Critically discuss the importance of international accounting harmonization Essay


Question 1:

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In the planetary economic system today, users of fiscal statements outside the endeavor have to demand for comparison of accounting studies, particularly when houses want to borrow capital from recognition establishments or some foreign investing. The globalisation tendency of the universe economic system requires states to utilize common accounting linguistic communication to assist guarantee that information can be compared on an international graduated table. That was the procedure of international accounting harmonisation is go oning now, as many states are traveling towards International Financial Reporting Standards ( IFRS ) . With IFRS, it is an effort to norms among states closer to each other than in conformity with a frequent pattern. Over clip, assorted states have adopted IFRS and it proved to be the advantage of international accounting criterions to better the transparence, answerability and make the set of high quality of the accounting criterion. However, professionals are go oning argument about the demands to follow IFRS when it may make some unfavorable judgments for the concerns utilizing IFRS. This essay will try to indicate out the importance of planetary accounting criterions and its positive influence on the planetary market, every bit good as its jobs.

Harmonizing to Deegan, “The purpose of the international harmonization procedure of Accounting Standards is to cut down or get the better of differences worldwide” ( Deegan 2005 ) . We can see that all the companies should set up schemes to work together so that can be applied and better harmonise the regulations of IFRS in order to supply a clear consequence and public-service corporations for the aggregation of fiscal and accounting information.

It can be evidently seen that there are assorted benefits of utilizing IFRS that can non be denied in order to back up corporate prepare fiscal describing worldwide such as nest eggs outlining criterions cost. Besides that, the integrating of accounting aid for companies raising capital on international markets ; assisting heighten the comparison and transparence of fiscal coverage activities. The fiscal statements prepared in conformity with IFRS are widely accepted in many states around the universe. The fiscal statements are concerned, can be comparable and give a true fiscal state of affairs of the organisation is what investors are looking for in explicating their investing determination. In add-on to that, IFRS helps to guarantee planetary consistence of fiscal coverage criterions applicable to organisations in the different legal powers, in footings of measuring, revelation and transparence. Through the application of IFRS, companies will be able benefited from economic integrating, such as entree to capital, keeping fight and develop in a sustainable manner. This reinforces the stableness of the country’s economic system. Traveling into the issues of involvement, one of the biggest benefits that IFRS brings to concerns is salvaging costs. Investors do non necessitate to utilize a big sum of money to guarantee the truth and effectivity of the declaration of pecuniary activities. The following is “With a similar internal coverage system within the company, which gives the opportunity of better comparings, less confusion and errors between the parts of the company” ( Neil 2002 ) . The conveyance information across many parts will non endure unneeded errors and assist homogeneous information, avoiding complicating processs when reexamining the mistakes if it is possible. Besides that, fiscal information information being disclosed to the media will non be misdirecting. More on that, “By utilizing one set of Accounting Standards in diverse legal powers and capital markets. Further cost nest eggs can be achieved, because the readying of amalgamate fiscal statements will be easier for companies. Since there are no longer dearly-won alterations from several different accounting systems for each subordinate, when the parts of the company are consolidated for one. With one set of Accounting Standards, the credibleness of the externally coverage could be raised” . ( Neil 2002 ) . Neil besides stated that “International companies can gain important cost nest eggs if they do non hold to alter their fiscal statements to conform to each state ‘s regulations, when naming on security exchanges” ( Neil 2002 ) . In other words, the entree to the chief fiscal market will go easier for companies moving globally and entree to capital is much simpler for them. We can see clearly through an illustration from Spullber. “For illustration, a company, which has a subordinate in Cuba, the parent company is located in Germany and the portions are listed on the NYSE. This company would hold to fix fiscal statements in Cuba, in Germany and in order to be listed on an U.S. stock exchange it would hold to fix besides fiscal statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP. Thus, its is easy to understand the strength that a global recognized set of Accounting Standards would have” . ( Spulber 2001 ) . “From the point of view of the users of fiscal statements. Investors, Bankss or proprietors are interested in obtaining information, which enables them to do buy/sell/hold investing decisions” ( Neil 2002 ) . Performance comparable fiscal coverage among states and between companies with similar fiscal statements will non meet any jobs during execution. This can be explained with the fortunes that similar minutess are accounted for and reported in the same mode everyplace in the universe. Standard international fiscal coverage ( IFRS ) today is applied by a batch of states around the universe, as of the terminal of 2008 ( 08.27.2008 ) had more than 100 states including Australia, Singapore Turkey, … and all of the states in the European axis. Besides, there are many states in the readying procedure through the IFRS passage has non yet been wholly through. That, underscoring the harmonisation that IFRS can convey to fulfill the demands of concerns and investors.

Although there are many benefits globalisation criterions are recognized but there are besides restrictions in the transmutation and application.First of all, “The hazard that a new accounting system brings along in footings of possibilities for revenue enhancement turning away or fraud, that governments composing the criterion might hold overlooked” ( Deegan 2005 ) . Having the same point of position, Spullber argued that “The possibility of this occurrence is conceivable particularly when the planetary criterion will dwell of a mixture of regulations from around the globe” ( Spullber 2001 ) . Companies can non immediately be familiar and use proficiently IFRS. The happening of fraud and mistake is inevitable to go on. Next is “The necessary reform at revenue enhancement governments will be dearly-won and possibly clip consuming” ( Spulber 2001 ) . The authorities will hold to take the necessary action to back up and assist make the conditions for concerns in the first measure to go familiar with the new accounting criterion. It besides costs a batch of clip and money on preparation. In add-on to that, “Another disadvantage is the differences between Accounting Standards. Apart from international fiscal coverage criterions, there are two other major accounting theoretical accounts the Anglo-American Model and the Continental-European Model” ( Spencer 1998 ) . Furthermore, environmental factors such as civilization, linguistic communication, and legal system can curtail the feasibleness of IFRS. The farther challenge is to construct a qualified fiscal accountant staff squad. This is no easy occupation because IFRS is considered to be really complex, even in the developed economic systems. Fiscal experts will confront many new constructs and different accounting methods applied are new. Hail stated that: “Although comparison in general is a hard end in an international scene, the nature of IFRS itself besides seems to impede the procedure of going a planetary criterion. The first difference between IFRS and U.S.-GAAP is that IFRS requires more discretion and that U.S.-GAAP is more principles-based and detailed” ( Hail, 7 ) . So, GAAP is non a great method to follow particularly the little companies with limited capital.

Consequently, the method of accounting minutess under IFRS based on the nature of the dealing and based on legion judgment and rating analyzes of the directors, who will rede comptrollers fiscal statements. Furthermore, to use IFRS unit must pass significant initial costs, reconstruct the system to roll up, procedure and show the fiscal information. With force per unit area and the increasing examination of investors and the governments, while the passage to IFRS takes clip, endeavors can non disregard this job if you wish to win in the environment competition. Path planning to use IFRS, including consciousness elevation, preparation and constructing the system is pressing and imperative.

In decision, we can state that the application of IFRS has opened a new epoch that changed the manner recorded, measuring and presentation of indexs and points on the fiscal statements. The acceptance of IFRS will convey legion benefits to investors. However, to follow the IFRS, concern demands to concentrate on many facets to maximise the appliances of international fiscal describing criterion.

Question 2:

Legally, Board of Directors are defined as “ the direction company ” , has the right to execute the company on behalf of all the rights and duties of the company, except for those within the authorization of the General Assembly stockholders. The Board of Directors besides launch the strategic development, manages financess and decides the endurance of the company. Therefore, of import virtuousnesss and necessity of the board president are fairness, transparence and full duty.

For the grounds mentioned above, the choice of board members is an highly of import act, must be identified and assessed on assorted nonsubjective factors, spread over every facet. The Financial Reporting Council stated that: “The hunt for campaigners should be conducted and assignments made on virtue, against nonsubjective standards and with due respect for the benefits of diverseness on the board, including gender.” ( Financial Reporting Council ( FRC ) , 2010: 13 ) . We can see in the above assignment. No of import qualities are used as the footing for enlisting of campaigners. And the stockholders must look in the assignment to guarantee transparence and openness in the appraisal of the existent abilities of the campaigners because all things are in favors of conveying the most net income for stockholders. Obviously, we can non happen the equity and transparence in the choice.

In add-on to that, deficiency of nonpartisanship is one positive thing expressed on the assignment. Harmonizing to O’Neal and Thomas ( 1996 ) : “ the assignment procedure may hold the inclination in taking the narrow pool of campaigners harmonizing to the penchant of the members of Board of managers personal, societal, professional and concern networks” . The bias is no longer a alien in the election, when the choice of campaigners was carried out based on the inclination of each person preferred in rating board, which leads to unequal between campaigners and hard to do accurate judgements about the capacity of each individual. When forming an election board member, everything must take topographic point under the supervising of the president. However, in an election above, there is no public election committee was formed to measure the campaigners that the Board was self assessment entirely. It shows a deficiency of earnestness and deficiency of professional every bit good as impacting the opportunities of the campaigners. That showed that power was non equitably distributed among members.

In decision, this assignment did non fulfill three indispensable virtuousnesss as equity, transparence and answerability. That causes important impact to the erroneous determination of the board president every bit good as offering a comprehensive insight deficiency of echt capacity of the campaigners.

Question 3:

A, Harmonizing to the definition of operating sections in Financial Reporting Standard 8, an operating section is defined if it satisfies these conditions:

• That engages in concern activities from which it may gain grosss and incur disbursals.

• Whose runing consequences are regularly reviewed by the entity’s head runing determination shaper ( CODM ) to do determinations about resources to be assigned to the section and measure its public presentation.

• For which distinct fiscal information is expected to be available.

( IFRS8 ) .

We can see from above that, in this instance, the head runing determination shaper needs to be identified that can be a individual or a group of managers.

Head office map is in the operating section if it controls concern activities and can convey the gross when the grosss of the caput office are bigger than the related to the activities of an entity. In this instance, since the caput office does non give rise to gross so this is non the operating section to describe.

B. Harmonizing to IFRS8, Information is required to be disclosed individually about an operating section that meets any of the undermentioned quantitative thresholds:

? Its reported gross, including both gross revenues to external clients and intersegment gross revenues or transportations, is 10 % or more of the combined gross, internal and external, of all operating sections

? The absolute sum of its reported net income or loss is 10 % or more of the greater, in absolute sum, of:

• The combined reported net income of all operating sections that did non describe a loss ; and

• The combined reported loss of all operating sections that reported a loss.

? Its assets are ten per cent or more of the combined assets of all operating section.

( IFRS8 ) .

From these above informations:

Entire gross =73500

= & A ; gt ; 10 % = 7350

Operating net income of section that does non describe a loss:

4500 + 3000 + 225 + 675 = 8400

= & A ; gt ; 10 % = 840

Operating sections are describing a loss: ( 4500 ) .

Entire assets = 29850

= & A ; gt ; 10 % = 2985

QPR1 section exceeds demand in term of the gross threshold ( 34500 & A ; gt ; 7350 ) ,

The net income ( 4500 & A ; gt ; 840 ) and the assets ( 12000 & A ; gt ; 2985 )

QPR2 section exceeds in term of the gross ( 27000 & A ; gt ; 7350 ) , net income ( 3000 & A ; gt ; 840 ) and

The assets ( 9000 & A ; gt ; 2985 )

QPR3 section does non transcend the gross threshold ( 6000 & A ; lt ; 7350 ) , but

Exceed the consequence threshold ( 4500 & A ; gt ; 840 ) and the assets threshold ( 7500 & A ; gt ; 2985 )

QPR4 section non exceeds any of the demands

QPR5 section non exceeds the demands

Therefore, the OPR1, OPR2, OPR3 should be reported individually.

C. IFRS attracted critical remarks because IFRS is a new method and the usage of the information is still really much limited, caused much contention.


Fiscal Reporting Council ( 2010 ) . The UK Corporate Governance Code. London: Financial Reporting Council Ltd.

IASB, ( 2009 ) , IFRS 8-Operating sections, iasplus, [ online ] :

hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed on June 22nd ]

Baxter, P 2005, ACCT19062 issues in fiscal coverage, Study Guide, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton.

Deegan, C 2005, Australian fiscal accounting, 4th edn, McGraw-Hill, North Ryde. Neil, G 2002, Accounting for the Global Economy, Oxford university imperativeness, Oxford. Spulber, D 2001, A Second Opinion on International Accounting Standards, MITPress, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Spencer, K 1998, The Position from the AASB: Take it Easy, Get it Right, AustralianCPA, SU.

Hail, Luzi, Leuz, Christian and Wysocki, Peter D. , Global Accounting Convergence and the

Potential Adoption of IFRS by the United States: An Analysis of Economic and Policy

Factors ( February 25, 2009 ) . Available at SSRN: hypertext transfer protocol: //


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