The latter all directly affect the rate at which their resources are produced
What is the main distinction between decomposers and detritivores and the herbivores, carnivores and parasites?
Dependent on the rate at which some other for re releases the resources on which they live
How are decomposers and detritivores donor-controlled?
Role = The most fundamental role
Mineralization of chemical nutrients = Conversion of complex, organic elements into their simpler, inorganic constituents that can be used by plants
What role do decomposers play in nutrient recycling and what is mean by the “mineralization of chemical nutrients”?
Bacteria and fungi
What are the principal decomposers?
To completely remove a source of dead organic material from the environment requires activities of a number of different micro organisms, each has its specialized process for different components
Describe the process of degradative succession.
-Use soluble materials, mainly sugars and amino acids (freely diffusable)
-Opportunitist , re-selected species
Ex. Mold on Bread
Describe the first organisms to exploit a source of dead organic matter.
Fungal instead of bacterial activity
What types of decomposer organisms are favored under conditions of low pH?
Structural materials —> cellulse, lignin, chitin, keratin,
What kinds of organic materials are particularly difficult for decomposers to break down?
Detritus (dead organic matter) and the microplorn growing on detrites
What do detritivores feed on?
Microfauna = Protazoas, micronematodes, and rotifers
Mesofauna = titter mites and spring tails
Macrofauna = larger nematodes
Megafauna = wood lice, millipedes, snails, slugs, earthworms
Give examples of each of the following types of terrestrial detritivores: microfauna, mesofauna, macrofauna and megafauna.
-Bury litter, mix it with soil
-Soil aeragation, deposit feces rich in organic matter
What role do earthworms play in the process of decomposition?
Boraal furste and tundra
The relative importance of the microfauna is greatest in the soils of what biomes?
Deep organic soils of temporate forest
The relative importance of the mesofauna is greatest in the soils of what biomes?
Tropical rainforest and grasslands
The relative importance of the macrofauna is greatest in the soils of what biomes?
How are aquatic detritivores classified?
Shredders = Course particulate organic matter
Collector-gathers = dead particles from debris and sediments on beds of streams
Collector-filters = sift small particles from water column
Grazer-scrapers = Organic matter attached to rocks and stones
Describe the feeding styles of each of the following: shredders, collector-gathers, collector-filters, grazer-scrapers.
Decomposers – Spread with peanut butter
Detritivores – produce crackers
How does the decomposition of dead material depend on the interaction between decomposers and detritivores?
Dung of carnivores – poor quality, since they have high efficiency
Dung of herbivores – High quality, lots of organic matter
How do the dung of carnivores and herbivores differ in terms of food quality and types of organisms that exploit these resources?
Introduced the dung beetle
How did the Australians solve their problem with accumulating cow dung?
Bone, hair, feathers
What types of components of animal corpses are most resistant to attack by decomposers?