Determination of Job Satisfaction Factors Essay

Executive Summary In today’s competitive world an employee satisfaction is very important for companies as a satisfied employee would produce more which in turn would give better benefits to the company. Job satisfaction is closely related to motivation level of the employees which depends on many factors such as monetary and non monetary benefits, working environment, co-workers, nature of the job etc. , when all these factors are kept in proper levels the employee satisfaction level increases or remain maintained.

In this project the satisfaction level towards different factors of the employee was determined using a structured questionnaire which gave the employees a platform to express their level of satisfaction towards various factors. It was found that employees were quite satisfied with certain factors such as physical environment, non monetary benefits, co-workers, promotion policies, career development etc. This was find out by interviewing 50 employees in the company and analyzing the questionnaire filled by them.

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To represent the data pie charts were used as a graphical representation showing the different percentage of the satisfaction levels. Company profile About Surya Roshni Ltd. A journey whose path has been set in the year 1973 from a small tube making unit is recognized today by a name SURYA ROSHNI LIMITED both domestically and globally. It took 37 years of utmost dedication, commitment and deep faith that Surya emerged as a vast conglomerate in lighting and Steel Tube Division.

Indeed it is a glorious achievement that today we have the largest ERP pipe manufacturing plant in India, a large cold rolling strip mill at Bahadurgarh (Haryana) and two lighting units one each at Kashipur (Uttarakhand) and Malanpur (MP) producing fluorescent tube lights, GLS Lamps, CFL Lamps, HPSV Lamps , HPMV Lamps and metal Halide lamps. It is the only Lighting Company of India with 100% backward integration. In today’s global economy quality indicates the parameter of company’s success.

Your company’s success both domestic and globally is due to adoption of higher level of quality controls and management which now becomes the driving force of our success. Our Lighting sector is dedicated in introducing innovative end-user-driven and energy-efficient solutions and applications for lighting, based on a thorough understanding of the customer needs. Your company succeeded in bench-marking quality and innovation standards by achieving the ISO 9002 in the year 1999.

The company was awarded ISO-14001 and OHSAS-18001 certifications related to environment and safety respectively. Company, has also obtained FIVE STAR Rating for Fluorescent Tube Lamps from Bureau of Energy Efficiency, India. | | | The company has a wide marketing network with its branches and dealer and retailer outlets spread across the length and breadth of the country. Over the years, Surya has built up a strong sales network of 30 branch offices, over 1,500 dealers and more than 100,000 retailers. |  | | | | Industry structure and development

Company experienced a cut throat competition from other established market players and unorganized sectors, but still lighting division is witnessing remarkable growth in turnover and profit. The following may impact the market in the coming years : • Small Scale Industry in GLS and FTL • Shift from traditional to innovative lamps and systems To overcome these problems the company has already started manufacturing complete range of Energy Saving Lamps ( CFL) and during the year under review, company has undertaken and completed substantial expansion in its Kashipur unit by setting up FTL, CFL, PCB, HID and PVC plants in the said expansion.

Further during the year, Malanpur unit has installed one CFL Line to produce T-3 Type Compact Fluorescent Lamps with capacity of 6 million pieces per annum. It also started PCB production for CFL lamps with SMT / Auto Insertion Technology. Company shall be focusing primarily on the manufacture of High Mast Towers and Octagonal Street Light and other innovative lamps. During the year under review, ERW unit of High Mast Division with a Capital and with an installed capacity of 25000 MT per annum has started commercial production.

The Luminaire Business Group (LBG) of the company has made good progress in the recent times by picking good orders for Luminarie / HID Lamps; High Masts from established Public Sector Undertakings / Public Work Departments ; local bodies as well as from a wide spectrum of Industrial ; Commercial Luminaire Buyers. The Steel Tubes industry too witnessed growth during the year under review and the market growing steadily due to the boom in infrastructure sector. There is tremendous scope for export of ERW Steel Pipes as well as Cold Rolling particularly to Canada, U.

S. A. and European Countries including U. K, Germany and Belgium etc. One new furnace for hydrogen annealing has been put to further improve the quality of the Cold Rolled product. The Company has installed sixth Galvanizing Plant to enhance the capacity of galvanizing by 40000 M. T per annum. In pipe mill company have installed a Solid State Welder and Hydro testing Machine. To carter the power need of the plant, one out of the two 1. 75 MW Gas Gen Set has been installed, which has improved company’s in house generation of power.

The future is likely to see only those companies successful, which have their products priced competitively and to sell there products in the international market. All possible efforts are being made by your company to reduce costs without compromising on the quality of the product and increase the export. Code of conduct This Code of Conduct (‘Code’) for the Board Members and Senior Management ensures compliance with legal requirements and helps to maintain the standards of business conduct. The purpose of the Code is to deter wrongdoing and promote ethical conduct.

All Directors and Senior Management must act within the purview of the authority conferred upon them and with a duty to make and enact informed decisions and policies in the best interests of the Company and its shareholders /stakeholders. The Company appoints the Company Secretary as a compliance officer, who will be available to directors and senior management to answer questions and to held them comply with the Code. The following code of conduct helps the Board Members and Senior Management to maintain the high standards that the Company requires.

The following code of conduct helps board members and senior management to maintain the high standards that the company requires such as: * Honesty and Integrity * Conflicts of Intrest * Compliance * Other Directorships * Confidentiality of information * Prevention of Insider Trading * Protection of Assets * Gifts and Donations * Periodic Review Product line of Surya Roshni Ltd. Surya Roshni has grown phenomenally within a short period of time to become one of the India’s largest manufactures of lighting products ranging from: * Fluorescent Tube Lamps * GKS Lamps * Energy Efficient Lamps * Sodium and Mercury Vapor Lamps Luminaries * Accessories Introduction Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. It is a relatively recent term since in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined by the occupation of that person’s parent. There are a variety of factors that can influence a person’s level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness o the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions, leadership and social relationships, the job itself (the variety of tasks involved, the interest nd challenge the job generates, and the clarity of the job description/requirements). The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not the same as motivation, although it is clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment. Other influences on satisfaction include the management style and culture, employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous workgroups. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations.

The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions are related to pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Some questioners ask yes or no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction on 1 – 5 scale where 1 represents “not all satisfied” and 5 represents “extremely satisfied”. History One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies.

These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers’ productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction.

Scientific management also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern approach of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, hus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W. L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work. Some argue that Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life – physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Job Satisfaction

One way to define satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. The word ‘end’ emphasizes the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavour of constructing a building. These activities may be minute or large. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not & could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the other the situational opportunities available to him.

This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an engineering industry. He has been assigned the task to complete a special order by a certain, deadline. Person may experience positive job satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task. It gives him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a special task, he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra wages. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does not like rush work, has no need for extra wages.

Each one of these variables lead to an end state of feeling, called satisfaction. Definitions Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. Weiss (2007) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviors. This definition suggests that we from attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviors.

Theories of Job – Satisfaction There are several theories related to job satisfaction which focuses on motivation and need fulfillment as a correlation factor of job satisfaction. There are major theories of job satisfaction. (i) Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene theory (ii) Need fulfillment theory (iii) Social reference – group theory (iv) Affect Theory (v) Dispositional Theory (vi) Job Characteristic Model Herzberg’s Motivation – Hygiene Theory This theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969.

On the basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh area in the USA, he established that there are two separate sets of conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation & dissatisfaction of workers. When one set of conditions (called ‘motivator’) is present in the organization, workers feel motivated but its absence does not dissatisfy them. Similarly, when another set of conditions (called hygiene factors) is absent in the organization, the workers feel dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them.

The two sets are unidirectional, that is, their effect can be seen in one direction only. According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators: • Achievement,• Recognition,• Advancement,• Work itself,• Possibility of growth, &• Responsibility. | | Hygiene factors are: • Company policy & administration,• Technical supervision,• Inter-personal relations with supervisors, peers & Subordinates,• Salary. • Job security,• Personal life,• Working Conditions, &• Status. | | Herzberg used semi-structured interviews (the method is called critical incident method).

In this technique subjects were asked to describe those events on the job which had made them extremely satisfied or dissatisfied. Herzberg found that events which led people to extreme satisfaction were generally characterized by ‘motivators’ & those which led people to extreme dissatisfaction were generally characterized by a totally different set of factors which were called ‘hygiene factors’. Hygiene factors are those factors which remove pain from the environment. Hence, they are also known as job – environment or job – context factors. Motivators are factors which result in psychological growth. They are mostly job – centered.

Hence they are also known as job – content factors. The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene factors are independent & absence of one does not mean presence of the other. In pleasant situations motivators appear more frequently than hygiene factors while their predominance is reversed in unpleasant situations. Need Fulfillment Theory Under the need-fulfillment theory it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him, the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it.

Needs may be need for personal achievement, social achievement & for influence. a) Need for personal achievement: Desires for personal career development, improvement in one’s own life standards, better education ; prospects for children ; desire for improving one’s own work performance. b) Need for social achievement: A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity, increased national prosperity, better life community & safety for everyone. ) Need for influence: A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. In the works situation, it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making. In an all, this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of, or is positively related to the degree to which one’s personal ; social needs are fulfilled in the job situation. Social References – Group Theory Group Theory takes into account the point of view ; opinions of the group to whom the individual looks for the guidance.

Such groups are defined as the ‘reference-group’ for the individual in that they define the way in which he should look at the world and evaluate various phenomena in the environment (including him-self). It would be predicted, according to this theory that if a job meets the interest, desires and requirements of a person’s reference group, he will like it & if it does not, he will not like it. A good example of this theory has been given by C. L. Hulin. He measures the effects of community characteristics on job satisfaction of female clerical workers employed in 300 different offices.

He found that with job conditions held constant job satisfaction was less among persons living in a well-to-do neighborhood than among those whose neighborhood was poor. Hulin, thus provides strong evidence that such frames of reference for evaluation may be provided by one’s social groups and general social environment. To sum up, we can say, Job satisfaction is a function of or is positively related to the degree to which the characteristics of the job meet with approved ; the desires of the group to which the individual looks for guidance in evaluating the world ; defining social reality.

Affect Theory Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e. g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met.

When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B.

This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. Dispositional Theory Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs.

Research also indicates that identical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction.

Having an internal locus of control (believing one has control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. Job Characteristics Model Hackman ; Oldham proposed the Job Characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction.

The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes, and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc. ). The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely a job is to affect an employee’s attitudes and behaviors—-.

A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. Determinants of Job Satisfaction: According to Abrahan A. Korman, there are two types of variables which determine the job satisfaction of an individual. These are: 1) Organizational variables 2) Personal Variables Organizational Variable: 1) Occupational Level: The higher the level of the job, the greater is the satisfaction of the individual. This is because higher level jobs carry greater prestige and self control. 2) Job Content:

Greater the variation in job content and the less repetitiveness with which the tasks must be performed, the greater is the satisfaction of the individual involved. 3) Considerate Leadership: People like to be treated with consideration. Hence considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than inconsiderate leadership. 4) Pay and Promotional Opportunities: All other things being equal these two variables are positively related to job satisfaction. 5) Interaction in the work group: Here the question is: When is interaction in the work group a source of job satisfaction and when it is not?

Interaction is most satisfying when – (a) It results in the cognition that other person’s attitudes are similar to one’s own. Since this permits the ready calculability of the others behavior and constitutes a validation of one’s self ; (b) It results in being accepted by others (c) It facilitates the achievements of goals. Personal Variables For some people, it appears most jobs will be dissatisfying irrespective of the organizational condition involved, whereas for others, most jobs will be satisfying. Personal variables like age, educational level, sex, etc. are responsible for this difference. 1) Age: Most of the evidence on the relation between age and job satisfaction, holding such factors as occupational level constant, seems to indicate that there is generally a positive relationship between the two variables up to the pre-retirement years and then there is a sharp decrease in satisfaction. An individual aspires for better and more prestigious jobs in later years of his life. Finding his channels for advancement blocked his satisfaction declines. (2) Educational Level: With occupational level held constant there is a negative relationship between the educational level and job satisfaction.

The higher the education, the higher the reference group which the individual looks to for guidance to evaluate his job rewards. (3) Role Perception: Different individuals hold different perceptions about their role, i. e. the kind of activities and behaviors they should engage in to perform their job successfully. Job satisfaction is determined by this factor also. The more accurate the role perception of an individual, greater his satisfaction. (4) Sex: There is as yet no consistent evidence as to whether women are more satisfied with their jobs than men, holding such factors as job and occupational level constant.

One might predict this to be the case, considering the generally low occupational aspiration of women. Some other determines of job satisfaction are as follows: (i) General Working Conditions (ii) Grievance handling procedure (iii) Fair evaluation of work done (iv) Job security (v) Company prestige (vi) Working hours etc. Literature Review Aswathappa (2003), opines that the Job Satisfaction of employees can be judged through the system of wage payment. Different organization adapts different type of wage payment system. Along with wages and salaries they are paying incentives, perquisites and non-monetary benefits.

According to him, he explained 3 theories of remuneration: A. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory B. Equity Theory C. Agency Theory D. Reinforcement and Expectancy Theory E. Equity Theory F. Agency Theory Rao (2005), reveal in his study that Job satisfaction refer to person feelings of satisfaction on the job, which acts as a motivation to work. It is not the self satisfaction, happiness or self-contentment but the satisfaction of the job. According to him, there are 4 types of theories: 1. Need Fulfillment Theory 2. Equity Theory 3. Two Factor Theory 4. Discrepancy Theory

Khan (2006): reveals in his study hat Hoppack brought Job satisfaction to limelight. He observed Job satisfaction in the combination of psychological ; environmental circumstances that cause person to fully say, “I am satisfied with my job”. Jain, Jabeen, et. al. (2007), in their study “Job Satisfaction as Related to Organizational Climate and Occupational Stress: A Case Study of Indian Oil” concluded that that there is no significant difference between managers and engineers in terms of their job satisfaction and both the groups appeared almost equally satisfied with their jobs.

When the managers and engineers were compared on organizational climate, it was found that both the groups differed significantly. Managers scored significantly high on organizational climate scale than the engineers indicating that the managers are more satisfied due to the empowerment given to them. Gupta ; Joshi (2008): concluded in their study that Job satisfaction is an important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It had often said that, “A HAPPY EMPLOYEE IS A PRODUCTIVE EMPLPOYEE. Job satisfaction is very important because most of the people spend a major of their life at their work place. Velnampy (2008), in his study “Job Attitude and Employees Performance of Public Sector Organizations in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka” concluded that job satisfaction does have impact on future performance through the job involvement, but higher performance also makes people feel more satisfied and committed. It is a cycle of event that is clearly in keeping with the development perspective. Attitudes such as satisfaction and involvement are important to the employees to have high levels of performance.

The results of the study revealed that attitudes namely satisfaction and involvement, and performance are significantly correlated. Brown, Forde, et. al. (2008), in their study “Changes in HRM and job satisfaction, 1998–2004: evidence from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey” examined that their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work between 1998 and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have increased over this period as well. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management practices.

The paper reports a weak association between formal human resource management practices and satisfaction with sense of achievement. Improvements in perceptions of job security, the climate of employment relations and managerial responsiveness are the most important factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement between 1998 and 2004. We infer that the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement is due in large part to the existence of falling unemployment during the period under study, which has driven employers to make improvements in the quality of work.

Shah & Shah (2008), in their study “Job Satisfaction and Fatigue Variables” concluded that relationship between fatigue and Job Satisfaction variables which were found to be significantly negative. The study alo founds that fatigue is negative predictor of Job Satisfaction. The study is clearly indicative of different issues for Call Centre employees in Indian context. There are different ON THE JOB and OFF THE JOB FACTORS leading to dissatisfaction and fatigue for them which were explored in this study. If fatigue can be reduced and job satisfaction can be increased by various innovative and encouraging strategies.

Shahu & Gole (2008), in their study “Effect of Job satisfaction on Performance: An Empirical Study” concluded that the companies that are lagging behind in certain areas of job satisfaction & job stress need to be developed so that their employees show good performance level, as it is provided that performance level lowers wit high satisfaction scores. The awareness program pertaining to stress & satisfaction is to be taken up in the industries to make them aware of the benefits of knowledge of stress and its relationship with satisfaction and achievement of goal of industries.

Job Satisfaction is in regard to one’s feeling or state-of-mind regarding the nature of their work. Job Satisfaction can be influenced by a variety of factors,eg, the quality of one’s relationship with their supervisions, the quality of the physical environment in which they work, degree of their fulfillment in their work etc. Measuring Job Satisfaction There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert).

Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklist, forced choice answers. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures one’s satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple participants answer either yes, no, or decide in response to whether given statements accurately describe one job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction.

It was an improvement to the job Descriptive Index because the JDI focused too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. Objective and scope of the project Objective of the study The objective of the study is as follows * To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of employees * To identify the factor which improves the satisfaction level of employees * To know the employee satisfaction towards the facilities. * To offer valuable suggestions to improve the satisfaction level of employees. Scope of the study This study emphasis in the following scope: To identify the employees level of satisfaction upon that job. * This study is helpful to that organisation for conducting further research. * It is helpful to identify the employer’s level of satisfaction towards welfare measure. * This study is helpful to the organization for identifying the area of dissatisfaction of job of the employees. * This study helps to make a managerial decision to the company. Research Methodology Research methodology is the systematic way to solve the research problem. It gives an idea about various steps adopted by the researcher in a systematic manner with an objective to determine various manners.

For the project the whole research was carried out in mainly 3 steps, they are: Step 1: Questionnaire was created which would help to determine the factors which will influence job satisfaction. Step 2: Questionnaire where given to employees in the organization to fill their response towards the various factors. Step 3: Questionnaire was the analyzed and the analysis was mainly expressed in the form of pie-charts to show the influence of various factors. Research Design A research design is considered as the framework or plan for a study that guides as well as helps the data collection and analysis of data.

The research design may be exploratory, descriptive and experimental for the present study. A descriptive research design is adopted for this project. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research, describes data and characteristics about the population or phenomenon being studied. Descriptive research answers the questions who, what, where, when and how… Although the data description is factual, accurate and systematic, the research cannot describe what caused a situation. Thus, Descriptive research cannot be used to create a causal relationship, where one variable affects another.

In other words, descriptive research can be said to have a low requirement for internal validity. The description is used for frequencies, averages and other statistical calculations. Often the best approach, prior to writing descriptive research, is to conduct a survey investigation. Qualitative research often has the aim of description and researchers may follow-up with examinations of why the observations exist and what the implications of the findings are. Research Approach The research approach used for the project mainly included one on one interaction with the employees in order to fill the structured questionnaire. Sample size

The study sample constitutes 50 respondents constituting in the research area. Sampling Area The study is conducted within employees of Surya Roshni Ltd, Malanpur. Collection of Data Most of the data collected is primary data through personal interview, where the face – to – face interviews were conducted to fill in the questionnaire. The secondary data was collected from the Annual Reports of the Company, internet, journals and published work of researchers. Research Instrument A structured questionnaire was used as a research tool, which consists of open ended questions, multiple choice and scaled based questions in order to get data.

Thus, Questionnaire is the data collection instrument used in the study. All the questions in the questionnaire are organized in such a way that elicit all the relevant information that is needed for the study Statistical Tools The statistical tools used for analyzing the data collected are percentage method, bar diagrams and pie diagrams. Research period The research period of the study has from 1st May to 10th May 2010 and 15th July to 30th July 2010. Analysis of Data The data collected through survey conducted among the employees of Surya Roshni Ltd. Was tabulated and analyzed in such a way to make interpretations.

Various steps, which are required to fulfill the purpose, i. e. , editing, coding, and tabulating. Editing refers to separate, correct and modify the collected data. Coding refers to assigning number or other symbols to each answer for placing them in categories to prepare data for tabulation refers to bring together the similar data in rows and columns and totaling them in an accurate and meaningful manner The collected data are analyzed and interpreted in the form of tables and pie charts which represented the data in percentage of the respondents against various variables Table 1: To know the no. f working years of the employees in the organization SL. NO. | WORK EXPERIENCE | NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| BELOW 2 YRS| 7| 14| 2| 2-4 YRS| 15| 30| 3| 4-6 YRS| 17| 34| 4| ABOVE 6YRS| 11| 22| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 1: Represents the Work Experience of Employees in the Company Inference: the pie-chart shows that most of the employees are between 2-6 yrs of work experience in the company. Table 2: To know the satisfaction level towards the physical working environment SL. NO. | WORKING ENVIRONMENT| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| EXCELLENT | 6| 12| 2| GOOD| 29| 58| | FAIR| 14| 28| 4| POOR| 1| 2| 5| VERY POOR| 0| 0| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 2: Represents the Satisfaction Level of Employees towards Physical Working Environment Inference: 70% of the employees feel that the working environment of the company is good. Table 3: To know the satisfaction level of the employees towards Non-Monetary benefits SL. NO. | NON MONETARY BENEFITS OFFERED TO EMPLOYEES| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 7| 14| 2| SATISFIED| 27| 54| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIEFD| 13| 26| 4| DISSATISFIED| 2| 4| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 1| 2| TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 3: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the Employees towards the Non-Monetary Benefits Inference: 68% of the employees were satisfied with the non-monetary benefits, this shows that they can be one of the retention factor in the company. Table 4: To know the satisfaction level of the Employees towards the Worked Assigned SL. NO. | SATISFACTION WITH WORK| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)|  1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 10| 20| 2| SATISFIED| 22| 44| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 6| 12| 4| DISSATISFIED| 9| 18| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 3| 6| | TOTAL| 50| 100|

Pie-Chart 4: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the Employees towards the Work Assigned Inference: 64% of the employees were satisfied with the work assigned to them were as 24% of the employees were dissatisfied with the job assigned to them this shows that the company needs to refine the Job Designs. Table 5: To know the satisfaction level of the Employees towards the Employee Development Programs in the Company SL. NO. | SATISFACTION WITH THE PROGRAMES| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 6| 12| 2| SATISFIED| 28| 56| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 11| 22| | DISSATISFIED| 5| 10| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 0| 0| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 5: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the Employees towards the Career Development programs in the Company Inference: 68% of the employees were satisfies with the career development programs of the company showing the efforts put in by the company for career planning and retention og the employees. Table 6: To know the satisfaction level towards the Co-operation of the Coworkers SL. NO| CO-OPERATION OF CO-WORKERS| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 10| 20| 2| SATISFIED| 33| 66| | NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 5| 10| 4| DISSATISFIED| 2| 4| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 0| 0| Pie-chart 5: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the Employees towards the Co-operation of the Co-workers Inference: 86% of the employees were satisfied with their co-workers which show that the company employees must be having a good team work attitude. Table 7: To know the satisfaction level of the employees with the Top Management SL. NO. | SATISFACTION WITH TOP MANAGEMENT| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 13| 26| 2| SATISFIED| 25| 50| | NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 9| 18| 4| DISSATISFIED| 3| 6| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 0| 0| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 7: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the Employees with the Top Management Inference: 76% of the employees are satisfied with the top management showing good leadership qualities in the organization. Table 8: To know the satisfaction level of the employees with their subordinates SL. NO. | SATISFACTION WITH SUBORDINATES| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 6| 12| 2| SATISFIED| 34| 68| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 7| 14| 4| DISSATISFIED| 3| 6| | HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 0| 0| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 8: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the Employees with their Subordinates Inference: 80% of the employees are satisfied with their subordinates this shows that the distribution of the hierarchy in the company is good. Table 9: To know the satisfaction level of the employees regarding the Nature of the Job Sl. NO. | LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 11| 22| 2| SATISFIED| 28| 56| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 8| 16| 4| DISSATISFIED| 3| 6| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 0| 0| TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 9: Represents the Satisfaction Level of the employees towards the Nature of the Job Inference: 78% of the employees were satisfied with the nature of the job which shows that’s the recruitment polices and assignment of the job in the company is of good standards. Table 10: To know the work pressure on the employees Sl. NO. | LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE| 1| YES| 36| 72| 2| NO| 14| 28| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Table 10: To know the satisfaction level of the employees towards the Well-fare Activities carried out by the company Sl. NO. LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION TOWARDS WELLFARE ACTIVITIES| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 4| 8| 2| SATISFIED| 29| 58| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 14| 28| 4| DISSATISFIED| 3| 6| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 0| 0| Pie-Chart 10: Represents the Satisfaction level of the Employees towards the Well-fare Activities carried out by the Company Inference: 66% of the employees are satisfied with the well fare activities carried out in the company in which 8% were highly satisfied and 58% were highly satisfied there was no employees in the company who were dissatisfied with the activities.

This shows the company practices good welfare activities. Table 11: To know the no. of employees satisfied towards the salary SL. NO| SATISFACTION TOWARDS SALARY| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| YES| 34| 68| 2| NO| 16| 32| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Table 12: To know the no. of employees willing to continue in the company SL. NO. | NO. OF EMPLOYEES WILLING TO CONT. | NO. OF. RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| YES| 30| 60| 2| NO| 20| 40| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Table 13: To know the satisfaction level of the employees towards the companies polices and practices for promotion Sl.

NO. | LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION TOWARDS WELLFARE ACTIVITIES| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 7| 14| 2| SATISFIED| 28| 56| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 10| 20| 4| DISSATISFIED| 4| 8| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 1| 2| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 13: Represents the satisfaction Level of the Employees towards the company’s Polices and Practices for Promotion Inference: More that 50% of the employees are satisfied with the company’s polices and practices for promotion among which 14% are highly satisfied and 56% are satisfied.

The percentage of dissatisfaction is just 10%. This represents the promotion polices and practices are good in the company. Table 14: To know the overall job satisfaction Sl. NO. | LEVEL OF JOB SATISFACTION TOWARDS WELLFARE ACTIVITIES| NO. OF RESPONDENT| PERCENTAGE (%)| 1| HIGHLY SATISFIED| 11| 22| 2| SATISFIED| 15| 30| 3| NEITHER SATISFIED NOR DISSATISFIED| 14| 28| 4| DISSATISFIED| 6| 12| 5| HIGHLY DISSATISFIED| 4| 8| | TOTAL| 50| 100| Pie-Chart 14: Represents the Overall Job Satisfaction

Inference: 52% of the employees are satisfied with the overall job among which 22% are highly satisfied and 30% are satisfied, where as 20% of the employees are dissatisfied among which 8% are highly dissatisfied and 12% are dissatisfied. Conclusion Limitations * The responses so collected are subject to biasness of the employees * The application of study undertaken is limited only to particular industry and company * Sample size was of 50 which felt many employees untouched Recommendations As perception of the employees differ with age, so management should adopt different job satisfaction approach for different age group of employees * Proper attention should be given to factors having high importance to ensure more job satisfaction * The company should organize proper training programs for the employees as it would increase the job satisfaction level * Job design should be done more appropriately keeping in mind the skills of the employees Bibliography www. scribd. com www. wekipedia. com www. citehr. com Dr. C. B.

Gupta Human Resource Management, Sultan Chand & Sons, New Delhi, 2006 Annexure Job Satisfaction Questionnaire Tick your work experience in terms of no. of years in the company:| | | | 1| Below 1yr|  | | | | | | | | 2| 2-4 yrs|  | | | | | | | | 3| 4-6 yrs|  | | | | | | | | 4| Above 6 yrs|  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | How do you rate the physical working environment:| | | | | | 1| Excellent|  | | | | | | | | 2| Good|  | | | | | | | | 3| Fair|  | | | | | | | | 4| Poor|  | | | | | | | | 5| Very Poor|  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

Rate the following to indicate the satisfaction level for the following factors from 1-5 where:| | 1= Highly Dissatisfied, 2= Dissatisfied, 3= Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied, 4= Satisfied, 5= Highly Satisfied| | | | | | | | | | | | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| | | | Non Monetary Benefits|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Work assigned|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Employee Development Programs|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Co-operation of Co workers|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Top Management|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Subordinates|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Nature of the Job|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Welfare Activities|  |  |  |  |  | | | |

Polices and Practices for Promotion|  |  |  |  |  | | | | Over all Job|  |  |  |  |  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Do you feel there is too much of work pressure on the employees? | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Yes|  | No|  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Are you satisfied with the salary? | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Yes|  | No|  | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Are you willing to cont. in the company? | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Yes|  | No|  | | | | | | | The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long-term profitability of a small usiness. If you hire and keep good employees, it is good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so they can increase their productivity. Training often is considered for new employees only. This is a mistake because ongoing training for current employees helps them adjust to rapidly changing job requirements. Purpose of Training and Development Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include * Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. * Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morale. * Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs. Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: * Increased productivity. * Reduced employee turnover. * Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. * Decreased need for supervision.

Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals. The Training Process The model below traces the steps necessary in the training process: * Organizational Objectives * Needs Assessment * Is There a Gap? * Training Objectives * Select the Trainees * Select the Training Methods and Mode * Choose a Means of Evaluating Administer Training * Evaluate the Training Your business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their training process are more successful than those that do not. Most business owners want to succeed, but do not engage in training designs that promise to improve their chances of success. Why? The five reasons most often identified are: Time – Small businesses managers find that time demands do not allow them to train employees. Getting started – Most small business managers have not practiced training employees.

The training process is unfamiliar. Broad expertise – Managers tend to have broad expertise rather than the specialized skills needed for training and development activities. Lack of trust and openness – Many managers prefer to keep information to themselves. By doing so they keep information from subordinates and others who could be useful in the training and development process. Skepticism as to the value of the training – Some small business owners believe the future cannot be predicted or controlled and their efforts, therefore, are best centered on current activities i. e. making money today. A well-conceived training program can help your firm succeed. A program structured with the company’s strategy and objectives in mind has a high probability of improving productivity and other goals that are set in the training mission. For any business, formulating a training strategy requires addressing a series of questions. * Who are your customers? Why do they buy from you? * Who are your competitors? How do they serve the market? What competitive advantages do they enjoy? What parts of the market have they ignored? * What strengths does the company have?

What weaknesses? * What social trends are emerging that will affect the firm? The purpose of formulating a training strategy is to answer two relatively simple but vitally important questions: (1) What is our business? and (2) What should our business be? Armed with the answers to these questions and a clear vision of its mission, strategy and objectives, a company can identify its training needs. Identifying Training Needs Training needs can be assessed by analyzing three major human resource areas: the organization as a whole, the job characteristics and the needs of the individuals.

This analysis will provide answers to the following questions: * Where is training needed? * What specifically must an employee learn in order to be more productive? * Who needs to be trained? Begin by assessing the current status of the company how it does what it does best and the abilities of your employees to do these tasks. This analysis will provide some benchmarks against which the effectiveness of a training program can be evaluated. Your firm should know where it wants to be in five years from its long-range strategic plan.

What you need is a training program to take your firm from here to there. Second, consider whether the organization is financially committed to supporting the training efforts. If not, any attempt to develop a solid training program will fail. Next, determine exactly where training is needed. It is foolish to implement a companywide training effort without concentrating resources where they are needed most. An internal audit will help point out areas that may benefit from training. Also, a skills inventory can help determine the skills possessed by the employees in general.

This inventory will help the organization determine what skills are available now and what skills are needed for future development. Also, in today’s market-driven economy, you would be remiss not to ask your customers what they like about your business and what areas they think should be improved. In summary, the analysis should focus on the total organization and should tell you (1) where training is needed and (2) where it will work within the organization. Once you have determined where training is needed, concentrate on the content of the program.

Analyze the characteristics of the job based on its description, the written narrative of what the employee actually does. Training based on job descriptions should go into detail about how the job is performed on a task-by-task basis. Actually doing the job will enable you to get a better feel for what is done. Individual employees can be evaluated by comparing their current skill levels or performance to the organization’s performance standards or anticipated needs. Any discrepancies between actual and anticipated skill levels identifies a training need. Selection of Trainees

Once you have decided what training is necessary and where it is needed, the next decision is who should be trained? For a small business, this question is crucial. Training an employee is expensive, especially when he or she leaves your firm for a better job. Therefore, it is important to carefully select who will be trained. Training programs should be designed to consider the ability of the employee to learn the material and to use it effectively, and to make the most efficient use of resources possible. It is also important that employees be motivated by the training experience.

Employee failure in the program is not only damaging to the employee but a waste of money as well. Selecting the right trainees is important to the success of the program. Training Goals The goals of the training program should relate directly to the needs determined by the assessment process outlined above. Course objectives should clearly state what behavior or skill will be changed as a result of the training and should relate to the mission and strategic plan of the company. Goals should include milestones to help take the employee from where he or she is today to where the firm wants him or her in the future.

Setting goals helps to evaluate the training program and also to motivate employees. Allowing employees to participate in setting goals increases the probability of success. Training Methods There are two broad types of training available to small businesses: on-the-job and off-the-job techniques. Individual circumstances and the “who,” “what” and “why” of your training program determine which method to use. On-the-job training is delivered to employees while they perform their regular jobs. In this way, they do not lose time while they are learning.

After a plan is developed for what should be taught, employees should be informed of the details. A timetable should be established with periodic evaluations to inform employees about their progress. On-the-job techniques include orientations, job instruction training, apprenticeships, internships and assistantships, job rotation and coaching. Off-the-job techniques include lectures, special study, films, television conferences or discussions, case studies, role playing, simulation, programmed instruction and laboratory training.

Most of these techniques can be used by small businesses although, some may be too costly. Orientations are for new employees. The first several days on the job are crucial in the success of new employees. This point is illustrated by the fact that 60 percent of all employees who quit do so in the first ten days. Orientation training should emphasize the following topics: * The company’s history and mission. * The key members in the organization. * The key members in the department, and how the department helps fulfill the mission of the company. * Personnel rules and regulations.

Some companies use verbal presentations while others have written presentations. Many small businesses convey these topics in one-on-one orientations. No matter what method is used, it is important that the newcomer understand his or her new place of employment. Lectures present training material verbally and are used when the goal is to present a great deal of material to many people. It is more cost effective to lecture to a group than to train people individually. Lecturing is one-way communication and as such may not be the most effective way to train.

Also, it is hard to ensure that the entire audience understands a topic on the same level; by targeting the average attendee you may undertrain some and lose others. Despite these drawbacks, lecturing is the most cost-effective way of reaching large audiences. Role playing and simulation are training techniques that attempt to bring realistic decision making situations to the trainee. Likely problems and alternative solutions are presented for discussion. The adage there is no better trainer than experience is exemplified with this type of training.

Experienced employees can describe real world experiences, and can help in and learn from developing the solutions to these simulations. This method is cost effective and is used in marketing and management training. Audiovisual methods such as television, videotapes and films are the most effective means of providing real world conditions and situations in a short time. One advantage is that the presentation is the same no matter how many times it’s played. This is not true with lectures, which can change as the speaker is changed or can be influenced by outside constraints.

The major flaw with the audiovisual method is that it does not allow for questions and interactions with the speaker, nor does it allow for changes in the presentation for different audiences. Job rotation involves moving an employee through a series of jobs so he or she can get a good feel for the tasks that are associated with different jobs. It is usually used in training for supervisory positions. The employee learns a little about everything. This is a good strategy for small businesses because of the many jobs an employee may be asked to do. Apprenticeships develop employees who can do many different tasks.

They usually involve several related groups of skills that allow the apprentice to practice a particular trade, and they take place over a long period of time in which the apprentice works for, and with, the senior skilled worker. Apprenticeships are especially appropriate for jobs requiring production skills. Internships and assistantships are usually a combination of classroom and on-the-job training. They are often used to train prospective managers or marketing personnel. Programmed learning, computer-aided instruction and interactive video all have one thing in common: they allow the trainee to learn at his or her own pace.

Also, they allow material already learned to be bypassed in favor of material with which a trainee is having difficulty. After the introductory period, the instructor need not be present, and the trainee can learn as his or her time allows. These methods sound good, but may be beyond the resources of some small businesses. Laboratory training is conducted for groups by skilled trainers. It usually is conducted at a neutral site and is used by upper- and middle management trainees to develop a spirit of teamwork and an increased ability to deal with management and peers.

It can be costly and usually is offered by larger small businesses. Trainers Who actually conducts the training depends on the type of training needed and who will be receiving it. On-the-job training is conducted mostly by supervisors; off-the-job training, by either in-house personnel or outside instructors. In-house training is the daily responsibility of supervisors and employees. Supervisors are ultimately responsible for the productivity and, therefore, the training of their subordinates. These supervisors should be taught the techniques of good training. They must be aware of the nowledge and skills necessary to make a productive employee. Trainers should be taught to establish goals and objectives for their training and to determine how these objectives can be used to influence the productivity of their departments. They also must be aware of how adults learn and how best to communicate with adults. Small businesses need to develop their supervisors’ training capabilities by sending them to courses on training methods. The investment will pay off in increased productivity. There are several ways to select training personnel for off-the-job training programs.

Many small businesses use in-house personnel to develop formal training programs to be delivered to employees off line from their normal work activities, during company meetings or individually at prearranged training sessions. There are many outside training sources, including consultants, technical and vocational schools, continuing education programs, chambers of commerce and economic development groups. Selecting an outside source for training has advantages and disadvantages. The biggest advantage is that these organizations are well versed in training techniques, which is often not the case with in-house personnel.

The disadvantage of using outside training specialists is their limited knowledge of the company’s product or service and customer needs. These trainers have a more general knowledge of customer satisfaction and needs. In many cases, the outside trainer can develop this knowledge quickly by immersing himself or herself in the company prior to training the employees. Another disadvantage of using outside trainers is the relatively high cost compared to in-house training, although the higher cost may be offset by the increased effectiveness of the training.

Whoever is selected to conduct the training, either outside or in-house trainers, it is important that the company’s goals and values be carefully explained. Training Administration Having planned the training program properly, you must now administer the training to the selected employees. It is important to follow through to make sure the goals are being met. Questions to consider before training begins include: * Location. * Facilities. * Accessibility. * Comfort. * Equipment. * Timing. Careful attention to these operational details will contribute to the success of the training program.

An effective training program administrator should follow these steps: * Define the organizational objectives. * Determine the needs of the training program. * Define training goals. * Develop training methods. * Decide whom to train. * Decide who should do the training. * Administer the training. * Evaluate the training program. Following these steps will help an administrator develop an effective training program to ensure that the firm keeps qualified employees who are productive, happy workers. This will contribute positively to the bottom line

Read more: 4. Employee Training and Development Get more information on Entrepreneurship The quality of employees and their development through training and education are major factors in determining long-term profitability of a small business. If you hire and keep good employees, it is good policy to invest in the development of their skills, so they can increase their productivity. Training often is considered for new employees only. This is a mistake because ongoing training for current employees helps them adjust to rapidly changing job requirements.

Purpose of Training and Development Reasons for emphasizing the growth and development of personnel include * Creating a pool of readily available and adequate replacements for personnel who may leave or move up in the organization. * Enhancing the company’s ability to adopt and use advances in technology because of a sufficiently knowledgeable staff. * Building a more efficient, effective and highly motivated team, which enhances the company’s competitive position and improves employee morale. * Ensuring adequate human resources for expansion into new programs.

Research has shown specific benefits that a small business receives from training and developing its workers, including: * Increased productivity. * Reduced employee turnover. * Increased efficiency resulting in financial gains. * Decreased need for supervision. Employees frequently develop a greater sense of self-worth, dignity and well-being as they become more valuable to the firm and to society. Generally they will receive a greater share of the material gains that result from their increased productivity. These factors give them a sense of satisfaction through the achievement of personal and company goals.

The Training Process The model below traces the steps necessary in the training process: * Organizational Objectives * Needs Assessment * Is There a Gap? * Training Objectives * Select the Trainees * Select the Training Methods and Mode * Choose a Means of Evaluating * Administer Training * Evaluate the Training Your business should have a clearly defined strategy and set of objectives that direct and drive all the decisions made especially for training decisions. Firms that plan their training process are more successful than those that do not.

Most business owners want to succeed, but do not engage in training designs that promise to impro


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