smallest to largest, regular to long, etc. However, & A ; lsquo ; & A ; lsquo ; size entirely does non find garment tantrum, tantrum is how a garment conforms to or differs from the organic structure. ” ( Glock and Kunz 2000 ) ,

The 3D organic structure scanning engineering and practical tantrum is valid and dependable and so hold improved garment size, and provided fluctuation in size, form and even positions. Mass customisation and standardization will assist anthropometrics supply a good general image in the organic structure specifications for consumers as cognition of the organic structure are indispensable for the proviso of equal size and tantrum.


Computers have had much more impact on design and form cutting than on the fabrication procedure, rushing up the rhythm in which merchandises are developed. Draping cloths into 3-D images at the design phase can cut out the sample make up procedure to demo how finished merchandise will look, salvaging clip and money on trying and pattern film editing. ( Goworek, 2006, p. 56 )

CAD which means computer-aided design is the application of computing machine engineering to the development of a garment up to the production point. ( Glock and Kunz, 2000 ) CAD is used in the designing of new manners, every bit good as ethical specifications and maps of pattern creative activity, scaling, production of cutting markers and lay planning in garment production. Pattern creative activity is the development of 2D forms, whereby forms can be created to plan specifications or manually and so digitized into CAD. Pattern creative activity on CAD is sample forms created from & A ; lsquo ; Block Patterns ‘ .

In design, CAD engineering is used in scanning, coloring, ocular shows, fabric printing, scope edifice, and selling. If a sample garment is needed with the right print on it, a length of cloth can be printed from a CAD plan utilizing a digital pressman much more rapidly and cheaply than bulk printing. ( Goworek, 2006, p. 66 )

The vesture industry is the most skilled labour-dependent industry and any cost salvaging through new computer-aided design ( CAD ) engineerings have become a demand in deriving a competitory advantage. ( Fairhurst, 2008, p.140 ) Hence, the usage of CAD in garment design and merchandise development procedure is to rush up production, guarantee truth and supply a higher return to the makers.

Gerber engineering now offers a 3D practical garment draping system which enables form informations ‘Assembled ‘ onto practical Avatar, which has to the full integrated into 2D CAD system. A 3D design package application that allows the practical sewing and draping of a 2D form produced by a form design system, to be draped on a practical tantrum theoretical account and displayed in a 3D environment is V-Stitcher. This package has a direct nexus to Gerber Accumark form cutting package. This means that forms created in Accumark can be easy opened in V-Stitcher. ( CAD workbook )

3D advanced design engineering includes production form scaling, marker devising, cutting, and pull offing merchandise informations.


As the maker is believing of consumer satisfaction, he is besides believing of net income. To accomplish this, a garment under production must undergo merchandise lifecycles. These lifecycles are ; design inspiration, manner studies, temper boards, sample production, purchasing choice, merchandise development, proficient specification, industry and distribution to retail merchants.

Design inspiration:

is a procedure whereby one decides on the sort of garment to plan, sing silhouette, coloring material and fabric texture.

Manner studies:

one time what to plan is determined, the following measure is to interpret the construct into studies. This can be achieved utilizing a computing machine engineering system known as two-dimensional CAD designs or the temper board which will be posted in the design room.


the interior decorator will order the cloth needed for the production, with the trims, and other accoutrements. Then the form for the production will be finalised and graded, after which there will be fabric review, followed by puting up, cutting and burding of the cloth.

Merchandise development:

foremost form which is used to cut and run up the paradigm or first sample garment will be made. During this procedure, method of building must be tested as the sample is being sewn. Then the garment must be fitted to a fit theoretical account to prove comfort and easiness of motion.

Technical specification:

Specification is a medium for communicating in the manner industry. Specification sheets provide of import inside informations to guarantee the right executing of garment forms into finished garments. The study of the garment, fit sanctioned sample, trims, preproduction garment, dislocation for assembly, graded size chart and graded nest of forms must be specified chiefly for quality control. Garment specification fundamentally shows the size, scope and measuring, the manner of the garment, season, cloth, colorss and acceptable tolerances in footings of proving. Performance specification shows inside informations of how the garment should execute, and may besides include how the cloth is to be tested.


before beginning of majority production, there must be a pre-production meeting at the mill, after which paradigm will be presented to purchasing squads for choice. Extras of the sample garment are made to maintain in the salesroom for the purchasers or gross revenues representatives to advance and topographic point orders. Then the basic production of manners harmonizing to gross revenues projections will take topographic point. Distribution to retail merchants: the produced garments are eventually distributed to the warehouse and so eventually launched into the shops.


The major mistake that may originate during garment production is stitch mistakes. There are assorted possible mistakes in stitches and seams and these includes ; seam smile which may be caused by excessively few stitches per centimeter, deficient bite on the over cabinet or needle tenseness being excessively loose thereby doing the seam appear smile. Seam slippage makes the garment develop holes along the seam line and is caused by fabric drawing off from the seam allowance if under strain. Seam breakage appears normal but the togss in the seam interruption when it is extended. It is caused by deficient stitches per centimeter. Another mistake is malformed seam where the hole made by acerate leaf is non being filled wholly by the yarn, thereby doing holes appear on the right side of the garment along the seam line. This can happen if the yarn is excessively all right for the needle size or if the acerate leaf is excessively big for the thread size. When the narrations of a fabric become distorted during stitching and the cloth becomes puckered along the seam line, it is seam ruck. This possibly caused by building and coating of the cloth, type of run uping machine being used, conditions of the sewing type or behavior of the run uping yarn or needle size.

All these mistakes can be avoided or corrected if the right stitch and seam pick are made during garment production procedure.


Care must be taken while pressing a garment as assorted defects may happen because of errors or deficiency of concentration during under pressing or Post pressure.

Under pressing defects:

Uneven borders, seams non to the full pressed unfastened, lasting glaze, singes or Burnss, misplaced folds, etc Post pressure defects:

Burned, scorched garment, Gloss, Flattened nap, Broken zips or buttons, Linings demoing plaits, furrows, folds and radiance, Edges wavy and stretched, etc.


If excessively much heat and force per unit area are applied on fusible interlinings, the adhesive may ooze through to the right side of the cloth and cause gluey spots known as work stoppage through or the adhesive may ooze back through the interlining and leave gluey Markss known as work stoppage back. The high temperature on fusing may besides do hardening of interlining parts which will ensue to stiff board-like grips even when a soft interlining is used.


Technology is a really of import portion of merchandise development procedure as it ensures quality, with suited tantrum, stylish and attractive visual aspect of the garment to the satisfaction of the consumers.

Much invention and involvement in manner has given consumers a batch of pick in maintaining up with manner tendency. The manner industry is now being faced with a batch of challenges because manner is an mundane activity which we can ne’er make without. Harmonizing to Fan ( 2004, p.1 ) , & A ; lsquo ; & A ; lsquo ; our visual aspect is our most evident single features… trusting on visual aspect to steer personal determinations and societal interactions is non merely natural, but ineluctable. The organic structure and the manner it is clothed and presented is a primary medium of look, for it makes statements on the status of society itself ” . Hence, manner demands are drastically increasing every now and so so as to run into up with the ongoing fast manner.

The ultimate end of makers and retail merchants of vesture is to supply vesture for the whole scope of their mark market that invariably fits good to increase client satisfaction and ultimate gross revenues. ( Ashdown, 2007, p. 348 )

To accomplish this ultimate end, industries must ever make and construe new tendencies, thereby doing certain they select right cloths, manners, and colorss to accommodate the demands of these mark market. However, to make good tantrums and fulfill the demands of these consumers, the maker must ever follow with the norms and engineerings that are involved in the daily procedure of vesture production. Hence, current engineerings and the basic demands of garment development must ever be applied in the cause of merchandise development.


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