Delay In Residential Building Construction Project Construction Essay

Literature Review is a procedure to carry oning a research to happen out the research job and the current cognition on a peculiar subject. This intent is to convey the reader to cognize the current literature and spread outing the cognition within the subject, and besides hope that by this research can carry on few methods to extenuate the job in the subject. The job of holds has been studied and discussed by several research workers in base on balls decennaries but the holds job still go on in many edifice undertaking. The job of holds may consequence by the type of the undertaking, location, sizes and range of the undertaking. Some of the undertakings merely tardily few yearss from the contractual period but some are delayed over a twelvemonth. Therefore, through study by several research workers, it is necessary to specify the all possible causes of hold in order to extenuate the possibility of holds in edifice building undertaking. This chapter is study the determination on several literature hunts and concentrating on the particular issues which included the definition of holds, type of holds and besides reexamine the group ‘s causes. The stuffs that get from the literature are cited as mentions.

2.2 Definition of holds

In general, holds are among the most common job will go on in the edifice building industry which may happen in a simple or a complex undertakings. Delaies in edifice building undertaking can specify as over clip completion of edifice work compared from the agenda which province in contract agenda before.

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Drum sanders and Eagles ( 2001 ) define hold as an event that causes drawn-out clip to finish all or portion of a undertaking. Bramble and Callahan ( 1987 ) besides have defined that ; “ a hold is the clip during which some portion of the building undertaking has been extended or non performed due to an unforeseen circumstance. ”

Delay may besides be defined as the clip overproduction, either can non completed building as specified by the contract or beyond the drawn-out contract period where an extension of clip has been granted. The type of hold we focus on in this survey is the clip overrun beyond the day of the month for completion specified by the contract non sing whether an extension of clip has been granted.

Today many stakeholders in building are going progressively concerned about the continuance of building undertakings because of increasing involvement rates, rising prices, commercial force per unit areas ( Nkado, 1995 ) , and of class, it ‘s possible to ensue in differences and claims taking to arbitration or judicial proceeding.

2.2 Categorization of hold in residential edifice building undertaking

Delaies in edifice contraction undertaking are caused by several factors. Ahmed et Al. ( 2003 ) grouped holds into two categories- internal causes and external causes. Internal causes are arises by the parties of the contract like client, contractor, and adviser on the other manus external causes are arises from the event which can non command by the parties of the contract. This two classs of holds used in finding hold amendss. Delaies can be groped in the undermentioned four wide classs harmonizing to how they operate contractually. ( Syed M. Ahmed.. )

2.3 types of holds

Delaies can be groups in the undermentioned four wide classs harmonizing to how they operate contractually.

Non- excusable holds

Excusable non- paying holds

Excusable compensation holds

Concurrent holds

2.3.1 Inexcusable holds ( non-Excusable hold )

This cause of hold is arises by the sub-contractor or its providers. These holds might ensue of underestimations of productiveness, unequal programming or misdirection, building errors, conditions, equipment dislocations, staffing job or mere bad fortune and etc. such hold are inherently the Contractor ‘s duty and no alleviation is allowed. The contractor is by and large non entitled to dispatch his liability to others and must pass up the work when hold in building undertaking or compensate to proprietor. This compensation may come out by either liquidated amendss or existent amendss clause in the contract. Liquidated amendss are by and large expressed as a day-to-day rate that is based on a prognosis of costs the proprietor is likely to incur in the event of late completion by the contractor. These holds are within the control of the Contractor or are foreseeable.

2.3.2 Excusable holds ( non- paying holds )

This cause of hold is arises by the 3rd parties or can incidents that beyond the mistake or carelessness of the parties of the contract like client, contractor, and adviser. It means that the caused of hold are non foreseeable. These included the Acts of the Apostless of God, Acts of the Apostless of the public enemy, Acts of the Apostless of the proprietor or those under his control, Acts of the Apostless of the proprietor ‘s independent contractors, unusual conditions, work stoppages, fire, act of authorities in its crowned head capacity, inundations, epidemics, cargo trade stoppages and etc. in this cause, the contractor will non have compensation for the cost of hold but entitled to a clip of extension ( EOT ) from any contractually imposed liquidated amendss for the period of hold.

2.3.3 Compensable holds

This cause of hold is result from contract alterations by Change Notice, there are compensation holds that can originate in others ways. These paying holds are excusable holds, suspensions, or breaks to all or portion of the work by the proprietor or the proprietor ‘s agents ensuing from breach of an duty, stated or implied, in the contract. If the hold is compensation, so the Contractor is entitled non merely to an extension of clip but besides to an accommodation for the addition in costs caused by the holds.

The usual just accommodation clauses in Owner issued contract that apply to detain are: – Changes

With the written Change Notice, the Owner may, without any notice to the

Sureties ( if any ) , one-sidedly make any alteration, at any clip in the Work within the general range of the Contract, including but non limited to alterations:

In the drawings, designs or specifications

In the method, mode or sequence of Contractor ‘s work

In Customer or Owner furnished installations, equipments, stuffs, services or

site ( s )

Directing acceleration or slowing in the public presentation of the work

Modifying the Contract Schedule or the Contract mileposts

If at any clip Contractor believes that acts or skips of Customer or Owner constitute a alteration to the Work non covered by a Change Notice, Contractor shall within 10s ( 10 ) calendar yearss of find of such act or skip, submit a written Change Notice Request, explicating in item the footing for the petition. Owner may either publish a Change Notice or deny the petition in authorship.

If any alteration under this clause causes straight or indirectly an addition or lessening in the cost, or the clip required for the public presentation of any portion of the Work, whether or non changed by any order, an just accommodation shall be made and the contract will be modified consequently.

The clause recognizes that alterations in the work or alterations in the method or mode of public presentation may necessitate alterations in the agenda and agenda mileposts and this could farther ask alterations in activity continuances, sequence of work points, or interrelatednesss of assorted undertakings. These alterations may hold a direct impact on the agenda, as where a alteration in method requires a greater or lesser period of public presentation or its effects may be subtler, as where the alteration simply rearranges precedences. In add-on to a clip extension, the contract ‘s clause provides compensation for any hold ensuing from a contract alteration by leting an just accommodation for the increased cost of the public presentation of the work caused by the alteration. Differing Site Conditionss

The part of the clause turn toing cost or clip accommodations for ‘differing site conditions ‘ provides:

If such conditions do differ in stuff and therefore do an increase/decrease in the Contractor ‘s cost or clip required for public presentation of the Work, an just accommodation will be made pursuant to the General Condition titled “ Changes ” . No claim of the Contractor under this clause will be allowed unless the Contractor has given the needed notice. The chief purpose is to go forth the Contractor neither damaged nor enriched because of the attendant hold.

The differing site conditions clause must non be confused with the Site Conditions clause in Owner issued contracts – the alleged “ Exculpatory ” clause. Its purpose is to forbid any claims for holds associating to conditions at the site, which the Contractor should hold anticipated. The exclusions are limited to those conditions defined in the Differing Site Conditions clause.

2.3.4 Concurrent Delaies

Concurrent holds occur when both Owner and the Contractor are responsible for the hold. By and large, if the holds are inextricably intertwined, neither the Contractor can be held responsible for the hold ( forced to speed up, or be apt for liquidated amendss ) nor can he retrieve the hold amendss from the Owner.

Until the development of CPM agenda analysis, there was no dependable method to distinguish the impact of Contractor caused holds from Owner-caused holds. With the sophisticated computerized techniques now available, nevertheless, it has become possible to segregate the impacts of seemingly coincident Owner and Contractor holds. In analysing a hold claim, an analysis based on a comparing of the Contractor ‘s sanctioned CPM agenda with the as-built CPM agenda should be performed to allocate proper duty for hold. Because the critical way may switch as the occupation progresses, it is updated based upon contractually required input from the Contractor.

2.4 Related surveies of causes of hold

An incident of hold can arise from within the contractor ‘s organisation or from any of the other factors interfacing upon building undertaking. Some undertakings are merely a few yearss behind the agenda ; some are delayed over a twelvemonth. So it is indispensable to specify the existent causes of hold in order to minimise and avoid the holds in any building undertaking. Many and assorted surveies were carried to measure the causes of holds in building undertakings.

Yates surveies a determination support system for building hold analysis called ( DAS ) . The chief classs of holds in DAS include technology, equipment, external holds, labor, direction, stuff, proprietor, subcontractors, and conditions.

A comprehensive grouping of the chief causes of building holds, nevertheless, was

Recommended by Hensey ( 1993 ) . These included: stuffs, labor, equipment and fiscal factors. Besides counted among the causes of delaies were improper planning, deficiency of control, subcontractor holds, hapless co-ordination, unequal supervising, improper building methods, proficient forces deficits and hapless communicating.

The causes of building holds in a developing economic system have besides been studied by Ogunlana et Al. ( 1996 ) . The survey involved a study of holds experienced in the building of tower block edifice undertakings in Bangkok, Thailand. It was found that resource supply jobs were by far the most acute jobs of the Thai building industry. The consequences besides supported the position that building jobs in developing economic systems could be classified into three major groups: insufficiency of resource supplies, client and adviser defects, and contractor incompetence/ insufficiency.

Aibinu and Jagboro ( 2002 ) , in their survey of the turning job of building hold in Nigeria, examined the effects of holds on the bringing of building undertakings in the state. Using a questionnaire study of 61 building undertakings, the writers identified, and assessed the impact of holds on the bringing of building undertakings. Time and cost overproductions were found to be frequent effects of hold. Acceleration of site activities coupled with improved clients ‘ undertaking direction processs and the inclusion of an appropriate eventuality allowance in the precontract estimation were recommended as a agency of minimising the inauspicious consequence of building holds in Nigeria.

Sweis et Al. ( 2008 ) studied the causes of hold in residential undertakings in Jordan and concluded that fiscal troubles faced by the contractor and excessively many alteration orders by the proprietor are the prima causes of building hold. Abd El-Razek et Al. ( 2008 ) in a similar survey in Egypt found that the most of import causes of hold are financing by contractor during building, holds in contractor ‘s payment by proprietor, design alterations by proprietor or his agent during building, partial payments during building, and non-utilization of professional construction/contractual direction.

Assaf and AlHejji ( 2006 ) conducted a clip public presentation study of different types of building undertakings in Saudi Arabia to find the causes of hold and their importance harmonizing to each undertaking participant ( proprietor, adviser, and contractor ) . They identified 70 three ( 73 ) causes of hold during the research. The most common cause of hold identified by all three parties was “ alteration order. ”

Assaf et Al. studied the causes of hold in big edifice building undertakings in

Saudi Arabia. The most of import causes of hold included blessing of store drawings, holds in payments to contractors and the ensuing cash-flow jobs during building, design alterations, struggles in work agendas of subcontractors, slow determination devising and executive bureaucratism in the proprietors ‘ organisations, design mistakes, labour deficit and inadequate labor accomplishments. Mezher et Al. [ 11 ] conducted a study of the causes of holds in the building industry in Lebanon from the point of view of proprietors, contractors and architectural/engineering houses. It was found that proprietors had more concerns with respect to fiscal issues ; contractors regarded contractual relationships the most of import, while advisers considered project direction issues to be the most of import causes of holds.

This reappraisal has underscored that the factors that cause hold in building undertakings are many and vary from state to state and from one circumstance to another. However, in developing economic systems Ogunlana et Al. ( 1996 ) have reported that there are typical jobs that cause holds in building. They have classified them into three groups: ( a ) jobs of deficit or insufficiencies in industry substructure ( chiefly supply of resources ) , ( B ) jobs caused by clients and advisers, and ( degree Celsius ) jobs caused by contractor incompetence/inadequacies.

2.5 Causes of holds in constructing building industry

There are two types of causes for holds in building undertaking: external and internal causes. There are two sorts of causes for holds in building undertakings: external and internal causes. Internal causes of holds include the causes, which come from four parties involved in that undertaking. These parties include the Owner, Designers, Contractors, and Advisers. Other holds, which do non come from these four parties, are based on external causes for case from the authorities, stuff providers, or conditions.

Table 1 are the major causes of hold categorized into nine groups and survey by S.A. Assaf, S. Al-Hejji / International Journal of Project Management 24 ( 2006 ) 349-357. The causes of holds will categorise into nine groups which is undertaking, proprietor, contractor, design, stuffs, equipment, labors and external factor. Table 2 are the causes of holds harmonizing by Australasian Journal of Construction economic sciences and Building and categorized into eight groups which is funding, stuffs, scheduling and commanding, contractual relationship, alterations, equipment, environment, authorities action and work force.

Table 1cause of holds categorized into nine groups

Causes of hold


original contract continuance is excessively short

Legal differences b/w assorted parts

Inadequate definition of significant completion

Ineffective hold punishments

Type of building contract ( Turnkey, building merely. )

Type of undertaking command and award ( dialogue, lowest bidder. )


Delay in advancement payments by proprietor

Delay to supply and present the site to the contractor by the proprietor

Change orders by proprietor during building

Late in revising and design paperss by Owner

Delay in store drawings and sample stuffs

Poor communicating and coordination by proprietor and other parties

Awkwardness in determination devising procedure by proprietor

Conflicts between joint-ownership of the undertaking

Inaccessibility of inducements for contractor for completing in front of agenda

Suspension of work by proprietor


Troubles in funding undertaking by contractor

Conflicts in sub-contractors agenda in executing of undertaking

Rework due to mistakes during building

Conflicts b/w contractor and other parties ( adviser and proprietor )

Poor site direction and supervising by contractor

Poor communicating and coordination by contractor with other parties

Ineffective planning and programming of undertaking by contractor

Improper building methods implemented by contractor

Delaies in sub-contractors work

Inadequate contractor ‘s work

Frequent alteration of sub-contractors because of their inefficient work

Poor making of the contractor ‘s proficient staff

Delay in site mobilisation

Delay in executing review and testing by adviser

Delay in major alterations in the range of work by adviser

Inflexibility ( rigidness ) of adviser

Poor communication/coordination between adviser and other parties

Late in reexamining and design paperss by adviser

Conflicts between adviser and design applied scientist

Inadequate experience of adviser


Mistakes and disagreements in design paperss

Delaies in bring forthing design paperss

Ill-defined and unequal inside informations in drawings

Complexity of undertaking design

Insufficient informations aggregation and study before design

Misconstruing of proprietor ‘s demands by design applied scientist

Inadequate design-team experience

Un-use of advanced technology design package


Deficit of building stuffs in market

Changes in stuff types and specifications during building

Delay in stuff bringing

Damage of sorted stuff while they are needed desperately

Delay in fabricating particular edifice stuffs

Late procurance of stuffs

Late in choice of completing stuffs due to handiness of many types in market


Equipment dislocations

Deficit of equipment

Low degree of equipment-operator ‘s accomplishment

Low productiveness and efficiency of equipment

Lack of high-technology mechanical equipment


Deficit of labors

Unqualified work force

Nationality of labors

Low productiveness degree of labors

Personal struggles among labors


Effectss of subsurface conditions ( e.g. , dirt, high H2O tabular array, etc. )

Delay in obtaining licenses from municipality

Hot weather consequence on building activities

Rain consequence on building activities

Inaccessibility of public-service corporations in site ( such as, H2O, electricity, telephone, etc. )

Consequence of societal and cultural factors

Traffic control and limitation at occupation site

Accident during building

Differing site ( land ) conditions

Changes in authorities ordinances and Torahs

Delay in supplying services from public-service corporations ( such as H2O, electricity )

Delay in executing concluding review and enfranchisement by a 3rd party


Table 2 causes of Groups of hold Factors

Causes of holds


Delaies in honoring payment certifications

Trouble in accessing Bank recognition

Fluctuation of monetary values


Deficit of stuffs

Late bringings of stuffs


Poor supervising

Accidents during building

Poor site direction

Lack of programme of work

Construction methods

Underestimate of costs of undertaking

Underestimate of complexness of undertaking

Underestimate of clip completion

Scheduling and commanding

Poor professional direction

Legal differences

Insufficient communicating between parties

Delay in instructions from advisers

Delay by subcontractors

Client initiated fluctuations

Necessary fluctuations

Mistakes with dirt probes

Foundation conditions encountered on site

Poor Design


Unskilled equipment operators

Breakdown of equipments


Bad conditions conditions

Unfavorable site conditions


Obtaining license from municipality

Discrepancy between design specification and edifice codification

Public vacations

Government action

Deficit of skilled labor

Deficit of unskilled labor

Work force

Harmonizing to the tabular array 1 and 2, we found that even the group of the holds are different, but from the factor of the causes we can cognize that the two tabular arraies are about the same. Except the external factor like authorities action and environment, all the causes are chief sing to the parties of the undertaking which are client, contractor, and advisers.

2.6 Frequency of hold causes sing the parties of the contract.

The most frequent causes of holds are harmonizing to the parties of the contract: proprietor, advisers and contractors. From the proprietor ‘s point of position, the most frequent causes of hold are related to both contractor and labor. Inputs of the contractor indicate that the causes of holds are related to the proprietor. Advisers, like proprietor due to that most of the proprietor award the advisers to put to death their undertaking. By and large, the causes of holds are cause by the unqualified contractor with deficit in resources and low capablenesss, which lead to low public presentation and which cause in completion of the work.


Type of undertaking offering award deficit of labors

Ineffective planning and programming of undertaking by contractor

Low productiveness degree of labors

Unqualified work force

Change orders by proprietor during building

Hot conditions affect on building activities

Type of building contract ( prison guard, building merely )

Poor site direction and supervising by contractor

Conflicts encountered with sub- contractor agenda in undertaking executing.


Delaies in progress payment by proprietor suspension of work by proprietor

Late in reexamining and design paperss by proprietor

Change orders by proprietor during building

Late procurance of stuffs

Mistakes and disagreements in design paperss

Delaies in bring forthing design paperss

Troubles in funding undertaking by contractor

Late in reexamining and design paperss by advisers

Awkwardness in decision- devising procedure by proprietor


Type of undertaking budding and award

Change order by proprietor during building

Deficit of labors

Ineffective planning and programming of undertaking by contractor

Delaies in progress payment by proprietor

Low productiveness degree of labors

Inaccessibility of inducements for contractor to complete in front of agenda

Ineffective holds punishments

Hot weather consequence on building activities

Poor making of the contractor proficient staff

2.7 Method if extenuation of hold in constructing building industry

Few of the research workers were recommended the methods of mitigated hold in building undertaking. Harmonizing to Chan and kumarasamy ( 1997 ) suggested that the minimisation of clip overproduction would necessitate: strong direction squads ; thorough probe of site conditions, together with the design of basis and foundations. They have to better that developing communicating system associating all undertaking squads was the important manner to extenuate this affair.

Aibine and Jagboro ( 2002 ) conducted a survey on the consequence of holds on undertaking bringing in Nigeria. They identified two methods to minimise or possible eliminate clip overproduction. There were acceleration of site activities and eventuality allowance.

Ahmaed S.M. et Al. ( 2002 ) in their survey of holds in Florida have recommended streamlining the Buildings Permit Approval Process every bit much as possible. The issues such as alterations in drawing, uncomplete and defective specifications and alteration orders must be controlled with proper design procedure direction and timely determination devising.

Abdul- Rahman H. El Al ( 2006 ) identified the processs taken by contractor as to retrieve holds. From their study, recommended processs were increasing the productiveness by working overtime hours or working by displacements, followed by inquiring for extension of clip. If the job was deficit of resources, they suggested rescheduling the activities within the available resources utilizing skilled labors and by utilizing subcontractors. The respondent besides agreed that site meetings are indispensable in work outing the job with the status that it should non be excessively frequent.

kaliba, Muya and Mumba ( 2009 ) surveies the agenda holds in route building undertaking in Zambia. They suggest the undermentioned recommendation to minimise the causes and consequence of agenda dalays: undertaking timing and programming ; good defined range ; accurate cost estimation ; handiness fund for undertaking ; effectual communicating ; calculated strategy to construct capacity edifice ; and statute law and good corporate authorities.

Based on several surveies of undertaking success factors and minimising holds in building undertaking, a sum of 20 three methods have been identified in order to minimise building holds as shown in table 3.0

Table 3.0 method of extenuation hold


Use of the latest building engineering method

Frequent site meeting with all functional parties

Not presenting contract based on the lowest command

Increase productiveness by working overtime, displacement, etc

Offer inducement for early undertaking completion

Ask for extensive of clip

Execute delayed activities by subcontractors

Promote squad working among project participants

Developing human resources direction ( preparation, twenty-four hours classs, etc )

Timely determination devising by all functional group

Proper undertaking planning and programming

Developing appropriate communicating system associating to all functional group

Early on in obtaining license and blessing from relevant authorization

Thorough undertaking feasibleness survey and site probe

Accurate initial undertaking cost appraisal

Hire experience forces for undertaking execution

Construct a systematic undertaking control and monitoring mechanism

Absence of bureaucratism

Proper accent on past experience of undertaking parties

Accurate initial clip appraisal

Ensure the handiness of resources ( finance, stuffs. Equipment, workingmans, etc )

Choose the competent undertaking director

Use the appropriate building methods

2.8 Drumhead

By understanding this chapter, assorted information sing the effects of holds and methods to extenuate holds were obtained. In the undermentioned chapter, the methodological analysiss used to execute this survey will be discussed. Methodologies for informations aggregation, informations analysis and describing consequence will be elaborated in item.


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