SEMINAR REPORT (SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY) ON [pic] SESSION 2009-2010 UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mrs. Nida Haseeb (Seminar Co-ordinator) [pic] SUBMITTED BY Vikas Kumar Mishra IV YEAR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ROLL No. : 0600115059 INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW Phone No. : 0522-2890812, 2890730, 3096117 Fax: 0522-2890809 Web: www. integraluniversity. ac. in CERTIFICATE This is to certify that VIKAS KUMAR MISHRA has completed necessary Seminar work & prepared the bonafied report on CRUSOE -PROCESSOR in satisfactory manner as the partial fulfillment for the requirement of the degree of
B. Tech (Information Technology) Of INTEGRAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW under the guidance of his faculty within his time limit and his full effort to make his Seminar good. Mr. M. M. Tripathi Mr. Rizwan Beg (Seminar Co-ordinator) (HOD – CSE/IT) Mrs. Nida Haseeb (Seminar Co-ordinator) Miss. Nikhat Akhtar (Seminar Co-ordinator) ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take the opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Mrs. Nida Haseeb (Department Of CSE/IT) for her valuable advice and guidance for the success of this seminar. I also thank Dr.
Rizwan Beg, HOD, (CSE/IT Dept). and all other staff of the department for their kind co-operation extended to me. Also I am extending my gratitude to everyone who helped me in the successful presentation of this seminar. I am thankful to all my friends who helped me in completing my seminar a successful one. I am also thankful to all the people who were directly or indirectly involved me in helping to complete my seminar report. Vikas Kumar Mishra Roll No. :0600115059 B. Tech ( Final Year ) Information Technology
INDEX |SNO. | TOPIC |PAGE NO. | | | | | |1. |Introduction | 5 | |2. |Architecture |16 | |3. |Hierarchy model |20 | |4. |Instruction set |23 | |5. Performance |24 | |6. |Crusoe v/s Pentium die size |25 | |7. |Code morphing software |26 | |8. |Drawbacks |27 | |9. |Conclusion |28 | |10. Refrences |29 | 1. INTRODUCTION [pic] Mobile computing has been the buzzword for quite a long time. Mobile computing devices like laptops, webslates & notebook PCs are becoming common nowadays. The heart of every PC whether a desktop or mobile PC is the microprocessor. Several microprocessors are available in the market for desktop PCs from companies like Intel, AMD, Cyrix etc. The mobile computing market has never had a microprocessor specifically designed for it.
The microprocessors used in mobile PCs are optimized versions of the desktop PC microprocessor. Mobile computing makes very different demands on processors than desktop computing, yet up until now, mobile x86 platforms have simply made do with the same old processors originally designed for desktops. Those processors consume lots of power, and they get very hot. When you’re on the go, a power-hungry processor means you have to pay a price: run out of power before you’ve finished, run more slowly and lose application performance, or run through the airport with pounds of extra batteries.
A hot processor also needs fans to cool it; making the resulting mobile computer bigger, clunkier and noisier. A newly designed microprocessor with low power consumption will still be rejected by the market if the performance is poor. So any attempt in this regard must have a proper ‘performance-power’ balance to ensure commercial success. A newly designed microprocessor must be fully x86 compatible that is they should run x86 applications just like conventional x86 microprocessors since most of the presently available software’s have been designed to work on x86 platform.
Crusoe is the new microprocessor which has been designed specially for the mobile computing market. It has been designed after considering the above mentioned constraints. This microprocessor was developed by a small Silicon Valley startup company called Transmeta Corp. after five years of secret toil at an expenditure of $100 million. The concept of Crusoe is well understood from the simple sketch of the processor architecture, called ‘amoeba’. In this concept, the x86-architecture is an ill-defined amoeba containing features like segmentation, ASCII arithmetic, variable-length instructions etc.
The amoeba explained how a traditional microprocessor was, in their design, to be divided up into hardware and software. Thus Crusoe was conceptualized as a hybrid microprocessor that is it has a software part and a hardware part with the software layer surrounding the hardware unit. The role of software is to act as an emulator to translate x86 binaries into native code at run time. Crusoe is a 128-bit microprocessor fabricated using the CMOS process. The chip’s design is based on a technique called VLIW to ensure design simplicity and high performance.
Besides this it also uses Transmeta’s two patented technologies, namely, Code Morphing Software and Longrun Power Management. It is a highly integrated processor available in different versions for different market segments. In electronics, Crusoe is a family of microprocessors from Transmeta. They use a VLIW hardware “core”, upon which runs a software abstraction layer, or virtual machine, known as the Code Morphing Software (CMS). The CMS translates machine code instructions received from programs running on the chip into native instructions for the core.
In this way, the chips can emulate the instruction set of other computer architectures. Currently, this is used to allow the chips to emulate the Intel x86 instruction set. In theory, it is possible for the CMS to be modified to handle other instruction streams (i. e. to emulate other microprocessors). The addition of an abstraction layer between the x86 instruction stream and the hardware means that the hardware architecture can change without breaking compatibility, just by modifying the CMS. For example Efficeon, the second-generation Crusoe, has a 256-bit-wide VLIW core versus 128-bit in the first generation.
Crusoe performs in software some of the functionality traditionally implemented in hardware (e. g. instruction re-ordering), resulting in simpler hardware with fewer transistors. The relative simplicity of the hardware means that Crusoe consumes less power (and therefore generates less heat) than other x86-compatible microprocessors running at the same frequency. The name is taken from the novel Robinson Crusoe. Transmeta (NASDAQ: TMTA) is a company that develops computing technologies with a focus on reducing power consumption in electronic devices.
It was founded in 1995 by Bob Cmelik, Dave Ditzel , Colin Hunter, Ed Kelly, Doug Laird, Malcolm Wing, and Greg Zyner as a US-based corporation that designed very long instruction word code morphing (Microcoded) microprocessors. So far, it has produced two x86-compatible CPU architectures: Crusoe and Efficeon. These CPUs have appeared in ultra-portable laptops, blade servers, tablet PCs, a personal cluster computer, and a silent desktop, where low power consumption and heat dissipation are of primary importance. HistoryThroughout Transmeta’s first few years, little was known about exactly what it would be offering.
Its web site went online in mid-1997, and for approximately two and a half years displayed nothing but the text “This web page is not yet here. ” Information gradually came out of the company, suggesting of a very long instruction word-based (VLIW) design that translated x86 code into its own native code. As Intel’s then-forthcoming “Merced” processor was also a VLIW design which could translate x86 code, speculation arose suggesting that Transmeta’s product could have supercomputer-level processing power while actually being cheaper to manufacture than any offering by Intel, AMD or Cyrix.
In fact, Transmeta marketed their microprocessor technology as extraordinarily innovative and revolutionary in the low-power market segment. They had hoped to be both power and performance leaders in the x86 space. But initial reviews of the Crusoe indicated the performance fell significantly short of projections.  Also, during Crusoe development Intel and AMD significantly ramped up speeds and began to address increasing concerns about power consumption. So Crusoe was rapidly cornered into a low-volume, small form factor (SFF), low-power segment of the market.
In response, Transmeta quickly re-designed its technology, and produced the Efficeon processor. The Efficeon claimed to have twice the performance of the original Crusoe CPU at the same frequency. But the performance was still weak relative to the competition, and the complexity of the chip had increased significantly. This greater size and power consumption may have diluted a key market advantage Transmeta’s chips had previously enjoyed over the competition. Transmeta has employed a number of industry luminaries such as Linus Torvalds and Dave D. Taylor.
Initially, its purpose was kept secret, but partially because it had such talent amongst its staff, the industry was constantly abuzz with rumors in addition to ‘conspiracy theories’ resulting in excellent press relations (PR). Torvalds left Transmeta in June 2003 to dedicate himself to the further development of the Linux kernel. As an example of technology media hype, the company was once named as the Most important company in Silicon Valley in an Upside magazine editorial. Less well reported was that the company was never profitable while it was a chip vendor.
In 2002, it had a loss of $114 million dollars, in 2003 a loss of $88 million, in 2004 a loss of $107 million. As of January 2005 the company announced a strategic restructuring away from being a chip product company to an intellectual property company. That is, instead of selling chips, it will sell technology for use by other chip makers. In February 2005, there was wild speculation that AMD might buy Transmeta. In March 2005 Transmeta announced that it was laying off 68 people, leaving 208 employees. About half of the remaining employees were to work on propagating the LongRun2 power optimization technology within Sony products.
Sony was reported to be a key licensee of this Transmeta technology. TimelineFounded in 1995. Corporate launch on January 19, 2000.  On November 13, 2000, Transmeta announces their initial public offering at $21/share. Stock skyrocketed to $46/share making it the last of the great high tech IPOs of the bubble not surpassed by a high tech company again until Google’s IPO in 2004. In July of 2002, Transmeta experience first set of layoffs equaling 40% of the company.  On May 31, 2005, Transmeta announced the signing of asset purchase and license agreements with Hong Kong’s Culture. om Technology Limited led by Chu Bong-Foo, the inventor of the Cangjie method and one of the founding fathers of modern Chinese computing. However, due to delays in obtaining the necessary technology export licenses from the US Department of Commerce, the parties announced the termination of this agreement on February 9, 2006. On August 10 2005, Transmeta announced its first ever profitable quarter. On March 20 2006, GameSpot reported that Transmeta is working on an “unnamed” Microsoft project, probably the Origami. 
On October 11 2006, Transmeta announced that it had filed a lawsuit against Intel Corporation for the infringement on ten of Transmeta’s US patents. The lawsuit, filed with the US District Court of Delaware, requested an injuction against Intel’s continuing sales of infringing products and also requested monetary compensation for damages. On February 7 2007, Transmeta closed its engineering services departments and terminated 75 employees. The company announced that it would no longer develop and sell hardware, but would focus on the development and licensing of intellectual property. 
On July 6 2007, AMD invested $7. 5 million in Transmeta. AMD plans to use Transmeta’s patent portfolio related to energy-efficient technologies.  Origins as a stealth startup The company began as a stealth startup. Transmeta attempted to staff the company in secret, although speculation online was not uncommon . One source of speculation was the company’s bare-bones webpage. On November 12, 1999, a cryptic comment in the HTML appeared : Yes, there is a secret message, and this is it: Transmeta’s policy has been to remain silent about its plans until it had something to demonstrate to the world.
On January 19th, 2000, Transmeta is going to announce and demonstrate what Crusoe processors can do. Simultaneously, all of the details will go up on this Web site for everyone on the Internet to see. Crusoe will be cool hardware and software for mobile applications. Crusoe will be unconventional, which is why we wanted to let you know in advance to come look at the entire Web site in January, so that you can get the full story and have access to all of the real details as soon as they are available. The company was largely successful in hiding its ambitions until the official announcement.
Over 2000 non-disclosure agreements (NDAs) were signed during the stealth period . Lawsuit against Intel Corporation On October 11, 2006, Transmeta announced that they have filed a lawsuit against Intel Corporation for infringement of ten Transmeta U. S. patents covering computer architecture and power efficiency technologies. The complaint charges that Intel has infringed and is infringing Transmeta’s patents by making and selling a variety of microprocessor products including at least Intel’s Pentium III, Pentium 4, Pentium M, Core and Core 2 product line.
TechnologyThe actual Transmeta processors are in-order very long instruction word (VLIW) cores. To execute x86 code, a pure software-based instruction translator dynamically compiles or emulates x86 code sequences, using execution-hotspot guided heuristics. While similar technologies existed (WABI for Sun, FX! 32 for Alpha and IA-32 EL for Itanium) in the 1990s, the Transmeta approach has set a much higher bar for compatibility—able to execute all x86 instructions from initial boot up to the latest multimedia instructions—while retaining most of its core performance.
Transmeta claims several technical benefits to this approach: As the market leaders Intel and/or AMD would extend the core x86 instruction set, Transmeta could quickly upgrade their product with a software upgrade rather than requiring a respin of their hardware. Performance and power can be tuned in software to meet market needs It would be relatively simple to fix hardware design or manufacturing flaws in the hardware using software workarounds.
More time could be spent concentrating on enhancing the capabilities of the core or reducing its power consumption without worrying about 16 years of backward compatibility to the x86 architecture. The processor could emulate multiple other architectures, possibly even at the same time. (At its initial Crusoe launch, Transmeta demonstrated pico-Java and x86 running intermixed on the native hardware. ) Prior to Crusoe release, rumors indicated Transmeta was relying on these benefits to develop a hybrid PowerPC and x86 processor. But Transmeta would initially concentrate solely on the extremely low-power x86 market.
The ability to quickly update products without a hardware respin was demonstrated in 2002 with an in-the-field upgrade (a download) to enhance CPU performance of the Crusoe based HP Compaq TC1000 tablet PC. It was used again in 2004 when NX bit and SSE3 support were added to the Efficeon product line without requiring hardware changes. In the field upgrades were rare in practice due to system hardware vendors not wanting to incur additional customer support costs or spend additional money on QA for the potential upgrades or bug fixes to shipped products they had already closed the revenue books on.
Viability Transmeta lost much credibility and endured significant criticism due to the poor initial Crusoe showing with large discrepancies between projections and actuals for both performance and power. Although power consumption was somewhat better than Intel and AMD offerings, the end user experience (i. e. battery life) only showed a marginal overall improvement.  First, the Code Morphing Software (CMS) combined with cache architecture artificially inflated comparisons between benchmarks and real-world applications. This is due to the repetitive nature of benchmarks and their small footprints.
The CMS software overhead may have actually been a key cause of much lower performance for many real-world applications; the simple VLIW core architecture could not compete on computationally-intensive applications; and the southbridge interface was limited by its low bandwidth for graphics or other I/O-intensive applications. Some standard benchmarks even failed to run, questioning the claim of full x86 compatibility.  The Efficeon processor addressed many of Crusoe’s shortcomings and showed roughly a 2x real-world improvement over Crusoe.
Its die was considerably smaller than Pentium 4 and Pentium M, when compared in the same process technology. Efficeon’s die fabricated in 90 nm is 68 mm? , which is 60% of the Pentium 4 in 90 nm, at 112 mm? , with both processors possessing a 1 MB L2 cache. The notion of selling a product into a specific thermal envelope was typically not understood by the mass of reviewers, who tended to compare Efficeon to the gamut of x86 microprocessors, regardless of power consumption or application. One such example of this criticism suggests the performance still significantly lagged Intel’s Pentium M (Banias) and AMD’s Mobile Athlon XP. 4] For the 7 to 12 Watt thermal envelope in which Efficeon was designed to compete, there are unsubstantiated claims that its frequency far exceeded anything else in the market, at 1. 5 GHz and 7 W, while the Centrino at the time could only operate within the 7 W envelope when its frequency was reduced to 1. 1 GHz. This claim also admittedly considers only CPU frequency and ignores other significant factors in overall performance, such as core cycles per instruction (CPI), or memory performance and bandwidth, which have varying impact on different benchmarks and system configurations.
Unfortunately for Transmeta, other components within a laptop computer also consume power, such as the LCD display and hard disk drive. Since laptops with Transmeta CPUs share these components with regular laptops, the net increase in battery life was not large enough to make much difference to customers. TriviaOn the show 24, the fictional character Tony Almeida is listed as a former systems validation analyst at Transmeta. Very Long Instruction Word or VLIW refers to a CPU architecture designed to take advantage of instruction level parallelism (ILP). A processor that executes every instruction one after the other (i. . a non-pipelined scalar architecture) may use processor resources inefficiently, potentially leading to poor performance. The performance can be improved by executing different sub-steps of sequential instructions simultaneously (this is pipelining), or even executing multiple instructions entirely simultaneously as in superscalar architectures. Further improvement can be achieved by executing instructions in an order different from the order they appear in the program; this is called out-of-order execution. These three techniques all come at a cost: increased hardware complexity.
Before executing any operations in parallel, the processor must verify that the instructions do not have interdependencies. There are many types of interdependencies, but a simple example would be a program in which the first instruction’s result is used as an input for the second instruction. They clearly cannot execute at the same time, and the second instruction can’t be executed before the first. Modern out-of-order processors use significant resources in order to take advantage of these techniques, since the scheduling of instructions must be determined dynamically as a program executes based on dependencies.
The VLIW approach, on the other hand, executes operation in parallel based on a fixed schedule determined when programs are compiled. Since determining the order of execution of operations (including which operations can execute simultaneously) is handled by the compiler, the processor does not need the scheduling hardware that the three techniques described above require. As a result, VLIW CPUs offer significant computational power with less hardware complexity (but greater compiler complexity) than is associated with most superscalar CPUs.
The Efficeon processor is Transmeta’s second-generation 256-bit VLIW design which employs a software engine to convert code written for x86 processors to the native instruction set of the chip (Code Morphing Software, aka CMS). Like its predecessor, the Transmeta Crusoe (a 128-bit VLIW architecture), Efficeon stresses computational efficiency, low power consumption, and a low thermal footprint. Efficeon most closely mirrors the feature set of Intel Pentium 4 processors, although, like AMD Opteron processors, it supports a fully integrated memory controller, a HyperTransport IO bus, and the NX bit, or no-execute x86 extension to PAE mode.
NX bit support is available starting with CMS version 6. 0. 4. Efficeon’s computational performance relative to mobile CPUs like the Intel Pentium M is thought to be lower, although little appears to be published about the relative performance of these competing processors. Efficeon comes in two package types: a 783 and a 592 ball grid array. Its power consumption is moderate (with some consuming as little as 3 watts at 1 GHz and 7 watts at 1. 5 GHz), so it can be passively cooled. Two generations of this chip were produced. The first generation (TM8600) was manufactured using a TSMC 0. 13 micrometre process and productized at speeds up to 1. GHz. The second generation (TM8800 and TM8820) was manufactured using a Fujitsu 90 nm process and productized at speeds ranging from 1 GHz to 1. 7 GHz). Internally, the Efficeon has 2 arithmetic logic units, 2 load/store/add units, 2 execute units, 2 floating-point/MMX/SSE/SSE2 units, one branch prediction unit, one alias unit, and one control unit. This VLIW Processor can execute a 256-VLIW word per cycle, which is called a molecule and therefore has room and capability to execute 8 32-bit commands (called atoms) per cycle. The Efficeon has 128 k instruction + 64 k data level 1 cache and a 1Mb level 2 cache on the chip.
Additionally the Efficeon CMS (code morphing software) reserves a small portion of main memory (typically 32Mb) for its translation cache of dynamically translated x86 instructions. • Compact 474-pin ceramic BGA package is fully pin-compatible with existing TM5400 and TM5600 models. The Transmeta Crusoe processor is an ultra-low power, high-speed microprocessor based on an advanced VLIW core architecture. When used in conjunction with Transmeta’s x86 Code Morphing software, the Crusoe processor provides x86-compatible software execution using dynamic binary code translation, without requiring code recompilation.
In addition to the VLIW core, the processor incorporates separate 64K-byte instruction and data caches, a large 512K-byte L2 write-back cache, 64-bit DDR SDRAM memory controller, 64-bit SDR SDRAM memory controller, and 32-bit PCI controller. These additional functional units, which are typically part of the core system logic that surrounds the microprocessor, allow the Crusoe processor to provide a highly integrated and cost effective platform solution for the x86 mobile. market. The processor core operates from a 0. 9-1. V supply, resulting in extremely low power consumption, even at high operating frequencies. With power consumption during typical operation as low as 150 milliwatts. 2. ARCHITECTURE [pic] The Crusoe processor incorporates integer and floating point execution units, separate instruction and data caches, a level-2 write-back cache, memory management unit, and multimedia instructions. In addition to these traditional processor features, the device integrates a DDR SDRAM memory controller, SDR SDRAM memory controller, PCI bus controller and serial ROM interface controller.
These additional units are usually part of the core system logic that surrounds the microprocessor. The VLIW processor, in combination with Code Morphing software and the additional system core logic units, allow the Crusoe processor to provide a highly integrated, ultra-low power, high performance platform solution for the x86 mobile market. The Crusoe processor block diagram is shown in Figure 1. FIGURE 1 Crusoe Processor Block Diagram – Model TM5800 CPU Core Integer unit Floating point unit MMU L1 Instruction Cache L1 Data Cache 4K 8-way set associative 64K 16-way set associative Unified TLB 256 entries 4-way set associative DDR SDRAM Controller SDR SDRAM Controller PCI Controller & Southbridge Interface DMA Multimedia Instructions 64 64 Serial ROM Interface L2 WB Cache 512K 4-way set associative Bus Interface Model TM5800 Product Brief Crusoe Processor 7/5/2001 3 of 8 2. 0 Processor Core The Crusoe processor core architecture is relatively simple by conventional standards. It is based on a Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) 128-bit instruction set.
Within this VLIW architecture, the control logic of the processor is kept very simple and software is used to control the scheduling of instructions. This allows a simplified and very straightforward hardware implementation with an in-order 7-stage integer pipeline and a 10-stage floating point pipeline. By streamlining the processor hardware and reducing the control logic transistor count, the performance-to-power consumption ratio can be greatly improved over traditional x86 architectures.
The Crusoe processor includes a 64K-byte 8-way set-associative Level 1 (L1) instruction cache, and a 64K-byte 16-way set associative L1 data cache. The TM5800 model also includes an integrated 512K-byte Level 2 (L2) write-back cache for improved effective memory bandwidth and enhanced performance. This cache architecture assures maximum internal memory bandwidth for performance intensive mobile applications, while maintaining the same low-power implementation that provides a superior performance-to-power consumption ratio relative to previous x86 implementations.
Other than having execution hardware for logical, arithmetic, shift, and floating point instructions, as in conventional processors, the Crusoe processor has very distinctive features from traditional x86 designs. To ease the translation process from x86 to the core VLIW instruction set, the hardware generates the same condition codes as conventional x86 processors and operates on the same 80-bit floating point numbers. Also, the Translation Look-aside Buffer (TLB) has the same protection bits and address mapping as x86 processors.
The software component of this solution is used to emulate all other features of the x86 architecture. The software that converts x86 programs into the core VLIW instructions is called Code Morphing software. The combination of Code Morphing software and the VLIW core together act as an x86-compatible solution. 3. HIERARCHY MODEL [pic] . Crusoe Processor Software Hierarchy VLIW Processor Code Morphing Software x86 Operating System (Windows ME, Windows 2000, Linux, etc. ) x86 BIOS x86 Applications x86 Compatible Crusoe Processor Solution x86 Software pic] 4. INSTRUCTION SET [pic] 5. PERFORMANCE [pic] 6. Crusoe vs. Pentium Die Size Mobile PII Mobile PII Mobile PIII TM3120 TM5400 Process . 25m . 25m shrink . 18m . 22m . 18m On-chip L1 Cache 32KB 32KB 32KB 96KB 128KB On-chip L2 Cache 0 256KB 256KB 0 256KB Die Size 130mm2 180mm2 106mm2 77mm2 73mm2 [pic] 8. Some drawbacks: 1. Code optimization does not start until a block of code has been executed more the a few times. 2. Code translation requires clock cycles which could otherwise be used in performing application computation. . Conclusion 1. Transmeta has build an X-86 processor based on VLIW(very long instruction word) technology. 2. Code Morphing offers a new approach to the implementation of an instruction set architecture. 3. Crusoe offers the power of a high performance Intel processor consuming a fraction of power . 10. REFERENCES http://www. wikipedia. org/ http://www. google. co. in/ http://www. esnips. com/ http://www. scribd. com/ www. transmeta. com www. efficeon. org www. crusoeseries. in