Critical Evaluation Of Leadership Theories Essay

a leader is person who can animate people to make things in manner that the people get wholly in it. Leaderships are people who leave their footmarks in their countries of passion. ( J.Byrnes, 2005 ).effective leaders must hold two major qualities: cognition and communicating competency. Leader needs cognition of issue and the ways of efficaciously taking a squad. Leader besides needs to be effectual communicators as every bit listener and talker. Leaderships should get qualities of flexible, openness, bravery, synergistic and positive attitude.

We will write a custom essay sample on
Critical Evaluation Of Leadership Theories Essay
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Leadership refers to the procedure of act uponing the activities of others toward high degrees of end scene and achievement.Peter Drucker ( 1999 ) writes the leader ability to bring forth unusual or exceeding committedness a vision. And of leading being ‘the lifting of people ‘s vision to a higher sight, the elevation of their public presentation to a higher criterion, the edifice of their personality beyond its normal restrictions ‘.

Leadership theories: –

There are three major attacks of leading theory. They are: –

Historical attack

Classical attack

Contemporary attack

Trait theory: -a trait is comparatively stable facet of an person ‘s personality that influences behavior in a peculiar way. Many people have tried to place the personal features associated with effectual leaders. Harmonizing to trait theory every individual will be born with some traits. Trait theory says that every leader will hold certain traits that make them more suitable to leading than others. A individual would hold these traits from birth which will be his features which makes him more suited to be leaders than others. Traits are the separating personal features of a leader, such as intelligence, values, ego assurance and visual aspect

Behavior theory: -according to behavior theory leaders are made non born. This theory is wholly against the traits theory. Traits theory says that leading qualities come from birth where as the classical leading manner like the behavioural theory says that they come from pattern and non from birth. It says that leading is defined, therefore any individual can larn those qualities required to be leader and can successfully take when there is demand for it. Leadership qualities can be adopted by looking at others.

Possibly any leader can follow the right behaviour with appropriate preparation.

Contingency theory: -contingency attack a theoretical account of leading that describes the relational ship between leading manners and specific organisational state of affairss. An early, extended attempt to unite leading manner and organisational state of affairs into a comprehensive theory of leading was made by Fiedler and his associates. Contingency theory is a polish of the situational point of view and focal points on placing the situational variables which best predict the most appropriate or effectual leading manner to suit the peculiar fortunes.

Transactional attack: – James Burnes ( 1978 ) distinguish between transactional and transformational leaders. A transactional leader is one who treats leading as an exchange, giving followings what they want if they do what the leader desires. And a transformational leader is a leader who treats leading as a affair of motive and committedness, animating flowerers by appealing to higher ideals and moral values. The leader, who holds power and control over his or her employees or followings, provides inducements for follower to make what the leader wants. Hence, transactional leading merely involves an exchange that leads to want results and transformational leading motivates us to make more than we originally expected to make.

Participative theory: -participative theory says that whatever the determination or whenever the determination is need to be made, affect everyone who is attached to that. Do n’t take determination entirely. Reason is when everyone come together to take the determination they feel involved in it. In participative type of leading people are more committed because they are involved in determination devising. The drawback of this manner would be it can confound a leader as which class of action to be taken as there are more thoughts. This can be clip devouring because more people are involved determinations can non be made rapidly.

Situational theory: – harmonizing to Hersey and Blanchard ‘s situational theory, a leader can follow one of the four leading manner, based on a combination of relationship and undertaking behaviour. These four manners are: – hypertext transfer protocol: //

The revealing manner reflects a high concern for undertaking and a low concern for people and relationships. This is really directing manner. It involves giving expressed waies about how undertakings should be accomplished.

The merchandising manner is based on a high concern for both people and undertakings. With this attack, the leader explains determinations and gives subordinates a opportunity to inquire inquiries and addition lucidity and understanding about work undertakings.

The participating manner is based on a combination of high concern for people and relationship and low concern for production undertakings. The leaders portions thoughts with subsidiaries, gives them a opportunity to take part, and installations determination devising.

The delegation manner reflects a low concern for both relationships and undertakings. This leader manner provides small way and small support because the leader turns over duty for determinations and their execution to subsidiaries.

The leading attack of Richard Branson: –

The diverseness of concern operated by virgin group helps the company keep a high degree of trueness in many different industries. Sir Richard Branson is the current president of the company and is good known for his colourful yet competitory leading manner of Branson. Manager of virgin company use the construct of invention to animate the employees to lend the company at all degrees. The transformational leading form followed by the company made the employees to lend to their degree best to walk towards success. The transformational leading has proved to be a valuable tool for executives, directors and workers likewise. Because of the highest degree of direction they encourage employees to utilize their accomplishments in a manner that best compliment the company. Employees within the company have a willingness to work together to spread out and better the company in order to make their ain personal success in life. Harmonizing to Richard, a good leader besides has a good hearer. He has created a alone direction expression that has contributed to the long term success of the company.

Possibly the simples and best advice is that:

“ Good directors sleep good at night-because they have clear scrupless after the determinations of each working twenty-four hours. ”

Different Leadership manner: –

Management manners act upon how leaders communicate with employees. For illustration, endeavor operates an unfastened door policy. These include everybody within the organisation to hold direct contact with senior directors. The main executive officer Andy Taylor is following the values set by his male parent by doing chances for employees to run into and speak to senior directors. Enterprise puts a high degree value on teamwork and unfastened communicating between employees at all degrees.

Directors have their ain preferable direction manner. Some prefer an bossy manner where Tell employees what to make and how to make it. Others prefer a democratic manner where they help their squad to detect solutions to jobs for themselves. The direction manner must alter to suit the fortunes. Some determinations must be made at the highest degree. For illustration, a director would necessitate to give immediate instructions on a wellness and safety issue or in a fire. However, if altering an office layout, the director could go forth the squad to look into and make up one’s mind on the solution for themselves. There are many direction manners discuss below:

Autocratic manner

An bossy manner of direction is when a director makes a determination entirely. The director conveys the determination to staff and they have to work within the range of that determination. For illustration, in order to present good client service, teach all staff to fallow endeavor ‘s guidelines for covering with client.

Example: The frailty president of corporate communications for endeavor established an environmental commission. Its purpose was to act upon the behaviour of the whole organisation by cut downing waste and bettering its C the industry leader, enterprise efforts to put high criterions when it comes to the impact of rental autos on the environment.


speedy determination devising

effectual when using many low skilled workers

Likes to state those working under them what to make

No audience

Subordinates are expected to obey instructions


No two manner communicating so can be de-motivating

creates “ them and us ” attitude between director and workers

Helps complete urgent undertakings that need making rapidly or where there is an component of hazard about the work

May lead to deficiency of creativeness or opposition if employees have no input.

Douglas McGregor in 1960 used footings theory x and theory Y to place two really different signifiers of direction manner:

A theory x director tells employees what to make and oversee their work. This involves utilizing rigorous controls within the concern. This reflects an bossy manner. A theory Y director believes employees want to make good. The director provides persons with the chance to take control of their work. They can lend towards work outing a job or issue. This helps actuate them to make better.

Democratic manner

Management the other manus attempts to affect employees to happen out their sentiments before making a determination. Certain affairs can be decided through treatment and audience.

As an illustration, there may be a complex determination to be made about closing down a piece of equipment and the consequence of this on other production systems. Enterprise uses democratic determination -talking in many parts of concern. Everyone has the chance to lend thoughts to the determination. There are two types of democratic decision-making:

Persuasive democratic management-here the leader makes the determination foremost and so carry employees that he or she has made the right determination.

Consultative democratic management-this involves the group lending to the determination devising procedure, with the leader doing the concluding determination.

The squad is cardinal to presenting good client service. The advisory attack helps enterprise accomplish this concern aim. This independent attack enables enterprise employees to hold ownership of many of their activities. This acts as a incentive for staff. In 1943, Abraham Maslow, looking at motive, identified a hierarchy of demands for single employees. Everyone has needs for H2O, nutrient, heat and safety. These have to be met before a individual can travel on to carry throughing their higher demands. When employees are empowered to do determinations, this improves their sense of worth and besides helps them to utilize originative accomplishments within their function and motivates them to execute better. Making determinations at a local degree helps to run into clients ‘ demands and enables persons to take a pride in their occupation. This recognizes that employees are motivated by factors other than fiscal 1s. These include congratulations, acknowledgment or holding more duty.


authorization is delegated to plants which is actuating

utile when complex determinations required that need specialist accomplishments

portions information with squad members

provides chances for the squad to act upon determination devising


Mistakes or mistakes can be made if workers are non skilled or experienced plenty.

Paternalistic manner

Sometimes directors need to follow a paternalistic manner. This means that they may do determinations without audience or engagement, but they have the employees ‘ best involvement at bosom. If determination is presented in this manner, although employees are non involved in doing the determination, they are less likely to experience unhappy about it.

Example: in the oil and gas industry it is of import to make for every employee a well -rounded, safe, honoring and disputing work this manner employees will be motivated to work at their best and actively contribute to making that safe working and life environment.


more two manner communicating so actuating

workers feel their societal demands are being met


low down determination devising

still rather a dictatorial or bossy manner of direction

Individualistic manner

Derived from the Gallic significance ‘leave entirely ‘, this is a loose leading manner. It allows employees to transport out activities freely within wide bounds. It differs from the democratic manner in that persons are able to act independently and do their ain determinations, instead than coming together on an in agreement class of action.

Small entrepreneurial squads manage and lead local endeavor offices. These squads are decentralized and do many determinations on their ain. This shows a type of laissez- faire construction.


Enterprise ‘s doodly-squat Taylor initiation values award demonstrates the laissez -faire attack. This is portion of endeavor ‘s corporate duty programme.Each part manages and participates in community undertakings. These may affect, for illustration, working in a nursing place or horticulture for the aged. If the part wins the award, it is free to utilize the money as it chooses.


Some employees might non be able to motive themselves or do the right determination entirely. Therefore persons within endeavor squads work to corporate guidelines for covering with clients. Staff besides receives regular preparation and feedback. Employees in a local subdivision have a sense of ownership for many of their activities. At the same clip, they have the support and calling construction of a big transnational company.

Depending upon the circumstance, directors will utilize different direction manners. By developing leaders who are able to do determinations at a local degree, endeavor can react more closely to client demands within a competitory service industry, its high degrees of client service provide it with competitory advantage over its challengers. Directors must choose a direction manner that is best suited for them, their section, their subsidiaries, and eventually the organisation they work for. The state of affairss directors encounter may necessitate changing direction manners depending on a specific assignment, the employees being managed, or the director ‘s personality. Management manner can finally find the public presentation result of employees and a company ‘s growing depends on the direction manners of its executives. Therefore, in order to find the most appropriate direction manner, it is necessary to first reappraisal old consequences produced as a consequence of a peculiar direction attack.

Cultural differences: – there are several cultural differences between states and cultural groups. This influences the extent to which both persons and the organisations are judged on their path record and on their promise. These differences are of import because concern is conducted across frontiers and because many organisations have bases in several states. Organizations have to set their manner for different clients and markets and accept that there will be cultural differences between the assorted parts of the organisation. This world affects the ability of the strategic leader to synthesise the assorted parts of the organisation and accomplish the possible synergisms.

Kantor ( 1991 ) research drew out different positions on competitory success between the taking states, where she argued that these stemmed from national civilizations and cultural differences. Her findings indicated the undermentioned precedences: –


merchandise development


merchandise quality


client service

merchandise quality



work force accomplishments

job work outing


These decisions may be summarized by reasoning that Japan is driven by a committedness to invention, America by clients and Germany by technology.

The power of civilization should non be underestimated, both for a company ‘s success and if it is inappropriate, in thwarting alteration. Valuess, schemes, systems, organisation and accountabilities- the constituents of culture- are a really strong mix which can either do a company successful or instead, lead to its diminution. The undertaking of corporate leading is to use energy and opinion to the corporate civilization to guarantee its relevancy. ( Allen Sheppard )

Business plays an of import function in any civilization. The specific function it plays is the consequence of society ‘s outlooks. Some believe that the lone societal function concern should play is to maximize net incomes. Society, using legal and political power, has demanded greater societal and ethical sensitiveness from concern. It has required that concern takes into history the community of persons whose lives are affected by its determinations.

Motivation: –

Over the old ages a figure of leading theories have been put frontward in an effort to explicate the nature of employee motive and suggest ways in which it may be improved.motivation is the force that makes us act in a peculiar manner. In hospitatility and touristry puting movtivation is about guaranting that employees put in the attempt required to accomplish the aims set for them.

Motivation theories: –

Frederick Taylor ‘s theoy: –

Taylor ‘motivation theory: –

Taylor was an American applied scientist who studied production methods in the steel industry. He concluded that workers chief motive was wage and that they needed close supervision.he belive that complex occupations would be most expeditiously performed if broken down into separate operations where little could travel incorrect.

Elton mayo: –

Harmonizing to Elton mayo 1920 the employees were reacting to the attending given to them, instead than to the physical working conditions.he was look intoing why, despite improved installations and benefits, there was much dissatisfaction and hapless productiveness.

Abraham Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands: –

Maslow foremost developed his theory of human motive in 1943. Maslow believed that motive comes from a desire to fulfill a hierarchy of human demands. We must first of all saisfy our basic demands for endurance such as nutrient and shelter.maslow accepted that a assortment of demands will be at the same clip, but suggested that one time lower demands are satisfied so higher needs become the strongest motives.

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Frederick Herzberg ‘s two factor theory: –

Frederick Herzberg ‘s two factor theory, produced in the fiftiess. Concers occupation design and satisfaction.from legion interviews with comptrollers and applied scientists he concluded that two sets of factors are of import in motives.

Douglas McGregor ‘s theory X and Y

McGregor put frontward two utmost positions about the manner in which organisations manage their employes. He called these theory Ten and Y theory.

Theory X organisations

Theory Y organisations

Keep a traditional position. They believe that their workers are selfish, will non accept duty are basically lazy and work merely because they have to. They have no trueness to the organisation and demand to be purely supervised. They are motivated merely by wage or by menaces.

Have a positive position. They believe that their workers respond to encouragement and given the right state of affairs, will accept duty can be truly originative wil accept alteration and can be motivated by work that is interesting. These workers will care about their organisation if it values their attempts.

Motivation -overview

Motivation may be provided by either: –

altering the working environment, including the occupation itself and the civilization of the organisation. This will enables us to fulfill our internal demands.

Offering inducements which encoueage and honor performance-these may be fiscal or non fiscal.

Diverseness: –

Now twenty-four hours ‘s people are portion of a world-wide economic system with competition coming from about every continent. For this ground, organisations need diverseness to go more originative and unfastened to alter. Since pull offing diverseness remains a important organisational challenge, directors must larn the managerial accomplishments needed in a multicultural work environment.

Diverseness significance: London & A ; Rosener [ 1991 ] define diverseness as that which differentiates one group of people from another along primary and secondary dimensions.

“ A group is diverse if it is composed of persons who differ on a feature on which they base their ain societal individuality ” [ O’Reilly, Willliams, & A ; Barsade 1998, p.186 ]

Cultural diverseness:

Cultural diverseness has been defined as “ the representation, in one societal system, of people with clearly different group associations of cultural significance ”. It has been studied in both research lab and field scene. [ Cox et al.1991 ].

Within culturally homogenous groups, members will hold inclination to pass on with each another more frequently and in a greater assortment of ways, possibly because they portion worldviews and a incorporate civilization ensuing from in group-attachments and shared perceptual experiences [ early & A ; mosakawski,2000 ]

Harmonizing to Mahatma Gandhi:

“ I do non desire my house to be walled in on all sides, and my Windowss to be stuffed. I want the civilizations of all the lands to be blown about my house every bit freely as possible. Buit I refuse to be blown off my pess by any. “ Globalization provides both positive and negative impact on cultural diverseness:

Positive Impact:

It allows self-representation and information sharing on a whole new degree. Technology provides a medium where word picture of images and portraitures of self-identity can supply the agencies in which truism can be established.

Global media centres allow civilizations to advance consciousness and supply public cognition and apprehension of their narratives and individualities.

It besides allows for the communicating of their relevant histories and commentaries on issues that are of import in continuing the civilization and cognition acquisition of cultural ways – leting them to retain their diverseness.

Bing in charge of their ain media production companies allows control of their artefacts, signs and symbols that are regarded as cultural belongings. When civilizations are in control of their ain public images they are better equipped to pull off and stand for their images suitably without deceit.

Technology allows for self-representation and saving of personal and corporate identity by providing autonomy and authorization.

Globalization provided the chance to redefineA corporate identity along with placing a topographic point for typical civilizations. Global societal, political and economic webs, combined with common ends, will no uncertainty enable the emerging authorization among cultural peoples ( Smith, 2000 ).

This is far more advantageous than single communities or groups coming frontward to raise planetary or local concerns. Global placement of cultural groups allows societal and political power that has antecedently non been seen.

Utilizing planetary networking provides the chance to problem-solve and strategize with other civilizations that are sing similar challenges in acclimatising to technological alteration.

It can go a platform to mobilise thoughts, point of views, runs and schemes to protect and cultivate involvements and earn political power.

Global awareness provides many benefits, including a limelight on authorities policies, entree to instruction, populating conditions, and unfairnesss, which promotes economic force per unit area from foreign states to advance national alteration. Cultural consciousness leads to empathy, understanding and tolerance, while planetary markets can take to employment, economic and educational chances.

Diverseness has become valued internationally, and is promoted through international organisations. This discourse views the homogenisation of societies as necessary to make “ greater niche diverseness ” ( TWBG, 2004 )

Negative impact:

There are a figure of negative impacts globalisation has had on cultural diverseness, including the influence transnational corporations have on advancing a consumer civilization, exploitation of workers and markets and act uponing social values. This increased handiness of commercial media and merchandises can “ submerge out ” local cultural influences.

Loss of individuality and group individuality: Loss ofA individualismA and group individuality occur when globalization encourages a ‘Western ideal of individuality ‘. This promotes a homogenous set of values and beliefs. There is an premise that the values and political orientations of the “ Global North ” will supply a suited model for the new cognition economic systems of the developing “ Global South ” ( Youngman, 2000 ).

COLONINIZATION: GlobalizationA allows furtherA colonization which impacts rational belongings andA cultural rights.

Global entree to information has opened the gateway to geting cultural belongings and information. Many position that ‘if it is out there it is free for the taking ‘, which includes cultural marks,  vocals,  dance,  rites and other cultural artefacts. These icons of a civilization are viewed as a living heritage and are an built-in portion ofA identity ( Smith,2000 )

Challenge for leaders of today:

Though they work together, they maintain their distinguishable individualities, diverse civilization and separate life styles. Directors of today must larn to populate with these diverse behaviours.

Diversity, if decently managed, can increase creativeness and invention in organisations every bit good as improve determination devising by supplying different positions on jobs.

Diversity chiefly came into the image when globalisation came in 1990-91. As the moving ridge of globalisation expanses across the organisations, there is a convergence of work force from diverse states, civilizations, values, manners etc.Such convergence of clearly different people nowadayss enormous chances every bit good as challenges.

Organizations can deduce impregnable lead in the market place when they have in topographic point effectual Human Resource Management patterns and diverseness enterprises that accept differences, values equality and make preferable topographic points to work and as we enter the twenty-first century, work force diverseness has become an indispensable concern concern. In the alleged information age, the greatest assets of most companies are now on two pess ( or a set of wheels ). Undeniably, there is a talent war ramping. No company can afford to unnecessarily curtail its ability to pull and retain the really best employees available. Pull offing diverseness means pull offing people in the best involvement of employee every bit good as employer.

Our chief aim to depict the procedure of alteration of cultural differences between certain societal groups, caused by globalization. Cultural individuality on certain societies that show cultural diverseness will stay even stronger after Globalization effects. Cultural diverseness will stay and coexist with Globalization. On the other manus, Globalization will take force from cultural diverseness to increase its range and power of diffusion.


Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out