Critically Analysing Joy of giving using Theories of Motivation Essay

Organizations today recognize the demand to maintain their employees motivated to retain the concerns competitory advantage in the industry through high public presentation. ( Edward Lawyer, 2008 )

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The purpose of this essay is to critically analyse the instance survey “ Joy of giving ” by giving penetration into assorted theories of motive, their deductions and relevancy in practical universe. Furthermore, it will discourse the positive results of motive attained by planing and implementing assorted reward systems and eventually possible drawbacks of nominal wagess will be considered such as feeling of entitlement to wagess and bitterness in the absence of the same.

Motivation is basically the desire to accomplish a peculiar end. In organisational scene, it is the thrust which pushes employees to execute good and to travel the excess stat mi when needed because of their trueness to the organisation. This motive can be achieved through appropriate wages schemes which foremost identify each employee ‘s demands and dispositions such as Internal Locus of Control and External Locus of Control and consequently offer wagess that appeal to the person ‘s intrinsic and extrinsic motives. ( Lefcourt, 1982 )

Self Determination theory is the apprehension of evolved unconditioned psychological inclinations of persons towards determining of personality and behavior ordinance. ( Ryan, Kuhl and Deci, 1997 ). This theory recognizes three demands as cardinal ingredients of motive. These are competency ( Harter, 1978 ; White, 1963 ), relatedness ( Baumeister & A ; Leary 1995 ; Reis 1994 ) and liberty ( deCharms, 1968 ; Deci, 1975 ). These are critical elements of ego regard and constituents for growing in a societal scene. The function of direction is to plan ways to further these three traits amongst the work force to enable organisation to last in the ferociously competitory universe through maximal productiveness and trueness.

Companies now employ a mix of wagess in line with demands and procedure theories of motive. This is particularly necessary as factors that motivate employees invariably change with clip. Harmonizing to Peppermint PR ‘s pull offing manager, the company does non follow a stringent program to give out gifts but every clip he feels that a co-worker has gone out of the manner to manage the work duty of another employee with a no- job attitude, he rewards them. Carolyn Axtell, senior lector at Sheffield University thinks single acknowledgment has the highest impact when an person is singled out and praised.

Harmonizing to Maslow ‘s hierarchy, basic wage, confidence of security and wellness insurance cater to lower terminal demands of employees such as Physiological and Safety while just distribution of wagess among employees fulfills the rule of Equity theory. ( Gunkel, 2006 )

Intrinsic and extrinsic factors eliciting involvement in persons to remain committed to their occupations and remain fixated at end accomplishment originate out of sensed strength of demand, honor value of end and the person ‘s outlooks of himself in the state of affairs ( Ross, 2009 ). Those with high extrinsic motive require wagess such as publicities and fillips which provide positive enforcements and supports at completion of undertakings. Intrinsic motive such as high involvement in organisation undertakings and satisfaction from high public presentation can be intertwined with extrinsic wagess. For illustration, a sales representative is motivated to recognize staff politely, record minutess candidly and be responsible for client satisfaction because at the terminal of the twenty-four hours she earns favourable remarks from loyal clients, fillip for increasing client keeping and gets punished if she fails to enter points purchased accurately. While all these are extrinsic incentives, opportunities of publicities, happy client following finally creates intrinsic motive to make good irrespective of external wagess.

Different types of demands and procedure theories of motive are as following. The four most celebrated demands theories are Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands, Alderfer ‘s ERG theory, McClellands theory of acquired demands for accomplishment, power and association and Hertzberg ‘s two factor theory dividing hygiene factors from the incentives. Hertzberg ‘s two factor theory is widely practiced in organisations where it is recognized that basic wage, safe working conditions and wellness and pension programs serve as hygiene factors which means they create dissatisfaction if absent but do non actuate employees therefore other factors need to be employed to convey about intrinsic motive. IT Lab Limited, realizes that while big company benefits frequently go unnoticed, little gifts of grasp and wagess on an on-going footing prove to be a batch more powerful in demoing an employee that he is cared for and therefore supply intrinsic motive.

Types of procedure theories are Expectancy theory and Equity theory. Expectancy theory besides known as Valence- Instrumentality- Expectancy Theory suggests that attempt directed is associated with desire for an result and sensed chance of success. Equity theory is one ‘s desire of results ( wagess ) to be in line with the sum of attempt directed towards accomplishing the end ( Green, 1992 )

Abraham Maslow suggests human demands move up the hierarchy which requires the lower demands to be fulfilled before one ascent onto the higher 1s. It starts from physiological demands, traveling onto safety demands so love and belonging, self esteem and eventually self realization. The bottom four demand degrees known as lack demands have to be satisfied before employees start their conquering of self-actualization and work altruistically hence directors in organisations must work at carry throughing those demands among employees by supplying them with equal wage, occupation security, wellness insurance and chance to work in squads to foster interpersonal relationships among co-workers with a given set of norms to modulate members behaviours ( McDavid and Harari, 1968 )

Similarly, Alderfer adapts his theory from Maslow ‘s by compacting his five degrees of hierarchy into three degrees of human needs- being, related and growing demands. Basically being is a combination of physiological and safety demands. Related demands include credence by others, self esteem and interpersonal relationships while growing demands are the intrinsic constituent of regard needed for one ‘s ego development and growing ( Alderfer, 1972 ).

Analysts are progressively paying attending to Process theories of motive to set up a merely wages system which provides the drift to employees to work wholeheartedly. A system which identifies the value that persons place on their inputs honor them consequently with acknowledgment, fiscal and non fiscal benefits. At Metaswitch, wagess are designed such that they spread to a big figure of employees alternatively of expensive wagess for a few. Mc Lennan says directors should be given clear counsel on wages distribution so it is applied equitably following sound judgement.

The instance survey has relevant illustrations from organisations that guarantee elements of Expectancy theory of motive are present. At Madgex, thank you emails are sent to meriting staff members with the transcript of electronic mail sent to the full organisation. This public acknowledgment additions sense of achievement. Small gifts with a pension program, bonuses at the terminal of a successful fiscal twelvemonth and child care verifiers are distributed based on strength of attempt being recognized.

Harmonizing to Maneaud of Bravissimo, the organisation thinks long and difficult about the gifts before passing money on them puting particular accent on the types of gifts being offered and obtains suggestions from employees on what they want. She besides feels that geting staff feedback on work conditions and work-life balance provides motive as employees feel they have a say and authorization in organisation maps.


A wages scheme permits wage to employees for their work performed in line with company aims and civilization elements. It is considered indispensable in keeping competitory advantage, increasing employee productiveness and retaining work force ( Phillips & A ; Connel, 2003 ). Latham and Locke ‘s end theory provinces that an employee ‘s public presentation and motive are higher if ambitious ends are agreed upon reciprocally and timely feedback is given on their accomplishments. While salary and fillips are given out at regular intervals, other awards should besides be given with an component of surprise, awarded for behaviour which is out of the ordinary. ( Robbins, 2009 )

“ An expected gift at a specified day of the month becomes merely another dry fiscal contract ” says Glaskie from Pepppermint PR. Gaksie besides adds that gifts should be presented with genuine and warm congratulations such as ‘thank you ‘ and ‘well done ‘.

While traditional wages schemes such as Fredrick Taylor ‘s scientific techniques of honoring piece by piece and fillips granted on add-on end product, supplying employees with company stock option and apparition stock options and net income sharing in instance of squad public presentation, are still in trend and widely practiced, untraditional wages systems are besides deriving importance. These are flex-time, flex topographic point, cafeteria system of wagess which allow workers working fewer yearss but longer hours, telecommuting from their places and taking their ain wages basket based on their personal involvements in cafeteria system ( Giesecke & A ; A Mc1eil ( 2010 ). If squads have been assigned to execute a undertaking, so persons should be rewarded on squad public presentation. However the job of equity theory may originate here..If free riders receive as much compensation as the difficult workers so a sense of inequality will predominate taking to dissatisfaction. World at work ( 2007 ).

Other possible restrictions of wages items are as following. Wagess lead to a feeling of favoritism and bitterness among employees if procedure employed is non crystalline and since a judgement component ever exists in the disposal of these wagess, it could be more subjective than nonsubjective Walker and Smith ( 2002 ).

Feelingss of entitlement arise among employees and dissatisfaction in the absence of these wagess. Masters and Rimm ( 1987 )

The wagess may at times be considered undistinguished and fail to make a sense of pride among employees when given out excessively often.

If wagess are excessively focused on single attempts and there is a pool of persons viing for a peculiar wages, inordinate competition can take ugly form. ( Alvey, 2003 )

As mentioned by Johnny Glifford in the instance, if token wagess are non followed by employer ‘s regard for employees so they lose most of their value and farther widen the gulf between employers and employees proposing a non caring direction attitude.

Finally, reward token can hold revenue enhancement deductions for the company if they exceed nominal budget.


HSE is an independent supervisory organic structure in Britain that looks out for working conditions, safety and wellness issues in the workplace. ACAC is a pubic organic structure of the authorities of UK runing to better patterns involved in industrial dealingss ( Lewis andA Thornbory, 2020 )

As emphasis has been recognized as a major beginning of unwellness among workers taking to absenteeism, illness, anxiousness and depression, HSE suggests directors to look after the well being of the staff, place potentially hazardous state of affairss and find ways to avoid and reassign hazard of accidents. By taking stairss to better single staff productiveness, cut down possible hazard of struggle among team members, developing staff for problem- work outing leads to a well equipped work force to get by with force per unit areas, decreased staff turnover and less stress related deductions Cooper ( 1999 ).

ACAS encourages flexible working maintaining in head altering demand landscape by clients who require goods and services as and when needed. Besides employees constant strive for a work-life balance has led to designation of flexible work forms that makes optimal usage of labour and resources. When employees are allowed to take from options such as parttime working, working from place and occupation sharing, they are better able to pull off work aboard household duties and are more productive and loyal to the organisation Avery and Zabel ( 2001 )

Summary and Conclusion

While the instance survey discussed importance of little gifts in the wages scheme of the organisation at unpredictable intervals to maintain employees motivated through positive support via illustrations from assorted administrations, it did non discourse how to place different motivational demands of different employees and allotment of wagess consequently. Employee feedback entirely is non sufficient to make up one’s mind whether wagess had the desired impact or non. Needs and Process theories of motive were discussed to calculate out the extrinsic and intrinsic incentives and to plan wagess consequently. Green ( 1992 )

Herzberg ‘s two factor theory along with Equity and Expectancy theory are most widely practiced as organisations realize that wage, fillips and pension programs are non sufficient to actuate employees particularly at the higher degrees. Equity and Expectancy theory drama a critical function in attempts directed towards public presentation as perceptual experience of wagess value and single ability to accomplish it find attempts towards end accomplishment. Moorhead and Griffin ( 2008 )

Consequently, wagess are incumbent to accomplish motive. Contemporary wagess such as cafeteria manner, flex hours, flex topographic point and occupation sharing enhance employee creativeness and productiveness as more than one occupation can be managed at the same clip. Giesecke & A ; A Mc1eil ( 2010 )

Overall, emphasis in the organisation can be reduced through hazard designation and developing workers on how to counter it Cooper ( 1999 ). Flexible on the job conditions as suggested by ACAS allow persons to pull off a better work-life balance by working from place, portion clip and overtime as per demand


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