In fabrication and retail, hapless stock list control can take to overstocking as a consequence of bad prediction, this over stocking is called buffer stock list or safety stock which can take to blow and inefficiency. “ In 1996 about $ 700 of the $ 2.3 trillion retail supply concatenation stock list was in safety stock. That is, about 30 % was tied up due to waste and inefficiency. “ ( Lambert, Stock, 2001 )
Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment ( CPFR ) , is a concern procedure utilizing an cyberspace based concern theoretical account, as shown in figure 1.
This theoretical account takes a holistic attack to information exchange and supply concatenation direction between merchandising spouses, by utilizing a standard set of concern procedures in order to better supply concatenation efficiencies, and is seen as a replacing to the old attack of electronic informations interchange ( EDI ) ( Fliedner, 2003 ) . The aim of CPFR is to portion informations on a cardinal web waiter that all of the trading spouses can entree to enable a more dependable prognosis for long term future demand in the supply concatenation, this eliminates the jobs associated with EDI such as: supply spouses manually come ining indistinguishable informations in their records ( Joachim, 1998 ) , and the EDI procedure typically being done in batch transportations which can farther add to detain in information ( Cooke, 1998 ) etc.
History of CPFR
CPFR began in 1995 with the company Wal-Mart and was originally called C-FAR for collaborative prediction and refilling. The acronym has evolved into CPFR – standing for collaborative planning, prediction and refilling.
Wal-Mart found that the pharmaceutical company Warner-Lambert ‘s in-stock norms were non up to par with Wal-Mart ‘s seller public presentation criterions. Wal-Mart, along with Warner-Lambert, Surgency ( once Benchmarking Partners ) , and two package companies, SAP and Manugistics, launched an attempt to specify a procedure that would associate client demand with replenishment demands through the full supply concatenation.
The pilot focused on stock of Listerine gargle kept in shops. The group foremost tested the collaborative construct on paper, and so demonstrated in a computing machine lab that the Internet could be used for the information exchange. The consequences of the trial were: Warner-Lambert ‘s in-stock norms rose from 87 % to 98 % . Lead times dropped from 21 to 11 yearss, and gross revenues increased by $ 8.5 million over the trial period-even though the pilot was limited to one Warner-Lambert fabrication works and three Wal-Mart distribution Centres. ( free-logistics.com, 2010 )
Case survey: West Marine
Today West Marine is the largest boating-supply retail concatenation in the United States, with a merchandise scope of more than 50,000 merchandises selling throughout more than 400 company owned retail shops, every bit good as their retail catalogue, bring forthing one-year mean gross revenues of $ 690 million. The company was founded in 1968 by Randy Repass as a mail-order house merchandising to boating partisans, and opened its first retail shop in Palo Alto, California in 1975, three old ages subsequently, the company created a separate gross revenues channel to commercial clients such as boat paces and boat traders. In 1997 West Marine a 73 shop operation at the clip acquired one of their East Coast rivals, E & A ; B Marine a 63 shop operation. The effects of the acquisition became rapidly evident: Gross saless fell by about 8 per centum, and peak-season out-of-stock degrees raised more than 12 per centum compared to the anterior twelvemonth, and after six old ages of steady growing, net income dropped from $ 15 million in 1997 to merely over $ 1 million in 1998. ( Highbeam Research, 2006 )
The chief conducive factor of this was that following the dealing, West Marine discovered that internal E & A ; B operations were in worse status than expected. The investing group that had been running E & A ; B had let the company ‘s substructure deteriorate and stock lists dwindle. This farther compounded the acquisition by adding to the job that it took six months to implement the most basic of systems integrating due to the hapless substructure, taking to stock outs within the shops.
West Marines foremost unprompted reaction was to rebrand all the E & A ; B shops convert them to West Marines merchandises and pricing, West Marines CEO John Edmondson ( who was brought in after the acquisition to put to death a company bend around ) said sing the acquisition, “ West Marine bought E & A ; B because it was different and alone. Then, they turned all the shops into West Marine shops and locked out the client base. ” Adding to this Bruce Edwards ( West Marines senior VP of shop operations ) said, “ We created a batch of harm to both ironss, every bit good as losing land on comparable gross revenues as a combined organisation ” . ( Standford, Graduate School of Business, 2005 )
How West Devil dog Turned the Company About
In order to turn the company about after the acquisition Edmondson identified four supply concatenation job countries: the distribution Centres ( DCs ) , transit, refilling, and the systems back uping these operations ; his solution to these jobs was to implement a CPFR programme.
The first thing as portion of West Marines CPFR programme was implement an aggregative ordination or “ multi-echelon ” refilling procedure. A “ multi-echelon ” system is defined as “ A series of two or more production or supply installations where any alteration in policy parametric quantities of one installation affects the other installations, either straight or indirectly ” . ( Gopalakrishnan, 2004 ) . Harmonizing to ( Standford, Graduate School of Business, 2005 ) prior to the implementing of the multi echelon system West Marine were utilizing JDA ‘s Merchandise Management System ( MMS ) . The MMS was interfaced with the company ‘s point-of-sale system in the shops ( besides provided by JDA ) to maintain path of basic stock list degrees and merchandise gross revenues at the shop degree. West Marine besides used JDA ‘s Warehouse Management System ( WMS ) as the package engine for its distribution Centre ( DC ) operations. Equally good as these systems West Marine besides made usage of JDA ‘s advanced prediction tools, both Advanced Store Replenishment ( ASR ) and Advanced Warehouse Replenishment ( AWR ) . The job with these systems was that while they were good on their ain, none of the systems had the ability to straight interact with each other taking to extended extra work and care. At the clip no package supplier offered a to the full incorporate solution, it was left to West Marine every bit good as Matt Henderson a systems applied scientist and planimeter from the San-Francisco based package company Amigo Inc. to plan a system that integrated linkages between the point of sale systems to the DC systems. The system they designed was the first true multi echelon system in the retail sector. ( bisg.org, 2005 ) The manner in which West Marine implemented their multi echelon refilling solution was to incorporate informations from the retail shops and warehouses with relation to seasonal prognosiss, publicities and stock degrees, enabling providers to present more accurate, on clip orders to fulfill client demands.
“ West Marine ‘s multi-echelon refilling solution resolves the store-warehouse gulf. Warehouse refilling instantly responds to all store-level overstocks and understocks. Similarly, all publicities and shop degree mixture alterations are planned in the shop system, and warehouse refilling instantly responds to them. The solution eliminates duplicate prediction undertakings and creates more accurate supplier-order prognosiss ” . ( Reed Business Information, 2006 ) The West Marine multi echelon system is shown in figure 2.
Degree centigrades: UsersAmyElizabethDesktopSCM0654WESTERN2.gif
The following job that West Marine encountered was to acquire its providers to purchase into the thought of CPFR. In order to turn to this job West Marine introduced a pilot plan with 12 handpicked companies that were major providers to West Marine, that all had old issues with their supply ironss in some signifier. To these companies West Marine laid out specific public presentation degrees and expected ends, although no formal written understandings were created each company was expected to follow to the public presentation criterions.
For the providers that joined West Marines supply pilot there was no capital investing spending in engineering, they were merely required to denominate resorts to move as opposite numbers to West Marines supply concatenation ware contrivers.
With this set in topographic point West Marine began sharing its prognosiss on a hebdomadal footing with its sellers, as a hebdomadal update study on seller public presentation. There was besides the debut of hebdomadal meetings with transverse functional squads made up of members from all the administrations involved, in order to discourse possible betterments every bit good as to keep a holistic incorporate position on each seller relationship.
The consequences of the CPFR programme were ; “ in stock rates at the shops came near to the end of 96 per centum in every shop, even during extremum season. Forecast truth climbed to about 85 per centum. On-time cargos, on the other manus, were bettering but merely reached 30 per centum against a declared end of 90 per centum in 2002. However, West Marine expected them to mount to at least 50 per centum by the terminal of 2003. ” ( Standford, Graduate School of Business, 2005 ) .
Even after the pilot programme with the grounds to endorse up that CPFR works, West Marine still had jobs acquiring supplies to purchase into the CPFR programme, West Marines solution to this was to offer its providers an inducement in the signifier of a warrant. This warrant was that based on the prognosiss, West Marine promised to buy one hundred per centum of the forecasted stock. This meant that if there were any mistake ‘s in the system, so West Marine would bear the brunt as a consequence. It was this action that was responsible for converting and transfusing seller trust in West Marines CPFR prognosiss.
The knock on effects of holding the providers buy into West Marines CPFR programme were that the company were able to utilize their demand prognosiss to stream line their transportation and receiving activities. The prognosiss enabled West Marine to maximize efficiency in its inbound and out edge cargos and to utilize its dock infinite more efficaciously, in bend leting West Marine to smooth demand spikes.
In decision as the grounds shows in both the Wal-Mart pilot programme and the West Marine instance survey CPFR is a powerful logistics stock prediction tool
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.free-logistics.com/index2.php? option=com_docman & A ; task=doc_view & A ; gid=268 & A ; Itemid=26
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-145836210.html
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lomag-man.org/cpfr_industrie_achat_distribution/documentation_cpfr/WestMarineA_CPFRSuccStorySupChManReManNet_an.pdf
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.stanford.edu/group/scforum/Welcome/White % 20Papers/Multi-Echelon % 20Inventory % 20Optimization % 20- % 20Evant % 20white % 20paper.pdf
Gopalakrishnan, P. , 2004. Handbook of Materials Management, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Ltd
hypertext transfer protocol: //webcache.googleusercontent.com/search? q=cache:1UbbYNftcc8J: www.bisg.org/docs/West_Marine_Case_GS-34_FINAL_092704.doc+matt+henderson+amigo+inc+cpfr & A ; cd=2 & A ; hl=en & A ; ct=clnk & A ; gl=uk & A ; source=www.google.co.uk