Chapter VI: DATA ANALYSIS, FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
Age of realisation, sexual intercourse, relationship and matrimony
Most of Egyptian male homophiles in this survey realized that they were attracted to classmates or work forces in general at an early age and that this attractive force is non linked to the fact that they have been raped or molested when they were kids, as many people think. Sexual intercourse took topographic point during their teenage old ages and was largely performed with friends and relations ( normally straight ) and work forces they met through the cyberspace. The first sexual experience was reported as non being fulfilling, particularly for those who met other work forces through the cyberspace. It was normally a one dark base and did non travel farther than this.
The 1s who had sexual intercourse with their friends and relations were the 1s who had long relationships that lasted old ages. These dealingss were largely on and off and went analogues with other dealingss they had with other work forces. Others, who stayed with their first spouses for old ages, did so because they did non cognize about the being of other homophiles in Egypt. They about all had a relationship with Egyptians and non-Egyptians at one point in their life and largely in their teenage old ages. This relationship went from months to old ages.
Very few of these work forces have been in a relationship during their maturity. They wanted to be in a relationship but failed to happen the right spouse, as most of the homosexuals in Egypt were looking for sex merely and non for a stable and serious relationship. Normally the first sexual intercourse ( even though it was non good ) and sexual experiences with other work forces played a major function in their ego credence and self-labeling as homosexuals.
Foreigners were believed to hold fewer issues than Egyptians when it came to dating harmonizing to my interviewees. They besides had a topographic point in which they could hold sex in private and safely whereas most of the Egyptians lived with their parents. However, about half of the sample still preferred to be with an Egyptian adult male as they shared the same civilization and jobs. So there was no penchant for either. The most of import thing for them was the personality of the spouse and non his nationality.
As for dating misss, the 1s who did really day of the month misss did it against their will, whether to turn out to their household and friends that they were directly or to see if they could go attracted to adult females. Those who had dated adult females reported that they were attracted emotionally, but non sexually, to these adult females.
The bulk of them did non desire to acquire married. A minority, the one tierce who had a desire to acquire married, reported that they wanted to acquire married for the intent of non stoping up entirely in life. Some of them besides considered get marrieding a adult male, but these were really few.
About all those interviewed were internet users, as the cyberspace was identified as the best agencies to run into other homophiles in Egypt. It helped them construct a web of homosexual friends and sexual spouses to whom they could associate and with whom they could interact. Most of them had profiles on homosexual web sites. The most normally mentioned cheery dating web sites here in Egypt were gaydar, gayromeo and manjam, the latest holding the highest rate of endorsers from Egypt. However, they preferred to run into other homosexuals through other cheery friends instead than by utilizing the cyberspace.
Other options were meetings in topographic points such as java stores, bars and streets that were known by many homophiles to be “ cheery musca volitanss ” . The last option they had was to run into in parties and in assemblages sooner hosted by aliens instead than Egyptians for security grounds. These parties included homophiles from different nationalities, backgrounds and ages, and one ‘s visual aspect was really of import.
On coming out to household and friends
Those whose gender was known by their parents had been found out by household members, either while watching cheery erotica or while chew the fating with other homosexuals online. Others came out to their household and friends after a traumatic event that was followed by a depression, such as a painful interruption up with a adult male or the decease of one of the parents. In general, the parents and household members of those who came out voluntarily had non been leery of their sexual penchant for work forces. The coming out was frequently followed by visits to a head-shrinker, as most of the parents considered being gay a disease that is medically curable.
However, parents and households of those in this survey who did non come out normally had intuitions of their homosexualism. The siblings one time once more were the 1s who had the highest uncertainties as they normally shared the same computing machine at place.
As most of the respondents believed that homosexualism is unconditioned, they did non believe in the power of psychopathology to change over them to heterosexualism. Nonetheless, some did travel to a head-shrinker without stating their household and friends. They felt down and wanted a remedy to what they perceived as a disease at some point in their lives, particularly during their teenage old ages and before their first sexual intercourse with a adult male.
None of the respondents had any desire to come out to their parents as they felt it would do their life more complicated. They wished they could state, but they knew for a fact that it would do them excessively much hurting. They considered that gender was a private affair that merely concerns them. They did non see any ground why everyone should cognize about it. Because they considered that their gender was private, and because they had gay friends to whom they could associate, they did non experience that they were populating in the cupboard.
On homosexualism by homophiles
All respondents liked to be referred to every bit homosexuals as the word has a positive intension. They defined homosexuality as a adult male who is attracted to another a adult male. It was non supposed to be about sexual intercourse but should instead be based on feelings. As for the word khawal ( “ faggot ” in Arabic ) , the word used most often to mention to homophiles, they did non perceive themselves as a khawal. For them khawal is a individual who is non dependable or a inexpensive effeminate adult male. They all used the word in their mundane lives to diss people who were non nice to them.
All respondents were convinced that homosexualism is unconditioned instead than acquired. This strong belief was based chiefly on what they had read on the causes of homosexualism ; 2nd, they had gone to head-shrinkers and it did non assist ; and 3rd, they had tried unsuccessfully to day of the month adult females. Because homosexualism was perceived by homophiles to be unconditioned, it was non considered as a wickedness by the bulk of them. They frequently perceived their sexual penchant for work forces as lupus erythematosus of a wickedness than other wickednesss, such as holding pre-marital or extra-marital sex as it involves bewraying one ‘s married woman.
Because they thought that they were born homosexual and that nil could alter their sexual penchant, Egyptian homophiles in this survey were besides leery of the sexual orientation of all work forces. They thought that all work forces are cheery but at different strengths. They besides believed that it was society that imposes sole heterosexualism on work forces and that if they were given the opportunity to be cheery, there would be many more homosexuals in Egypt. Finally, there was besides the position that there are work forces who have still non discovered that they are cheery. They are afraid of holding sex with work forces because of the homophobic society they are populating in.
On homophiles ‘ ego perceptual experience and dual life
By and large, the respondents ‘ perceptual experience of themselves was really positive. They believed that their sexual penchant for work forces was merely a minor portion of who they are. They had other involvements in life and more of import things to worry about than their being gay. They saw themselves as normal and as holding the same ends and aims in life than all other people. The lone difference between them and straight persons is what they do in bed, which is a private affair that is no 1 ‘s concern but their ain. There was the sense that they knew life better than others because their life experiences included both heterosexual and homosexual universes.
The trouble, nevertheless, was that they were taking a dual life, a consecutive life in forepart of their households and friends and a cheery life with their homosexual friends. Few of their consecutive friends knew about or suspected their sexual orientation. They were normally being perceived by their consecutive friends merely as different, while holding more female than male friends. They preferred to hang out with their cheery friends instead than their consecutive friends so they could be themselves without holding to feign to be person else. Leading this dual life was a changeless strain necessitating a batch of energy to keep it.
On the homosexual community in Cairo
Those in the survey tended to detach themselves every bit much as possible from the homosexual community. They did n’t wish to acquire involved with members of this community. The perceptual experience was that a individual belonging to the community is person who goes to all of the parties and assemblages and who knows many homosexuals in Cairo. Being excessively societal and excessively unfastened about being homosexual among other homosexuals was frowned upon.
The “ cheery community ” was believed to be filled with bad people who gossip the whole clip and who had no aims in their lives other than run intoing work forces to hold sex. Peoples from the community have no aspiration in life and their lives merely revolved around the fact of being homosexual. This compulsion was seen every bit unnatural as life has much more of import things such as concentrating on one ‘s calling and maintaining good dealingss with household and friends.
Respondents were good cognizant of the fact that they lived in a homophobic society that rejects them and perceives them as evildoers or perverted persons. They did non understand why they should be put in prison for something they did non choose-to be homosexuals. They accepted that the authorities was entitled to imprison felons, including male cocottes, as there are justifiable Torahs to penalize them. However, they did non understand why Torahs on orgy and harlotry are used by the authorities to penalize those who were non engaged in harlotry and orgy. The authorities crackdown on homophiles has besides had an impact on their feelings of safety while chew the fating with other work forces.
They were really frightened and leery in run intoing person they met through cyberspace. They had to be really selective in the parties they attended. They preferred to travel to parties hosted by aliens instead than those hosted by Egyptians. Their fright was besides related to the fact that they did non desire to convey shame or dirt to their households. However, and in malice of all of this repression, most of the respondents did non needfully experience like go forthing Egypt. This may be seen as grounds that their penchant for work forces was merely a minor portion of whom they are and that their lives do non go around merely around being homosexual.
Message to the consecutive universe
Those who participated in this survey wanted people to cognize more about them and to be more funny in people who are different from themselves. They wanted the full consecutive universe to cognize that they are normal and that they have the same ends and aims as them. The lone difference between them is their sexual penchant for work forces which they perform behind closed doors. They asked for more tolerance and credence of them as homosexuals. They wanted people to esteem the rule of “ unrecorded and allow unrecorded ” and to non judge them for what they did non take to be. They said that they are non mentally ill individuals, but instead, work forces with a different sexual orientation than the bulk.
Message from homosexuals to homosexuals
The respondents besides wanted other homophiles to “ be themselves ” , whatever the fortunes were and to pass on a more positive image to the consecutive universe so that they could be accepted in society as a whole. They wanted homosexuals to be more moderate and non to be utmost, since being excessively unfastened about one ‘s sexual penchant can merely be destructive in this environment. They wanted other homosexuals to educate themselves and to cognize more about homosexualism and to halt moving feminine as this gives the incorrect feeling to the consecutive universe by reenforcing the bing stereotype of the homosexual as feminine. Finally, Egyptian homophiles believe that they can hold healthy and long permanent relationships with other Egyptian homophiles if they are to take person stable and certain of himself and of his sexual orientation.
Pre-requisites of Gay release in the West
The classification of sexual behaviour that has resulted in the creative activity of the word homosexualism in the 19th century was the first measure that led to gay release in the West. A societal stigma was attached to the word homosexualism that was used to mention to mentally ill individuals. This stigmatisation provoked the creative activity of a societal definition of individuals prosecuting in same sex dealingss and the formation of societal motions based on sexual penchant for the same sex by homosexuals and tribades.
This alteration in the construct of homosexualism in the West, from an act of aberrance to merely another look of human gender, resulted from a corporate and gradual socio-political attempt of European and American homosexual militants for more than half a century. Along with homosexuals and tribades, heterosexual work forces and adult females every bit good as Western authoritiess have all contributed in the displacement of attitude after the two universe wars, a period of human history marked by the formation of societal motions by minorities discriminated against for the skill of more equal rights.
The station universe war epoch was characterized by adult females ‘s release, sexual release and cheery release, which have wholly contributed to the alteration of gender functions and dealingss between work forces and adult females. The accomplishment of a medium of gender equality has provided the land for an increased visibleness of homophiles in Western societies. Because cheery militants have been given the physical infinite to contend for their rights to take normal lives in their states, they are nowadays seeking to assist other homophiles around the universe to make similar rights.
Factors that have prevented homosexuals in Egypt from deriving their rights
The failed effort to legalise homosexualism in the Middle East is linked to the fact that the classification of sexual behaviour that occurred in the nineteenth century Europe has ne’er happened in the Middle East-heterosexuality being the merely allowable look of human gender from the beginning of the creative activity of the Islamic province boulder clay today. Unlike their Western opposite numbers, Egyptians have recorded historical histories of same sex dealingss before the nineteenth century. The Mamaleek who ruled Egypt for more than five centuries were practicians of same sex dealingss, but their regulation was marked by the failing of the establishments of household and matrimony as they were slaves brought to Egypt to protect it from foreign invasion. Traces of the being of homosexualism in Arab civilization are besides to be found in classical Arabic literature that is characterized by the poesy of love for male childs.
This tolerance toward homosexualism came with specific conditions, among which the most of import was that sexual Acts of the Apostless between work forces should ne’er be known. Heterosexual every bit good as homosexual dealingss were and still remain dealingss of power between an active/penetrator and a inactive /penetrated spouse, normally boys, slaves every bit good as adult females. By doing the sexual act populace, a adult male risks losing his award. Sexual individuality and sexual behaviour were distinguishable at that clip. Prosecuting in same sex dealingss did non needfully intend that the individual perceived himself as a homosexual. There was no word applicable for work forces holding sex with work forces.
It was merely in the nineteenth century and under the reign of Mohamed Aly that the word khawal was invented. This word was to mention to a male performing artist who used to dress as a adult female. This word is really dyslogistic and is synonymous with fagots today because modern literature, the film and the media project a negative image of the homosexual. These negative images have farther been reinforced by the province ‘s Islamicization that started in the seventiess. In demand of support for his government, Sadat released Islamists from prison among which the most of import were the Muslim Brothers. The Muslim Brothers acquired societal and political power bit by bit, and peculiarly during the last twosome of decennaries. They are today ‘s prima resistance to the current government, even as the government capitulates to their docket in an effort to neutralize their power.
Islamists have been given freedom in civil society, the right to make associations and to roll up money from Gulf states which enabled them to supply Egyptians with societal services. At the same clip, other associations that are engaged with human and adult females ‘s rights were subjected to limitations by the authorities. This imbalanced distribution of power has led to the restrictions in the acquisition of adult females ‘s rights. Womans are still discriminated against in society, chiefly because of spiritual based household jurisprudence that remains about integral in Egypt.
When in the West sexual release, cheery release and adult females ‘s release happened wholly in the 1960s, the Middle East and more specifically Egypt experienced a counter procedure at the same historical minute. The Islamic resurgence has prevented both sexual release and adult females ‘s liberation-pre-requisites in the West for cheery release from go oning. Islamic revivalism besides has led to the denial of sexual diverseness and the rejection of certain Western influences such as homosexuality and homosexual individuality. This counter procedure has led to the care and reproduction of gender inequality which helps explicate the province ‘s crackdown against homophiles since 2001 and its misdemeanor of the human rights Torahs that are incorporated in its ain fundamental law.
Gay individuality formation and care in Cairo
The literature reappraisal on the representation of homophiles in Modern Arabic literature, the film and the media every bit good as Islamic resurgence have all helped in keeping the construct of the homosexual as a kinky and emasculate figure instead than a normal human being with a different sexual penchant. No positive definition or construct of the homosexual is provided by the Egyptian authorities and its social establishments. As a consequence, there is no homosexual function theoretical account to which homosexuals in Egypt can mention to. However, the Egyptian political, societal and spiritual establishments that work on quashing homophiles have non been obstructions to gay individuality formation in Egypt.
The absence of a positive societal definition of homosexualism has led many homosexual work forces populating in Egypt to import the word “ homosexual ” , which gives a positive image with which they can place. This importing of a homosexual individuality has been made possible through globalisation and progresss in the sphere of engineering and mass media that have given easy entree to information searchers in different parts of the universe, who have private entree to cyberspace and who know how to utilize it. “ Since the Early 1990s, Arab exposure to Western civilization has increased tremendously through satellite telecasting, foreign travel, and more late the cyberspace ” ( Whitaker 2006:210 ) . Egyptians are going more cognizant of their ain gender even though the procedure is slow. Harmonizing to Josette Abdallah, a professor of Psychology at the American University in Cairo Egyptian homophiles are given either of two picks: either to continue cultural genuineness and reject the Western influence, or to follow a homosexual individuality.
The cyberspace revolution by leting entree to material otherwise deemed inappropriate has shaped many modern tendencies in footings of sexual individuality. The dilema of how agents populating in a civilization that is apparently inhibitory towards their individuality and adapt to happen ways to show themselves is partly solved by the cyberspace functioning as an accessible and expedient mercantile establishment. ( Mc Cormick 2006:253 ) .
The Internet helps male homophiles in Egypt get in touch with each other, meet and speak to other homosexuals, and gather information on homosexualism in general and on the civilization of homosexuality specifically. As my research has demonstrated, the first sexual intercourse of most of the homophiles in Egypt is performed through meetings initiated via profiles they have created on homosexual web sites or msn. These web sites besides help them cognize other homosexuals and construct a web of homosexual friends to whom they can associate and with whom they can interact and be themselves- ” homosexuals ” . Along with cyberspace, they have besides the possibility to interact with other homosexuals in particular homosexual haunts ; cheery assemblages and parties assemblage that are made entirely for work forces and that are hosted by aliens most of the clip.
Features of being gay in Cairo
Social and political repressions homosexuals in Egypt are subjected to, the globalisation and Internet specifically along with the presence of other cheery work forces with whom homosexuals in Egypt can hang out and mention to hold hence all played a function in giving rise to a alone type of homosexuals with specific features among which the most of import 1s are:
- Establishing serious and long permanent relationships is debatable in Egypt because of the inhibitory environment homosexuals live in so most of them run into other homosexuals for sex merely. Most frequently, successful twosomes include a foreign adult male and an Egyptian adult male and non two Egyptians work forces.
- Dating aliens is believed to be better than dating Egyptians as foremost, they have less issues than Egyptian homosexuals ( more sure of their gender ) , and 2nd, they have a topographic point in which they can run into as most of immature Egyptians do populate with their parents.
- Most of the homosexuals in the sample do n’t desire to acquire married. Few of them reported that if they of all time get married it ‘s traveling to be for the intent of holding kids and non stoping up entirely in life at a ulterior age every bit good as to delight their household and to carry through their society outlook.
- Coming out in Egypt is non a public proclamation of one ‘s sexual penchant for work forces to everyone, but instead, it is a distinct procedure that includes other homosexuals and exceptionally consecutive best friends.
- Coming out normally occurs after a traumatic event. Whether the decease of one of the parents, a interruption up or because they have been caught up by one of their household members.
- This coming out if it happens concerns the immediate household, the parents and siblings and non the remainder of the household. It does besides frequently exclude their consecutive friends.
- Homosexuals in Egypt would instead be remaining in the cupboard than coming out to their household and friends as their coming out might do the household hurting and shame.
- Coming out to parents is besides frequently followed by a visit to the head-shrinker and the perceptual experience of them by their household as mentally ill individuals.
- The parents and frequently the siblings of those who did non come out are frequently leery of their boy or brother being homosexuals.
- They all prefer the use of the word “ homosexual ” instead than khawal to mention to their sexual penchant for work forces. They use the word khawal to mention to work forces who are non dependable and non to work forces prosecuting in same sex dealingss.
- Most of them consider that homosexualism is unconditioned and that it is hence non a wickedness and that if it is a wickedness it is less of a wickedness than many other wickednesss that are performed in society such as excess or pre-marital sex or larceny.
- They besides believe that there is a certain per centum of homosexuality in each and every adult male and that if society was non hetero-normative many work forces would hold been homosexuals.
- Their perceptual experience of themselves is positive. They consider that their homosexualism is merely a little portion of who they are and that their lives do non go around around the fact of being homosexual.
- They consider that homosexuality is what they perform in private and that it is hence no 1 ‘s right to interfere in what they do in bed.
- Bing gay in Egypt is a changeless work as it implies concealing one ‘s sexual individuality. They are obliged to execute a dual life-the one expected by the society which implies straight moving with household and friends and their homosexual life that they perform on-line and offline with other homosexuals.
- Gay work forces in Egypt prefer to hang out with other homosexuals instead than their consecutive friends as they feel more comfy with people that have the same sexual orientation.
- They reject the homosexual community and see it as the topographic point in which gays meet to hold sex merely.
- They all claimed that they do non belong to this community and that the people who belong to this community are non good people as they are excessively unfastened about their sexual penchant for work forces.
- It is non a homosexual community that exists in Egypt but instead, different communities or groups of people back uping each others with different involvements and perceptual experience in life.
- Homosexuals in Egypt live with a changeless fright of acquiring entrapped by the authorities and of the hazards they are taking when they meet other homosexuals.
- Because of the crackdowns on homophiles, homosexuals in Egypt are extremely leery and careful when run intoing other homosexuals or traveling to topographic points in which other homosexuals are present. For this ground they spent a batch of clip speaking to the individual before traveling and run intoing them and would instead travel to parties hosted by aliens than Egyptians.
- Their fright of acquiring entrapped is linked to the fright of losing their award and shame and fring their occupations every bit good as impacting the household repute.
- Bing distinct and low key is better than being out and stating everyone that one is gay as they live in a homophobic society.
- Acting masculine is of enormous importance as it is traveling to assist them wipe out the traditional image of the homosexual as effeminated.
- In malice of the repression Egyptian homophiles are subjected to and the limitations they do n’t desire to go forth their state and travel someplace else. Those who have a desire to go forth their state are the 1s who have jobs with the constabulary.
Recommendations for farther research
The emergent demand to analyze the male homophiles ‘ scene in the visible radiation of the recent governmental crackdowns has merely revealed one side of the homosexual coin. With farther exposure of more sectors of the society to the cultural impacts of globalisation and modernisation, it would merely be a affair of clip till the female homophiles follow a more typical image and an hearable voice that will necessitate an academic analysis and survey. I would extremely urge that a comprehensive research has to be conducted on the female homosexualism in Egypt utilizing the same methodological analysis so that the other side of the coin could uncover what it is like to be a sapphic in Cairo.