Curriculum Development for Inclusive Practice Essay

In instruction. the word “curriculum” is non new since the administrations of schooling and farther instruction have long been associated with the thought of a course of study. Before get downing the assignment. we would wish to happen out what it means by “curriculum” and what is “curriculum development for inclusive practice” . By definition. in formal instruction. a course of study is the set of classs and their contents offered at an educational establishment. John Kerr defined “curriculum” and subsequently taken up by Vic Kelly in his standard work on the topic as. “All the acquisition which is planned and guided by the school. whether it is carried on in groups or separately. inside or outside the school. ” ( quoted in Kelly 1983 ; besides. Kelly 1999 ) . There are four ways of nearing course of study theory and pattern:

1. Curriculum as a organic structure of cognition to be transmitted

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2. Course of study as merchandise. i. e. an effort to accomplish certain terminals in pupils

3. Curriculum as procedure

4. Curriculum as practice

We will show the ulterior three ways in this assignment. These ways of nearing course of study theory and pattern can be besides described in three subjects: the theoretical. the productive and the practical. These are illustrated as the map below:

( Beginning: infed. org/ Curriculum theory and practice. )

Inclusive course of study refers to the procedure of developing and planing a programme of survey to restrict the barriers that pupils may confront in accessing the course of study. Indeed. the course of study created by the educational establishment should take to supply chances for all pupils to larn and to accomplish. Besides the course of study should take to advance students’ religious. moral. societal and cultural development. to set up an entitlement and to set up criterions. In this assignment. we will discourse how different theories. rule and theoretical accounts of course of study have been developed and applied in a acquisition environment in order to accomplish these. Particular in this essay. we will concentrate on the dental nurse preparation environment where all trainee dental nurses are expected to run into standard set by General Dental Council ( GDC ) at the terminal of developing regardless their background and entry degrees.

Analyse and discourse the influence of theories. rules and theoretical accounts of course of study design with a position to advancing inclusive acquisition.

Curriculum as merchandise

Curriculum as merchandise theoretical account is besides known as behavioral aims model. as it to a great extent depends on the scenes of behavioral aims and it is interested in the merchandise of course of study. It is the dominant theoretical account of depicting and pull offing today’s instruction. Because in modern instruction system throughout different phases and makings. certain criterions or aims are set and instruction establishments aim to pull up a program to accomplish these aims and make methods in response to the program. Outcomes reflecting on students’ larning abilities every bit good as efficiency of these programs and methods will be measured. From above. there are four cardinal inquiries for instruction practicians:

1. What are the purposes and aims of course of study?

2. Which program and methods run into these purposes and aims?

3. How can these programs and methods be practiced?

4. How can the extent to these programs and methods be evaluated? ( Adapted by Tyler 1949 )

Curriculum as merchandise is strongly supported by the behaviorist theoretical account which believes cognition is finite and learning supposes to be open. discernible and mensurable. It besides believes the statements of aims of the instruction establishment should be a statement of alterations occurred to pupils. ( Tyler 1949:44 ) Sing to stimulation of positive alterations to pupils. few major theoreticians have contributed to the behaviorist theory. Edward Lee Thorndike ( 1874-1949 ) believed acquisition was a procedure of associating physical and mental events in assorted combinations. Besides. acquisition is enhanced when bonds are made between the stimulation and the response. B F Skinner ( 1904-1990 ) innovated in “operant conditioning” and expanded on Thorndike’s work on support of acquisition.

In Skinner’s position. positive support strengthens behaviour by using some encouraging events. Oppositely. negative support improves behaviour by taking some aversive events. Advantages of course of study as merchandise theoretical account include: it makes appraisal more precise ; it helps to choose and construction instruction program ; it makes instructors cognizant of different types and degrees of larning involved in peculiar topics and it guides instructors and pupils on accomplishments to be gained. However. some unfavorable judgments are besides raised. such as: it discourages teacher’s and student’s creativeness ; the course of study is excessively capable and exam edge and some specific behaviors are appropriate for affectional sphere.

Curriculum as procedure:

Comparing to curriculum as merchandise which is concentrating on the results. course of study as procedure focuses on instructor and pupil activities. Indeed. it emphasis on agencies instead than terminals. Rather than instructors set up objects and pull up learning programs and methods. pupils have portion in make up one’s minding nature of larning activities and therefore it is a more individualized ambiance and different larning experience. Lawrence Stenhouse ( 1975 ) produced one of the best-known geographic expeditions of a procedure theoretical account of course of study theory and pattern. He defined course of study as: ‘an effort to pass on the indispensable rules and characteristics of an educational proposal in such a signifier that it is unfastened to critical examination and capable of effectual interlingual rendition into pattern. ’ Curriculum as procedure is supported by humanist theoretical account which concentrate upon the development of the student’s self-concept. It believes larning is a advancement towards the pinnacle of self-development.

In the other words. if pupils feel good about themselves and the construct of larning. it is a good start. There are a few theoreticians who contributed in the humanistic theory such as Alexander Sutherland Neill ( 1883-1973 ) . Carl Rogers ( 1902-1987 ) and Abraham Maslow ( 1908-1970 ) . The most important theoretician among these is Maslow. who invented hierarchy of ‘basic needs’ and term ‘Self-actualisation’ . The chief advantages of course of study as procedure theoretical account are: it emphasis on active functions of instructors and scholars every bit good as larning accomplishments. It believes on certain activities as of import in themselves and for ‘life’ . However. people besides criticize that it neglect considerations of appropriate content and it is hard to use attacks in some countries.

Curriculum as Praxis

Curriculum as practice is a development of the procedure theoretical account. Comparing to curriculum as procedure which is driven by general rules and accents on opinion and significance devising. course of study as practice makes an expressed committedness to emancipation. So fundamentally. instructors need to hold a proposal for actions affecting indispensable rules and characteristics of the instruction brush. They encourage pupils to construct up conversations and interactions between each other in the state of affairs. These actions lead to a signifier of committedness to larning. Teachers continually measure this procedure and supply a position of results harmonizing to this. Therefore through this attack. the course of study as practice itself develops through a dynamic interaction of action and contemplation. Similar to curriculum as procedure. the course of study besides emphasises on the development of student’s ‘self- actualisation’ . Therefore it is besides supported by the humanistic theoretical account.

Describe. critically analyse and reflect on which factors might impact course of study design and how the course of study can differ harmonizing to the context in which it is provided. Besides describe and discourse the impact some of these factors have on your ain specialism. As a dental nurse coach. my pupils have following features: foremost they are big scholars ; secondly they have different academic and cultural backgrounds every bit good as larning abilities ; they have an initial involvement in the topic and a clear aim and motive of acquiring making and going a dental nurse. Upon above features of pupils. my function has following purposes: to make an inclusive acquisition environment for all my pupils ; to follow counsel from General Dental Council ( GDC ) and pull up learning programs harmonizing to the counsel ; to assist pupils make GDC criterion. base on balls theoretical appraisals and addition GDC enrollment ; to supply great exposure of the practical side of preparation to pupils and do certain pupil range GDC criterion on practical/hand-on accomplishments enabling them to derive enrollment. From above. it is non difficult to see that the overall aim of acquiring GDC makings can non be achieved by using individual course of study design and theoretical account during my instruction. In fact. it requires a combination of course of study as merchandise. as procedure and every bit practice every bit good as other subsidiary course of studies such as the concealed course of study.

Curriculum as merchandise:

GDC requires a certain theoretical appraisal criterion for trainee dental nurses to make. Students need to sit GDC tests for all the theoretical units they have attended. This has become the important aim for dental nurse coachs. In order to accomplish this. we have created a practical program and assorted methods in learning. First. schoolroom instruction has been arranged three times a hebdomad for two hours per category. Contentss of instruction and acquisition are purely referenced to GDC publications and the categories are good organised and formatted. Second. regular mock appraisals to pupils are applied in order to track trainee dental nurse’s advancement and supply feedback to our learning methods. In order pupils to transport on come oning towards GDC tests. certain signifiers of encouragements and penalties have been applied which reflects on Skinner’s ‘Reinforcement’ in Behaviourist theoretical account.

For illustration. pupils with top test tonss are offered scholarships and pupils with failed classs are required to go to excess categories and re-sit for tests. Curriculum as merchandises theoretical account has provided a clear way for dental nurse coachs and trainee nurses to treat towards aims. However. it has besides led some jobs. Once trainee nurses are pushed excessively much towards tests and classs. they may lose enthusiasm and motive. Besides. as pupils are with uneven larning background and ability. trainee nurses who are deficiency of certain accomplishments or old cognition may happen making GDC criterion peculiarly ambitious. Here comes the construct of “providing an inclusive practice” . we will discourse this later in “The concealed curriculum” .

Curriculum as procedure:

Equally good as guaranting trainee nurses to go through GDC tests. they are besides required to accomplish strong practical accomplishments and base on balls practical appraisals. The practical side of preparation are carried out in trainee dental nurse’s work arrangements. normally within hospital’s dental section. a local NHS alveolar consonant pattern or a private alveolar consonant clinic. After larning cardinal theories of dental cognition. trainee nurses will work along with senior dental nurses and tooth doctor to detect and pattern accomplishments at existent work topographic point. Trainee dental nurses normally spend at least half of their full preparation in work arrangements and the arrangement is good organised by both dental coachs and caput nurse in dental pattern. Trainee nurses’ larning advancement is observed chiefly by senior nurses and tooth doctors at work arrangement. a study will be sent back to dental coachs on a regular basis.

Dental coachs besides visit trainee dental nurses’ work topographic point on a regular footing to detect and measure on student’s advancement. Curriculum as procedure within dental nurse preparation has closely followed the Humanistic theoretical account. particularly Maslow’s hierarchy of ‘basic needs’ . Trainee dental nurses have to derive cardinal cognition of dental medicine in order them to derive security one time seting cognition into pattern. When they feel secured. they are more enthusiastic and motivated to accomplish the following degree and finally derive ‘self- actualisation’ .

Curriculum as paxis:

As mentioned in course of study as procedure. dental nurse preparation values full journey of student’s advancement instead than the concluding test. Trainee dental nurses are observed and assessed throughout their preparation in all different facets. Apart from the practical accomplishments. dental coachs are besides cognizant of trainee nurses’ oral/ communicating accomplishments. composing accomplishments. co-ordinating/ interacting accomplishments with co-workers and patients every bit good as professional mode as a medical staff. All of these factors are observed and accessed via multiple tunnels throughout schoolroom and work arrangement. such as dental nurse coachs. senior nurses and tooth doctors. feedbacks from fellow trainee nurses and patients. As trainee nurses get more and more skilled in managing patients and pass oning with fellow co-workers. they will happen work acquire smoother and therefore they will derive more assurance and motive in their occupation. This has reflected once more on the humanistic theoretical account and Maslow’s hierarchy of ‘basic needs’ . Development of inclusive pattern and the concealed course of study

Sing the features of grownup larning. although trainee nurses are more purposeful in larning and demo more active engagement. their old cognition background and larning ability may change. In order to acquire all the pupils on the same line and assist them to accomplish GDC making. we have applied the concealed course of study to accomplish an inclusive instruction and acquisition environment for the trainee nurses. The concealed course of study means all that is learnt during school/college activities that is non designated portion of official course of study. such as one-to-one category for persons. excess appraisals and mock tests. Although larning associated with the concealed course of study is frequently considered in a negative manner. we find this is a implicative method for grownup scholars.

For trainee dental nurses who are deficiency of linguistic communication accomplishments or basic medical cognition. we arrange occasional single category for them with one of our dental coachs. This is normally carried out in student’s and dental tutor’s spared clip. As some trainee dental nurses are despairing in bettering their indispensable accomplishments. they feel instead welcome to the excess tuition and are willing to set in excess attempts. For trainee nurses who did non accomplish satisfactory consequences in their mock tests before concluding GDC test. we besides occasional organise excess category for them and offer them chance to re-sit the mock test. By transporting out occasional hidden course of study. trainee nurses with less skill better so that dental coachs are able to fix them at the same degree for GDC test. This has helped us I developing inclusive pattern within our establishment in a different position.


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