Difference between data and information

Chapter 1

Introduction

Background

Although most of us take information for granted, good information is easy to come by. Let ‘s look into the difference between informations and information, the features of good information and the procedure of transforming informations into utile information. To do sound determinations directors need dependable, accurate informations that can be transformed into information. Organisations use many methods to roll up informations, including study, interviews, paperss reading and even brain-wave monitoring. Sophisticated voice activated engineering is available that allows people to hive away informations simply by talking into a computing machine. Today it is widely recognized that information systems cognition is indispensable for directors because most administrations need information systems to last and thrive. Information systems can assist companies to widen range to faraway location, offer new merchandise and services, reshape occupations and work flows, and possibly deeply change the manner they conduct concern.

The past decennary has seen a strict alteration in the manner we understand and use Information Technology within a concern context. Promotions in the field of research and development has led to engineerings such as ; distributed computer science, content direction, information excavation and processing, all of which fulfil a scope of concern demands. The move from localized calculating platforms to administer web engineerings has been caused by, among other factors, the take-up of trade good computing machine and web constituents based on faster hardware and sophisticated package.

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About The Undertaking

The aim of this study is to analyze and compare a specific class of unfastened beginning content direction systems, within the context of little to average concerns ; this specific class is about web portals. The undertaking aims to make a comprehensive comparing which deals with the specific demands of little to medium concerns merely. Therefore, supplying a clear apprehension of the current tendencies within the commercial sector and the unfastened beginning community.

This study involves a comparing between bing unfastened beginning, web portal content direction systems. The comparing is based on a set of concern demands which represent the demands of little to medium concerns, which aims to happen an unfastened beginning solution as an option to commercial solutions.

Due to the nature of this topic, this study assumes that the reader has some understanding about Information Technology.

Chapter 2

Contented Management

Content From A Business Perspective

Computers where ab initio created to execute time-consuming or complex mathematical calculations and in many ways replace human labor. Boiko ( 2001 ) describes the computing machine theoretical account as follows: “If you can cut down a job to a series of simple mechanical operations on Numberss and logical entities ( entities that are either true of false ) , it is conformable to solution by a computer” .

At their lowest degree, computing machines procedure informations. The informations processed by computing machines at a low degree is non instantly clear or apprehensible, because it is made to be understood by the computing machine merely. This information is used to execute a set of operations as described above.

The fact that computing machines are data-processing machines makes it difficult to treat content, which by definition is non merely informations. Technology has evolved over the old ages and computing machines are now required to execute calculations on content while retaining their human significance.

Electronic Commerce, Electronic Business, And Digital Relationship

The alterations we have merely described represent new ways of carry oning concern electronically both inside and outside the farm that can finally ensue in the creative activity of digital houses. Increasingly, the cyberspace is supplying the implicit in engineering for these alterations. The cyberspace can associate 1000s of administrations into a individual web making the foundation for a huge digital market place. A digital market is an information system that links together many purchasers and Sellerss to interchange information, merchandises, services and payments. Through computing machines and webs, these systems function like electronic mediators, with lowered cost for typical market place minutess such as fiting purchasers and Sellerss set uping monetary values telling goods and paying measures. Buyers Sellerss can finish purchase and sale minutess digitally irrespective of their location.

New Opportunities With Technology

Although information systems are making many exciting chances for both concerns and persons, they are besides a beginning of new jobs, issues and challenges for directors. In this class we will larn about both the challenges and chances information systems pose and we will be able to utilize information engineering to enrich our larning experience. New engineerings open up far more possibilities for reproducing antecedently published work online than we can afford to prosecute, so we have to pick and take the most utile 1s for you, our audience. The Journal would wish to garner and profit from all of the thoughts, suggestions, and difficult work that readers are willing to supply. Constructive engineering appraisal ( CTA ) differs from other engineering assessment methods by stressing execution and development of new engineerings over a simple appraisal of those engineerings ‘ possible impact. CTA, which was developed in Denmark and the Netherlands, seeks to chair the impact of potentially detrimental engineerings while taking full advantage of good engineerings. Presents, the development of incorporate circuit ( IC ) industry and scientific research workers rely more and more on the nanofabrication engineerings. Nanoimprint lithography ( NIL ) has been included on the ITRS lithography roadmap for 32nm, 22nm and 16nm nodes. However, there are legion other applications for NIL. This patterning technique shows great possible in fiction of nanostructures at all.

Metadata – Encapsulation Of Content

Processing such content will bring forth the needed consequences for the human user.

Those consequences will incorporate an abstract significance that can merely be interpreted by a human user.

Specifying informations with information and doing it into content is a procedure similar to the operations performed in every twenty-four hours state of affairss. For illustration, seeking for a book in a library or happening a film in a picture shop. Both operations have the similarity of supplying information about other information. A library, offers a computerised hunt engine that searches through classs of “author” and “title” , while the picture shop may seek for “actor” and “year of release” . Therefore, a room full of books may be seen as a heap of informations, while the same room with a categorized hunt engine may be seen as existent content. The books become more than merely informations, because they have been given a description.

The method of content description is called metadata. Metadata is informations about informations, which defines the human facet of content. Metadata foremost appeared on the web when the huge sum of informations over the cyberspace became impossible to treat or to even understand. Some of the taking engineerings and criterions on metadata are seen.

Metadata engineerings are themselves based on published cyberspace criterions.

This method of making a new criterion based on another bing criterion is really utile within concerns in order to do the exchange of content every bit smooth as possible. The taking standard engineerings are extensile Markup Language ( XML ) , which defines the Resource Description Framework ( RDF ) sentence structure as recommended by the W3C. Building on top of metadata and XML, are a figure of advanced engineerings and undertaking.

Concurrent Changes Management

Undertaking completion skew occurs one time the squad has grown into a significant figure of developers, at which point they are all working on different parts of the undertaking, perchance in little groups. These little groups normally work on diverse activities separated from each other or sometimes in concurrence. As a consequence, each group will be developing, incorporating and proving their work individually, before perpetrating their work into the complete undertaking. These groups will besides be working under different agendas. This implies that a group may be get downing its work while another is acquiring ready to perpetrate theirs.

Structure Of The Comparison

Each concern has its ain set of demands for a CMS solution, which depend on assorted parametric quantities such as ; the size of the concern, field of operation, type of managed informations and mark clients. It is extremely improbable that a individual merchandise will hold all the needed functionality. As a consequence, this study tries to place possible merchandises which are scalable and expandible.

  • Applications
  • Data depository
  • Deployment
  • Integration
  • Revision control
  • User interface
  • User direction
  • Workflow

Applications are about general functionality which compliment the full CMS solution. Availability of the development API allows developers to spread out the bing functionality and add usage processes per concern demands. Selling and advertisement characteristics allow the web site to expose banner advertisement or offer opt-in permission selling signifiers. Localization of function and multi-language support for all paperss and procedures. Time-based event maps, like scheduling. Site-wide seeking engine which allows transparent hunts over different content. Finally, e-commerce functionality which allows the system to execute on-line minutess.

Data depository is about flexibleness in content storage. Information is an plus to every concern, proper direction of the informations storage can be an advantage. A CMS solution may utilize multiple storage methods, including a Relational DataBase Management System ( RDBMS ) and Network File System ( NFS ) or other file system based storage. Apart from the storage medium, it is besides of import to utilize a criterions compliant storage format such as XML. In peculiar, XML provides transmutation services and content proof along with the split between content, format and concern logic.

Deployment can be one of the most of import characteristics from a concern per-spective. Medium to big graduated table systems use multiple waiters for mistake tolerance and improved handiness. A CMS merchandise ‘s ability to scale through multiple waiters gives the excess advantage for dependability. Reproduction is besides an issue, the flow of updates that go from proving into production should be able to retroflex faithfully and with axial rotation back support, as discussed in subdivision

Finally, multiple end product formats can increase the mark audience, for illustration ; by supplying nomadic phone entree via SMS or WAP.

Integration trades with the every twenty-four hours direction of the system. Metadata direction via content categorization systems which enable arbitrary informations to go utile information assets for the concern. Information can be used along with 3rd party web applications, such as log analyzers and spam filters. Data transition, allows users to print or subject informations in different format from the one used to print their informations, for illustration PDF to HTML transition.

Integration is besides approximately conformity with the cyberspace criterions published by the W3C such as ; HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0/1.1. Based on those criterions are the demands for conformity with the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 chapter 50 ( HMSO 1995 ) which came into consequence in the United Kingdom. This Act enforces new regulations for web sites to make content which is accessible by handicapped people. Standards conformity means that a CMS merchandise must be able to bring forth codification that is compliant with the Web Accessibility Initiative guidelines.

Revision control, as seen in subdivision 2.3.1, is about direction of alterations, while maintaining path of known mileposts and working versions of the full web site development and content. Revision control allows users to maintain path of alterations, while protecting them against overlapping alterations by other users.

Roll back functionality gives the user a opportunity to return to a known working transcript of informations, which besides makes it easy to compare alterations over clip.

User interface is non merely about the client “visual” interface. The user interface is a aggregation of interface characteristics which help the user or decision maker to efficaciously pull off the system. Interface tools heighten the control of procedures, some of these tools are ; HTML signifiers, WYSIWYG content editor and papers linking. The user interface should supply the pick between high and low degree redaction, either edit the codification straight, or supply a suited interface which generates the needed codification.

User direction is about entree and control of the system. The system should let for 3rd party hallmark, such as ; SQL database, LDAP, NIS/YP, PAM. In add-on, the interface should supply adequate user direction control, for illustration ; system-wide user alteration.

Workflow is a coaction procedure for the development and care of concern assets which involve stairss such as ; varied information types, cross departmental staff and maps based on a submit/review/approve stairss.

As seen in subdivision 2.3.4, work flow is of import to clearly specify procedures which perform specific maps, with assorted dependences between them.

These maps automate routing of information, reappraisal and eventually O.K. alterations.

Chapter 3

Open Source Software

Free Software

This study deals with certain types of free package ; unfastened beginning content direction systems. Therefore, it is really of import to specify the term free package, because the construct itself is equivocal. A broad scope of package is distributed as “free” because it does non be anything to download or utilize.

However the beginning codification is non made available or the package is distributed with a restrictive licence. Binary or beginning codification distributions could be copyrighted and covered by a licence understanding, which could keep a scope of few to extreme limitations, like a disclaimer of dependability.

“Free software” is a affair of autonomy, non monetary value.

The Open Source Model

  • The freedom to run the plan, for any intent.
  • The freedom to analyze how the plan works, and accommodate it to your

demands. Entree to the beginning codification is a stipulation for this.

  • The freedom to redistribute transcripts so you can assist your neighbor.
  • The freedom to better the plan, and let go of your betterments

to the populace, so that the whole community benefits. Access to the beginning codification is a stipulation for this.

Requirements of free package

Restrictions on these ‘free ‘ package come with licences which ; forbid its usage or necessitate a fee for commercial user, prohibit or bound redistribution, including redistributing modified versions. Some licences besides require redistribution of derived plants to utilize the same licence as the original merchandise or even let go of the modified beginning codification. A few licences besides discriminate against persons or groups.

The term free package is widely used in the Information Technology industry.

However, its ambiguity shackles communication due to statements over whether a peculiar piece of package is ‘free ‘ or non ( OSI 2004 ) . lists the regulations which define the term “free software” as published by the FSF ( 2004 ) .

Banner Ad

Banner advertisement is on a “ pay-per-view ” footing, harmonizing to the undermentioned rates:

Home Page

Other Pages

Number of Views

Cost ( $ US )

Cost ( $ US )

4,000

$ 100

$ 50

10,000

$ 200

$ 100

25,000

$ 400

$ 200

75,000

$ 1000

$ 500

175,000

$ 2000

$ 1000

400,000

$ 4000

$ 2000

  • Either a big ( 468×60 pels ) banner advertisement strategically placed at the top of every page on the site ( or a choice of pages, at your pick ) , or a 120×600 pel “skyscraper” streamer ad in the left manus column of every page on the site ( or a choice of pages, at your pick ) . We can besides set up “ text merely ” advertizements.
  • A hotlink to your web site ( or e-mail reference ) when prospective purchasers click on the ad
  • Full online statistical information, by twenty-four hours and overall, on the figure of ad exposures, and the click-through ratio for your ad

We can custom-make a streamer advertisement plan that targets those visitants that you wish to be exposed to by merely exposing your advertizement on those selected pages on the site that best suits your merchandise or service. We besides have the capableness to “ aim ” ads by geographical location or by keywords.

We can accept streamer ads in most in writing formats, including rich media formats such as Flash.

On all pages, ( except where an sole advertisement agreement is in topographic point, capable to dialogue ) streamer ads are placed “ on rotary motion ” with other streamer advertizements. Current site statistics indicate that each visitant to the site visits about 5 pages per visit, so advertisement is limited to a upper limit of 5 advertizers on each page – each with equal chance of exposure on the page.

Newsletter Sponsorship/Advertising

Ad and Sponsorship opportunities our free monthly newssheet on subjects of involvement to Maintenance professionals around the Earth. This newssheet is issued via apparent text electronic mail to an opt-in endorser base enumeration in the 1000s, with a web version besides published. Two advertisement slots are presently permitted within each newssheet, and the advertizement consists of:

  • Four lines of text in the e-mail version of the newssheet, and
  • Four lines of text plus a streamer advertizement in the web-based version of the newssheet

The streamer advertizement comes with full on-line, real-time statistical coverage, as for site streamer advertizements ( detailed supra )

Ad rates depend on the figure of endorsers to the newssheet. For more information on current rates, endorsers and the handiness of infinite in future newssheets.

Direct Mail To Our Opt-In Mailing List

In add-on to our opt-in endorser base for the M-News newssheet, we have a farther opt-in list of contacts who have expressed involvement in having occasional electronic mails incorporating information about maintenance-related merchandises and services. We can publish an electronic mail to members of this list on your behalf advancing your merchandises or services. Once once more, publicizing rates depend on the figure of endorsers to the opt-in mailing list. For more information on current rates and the figure of endorsers.

General Footings And Conditionss

  • We will typically invoice you for your advertisement plan either shortly before completion of your advertisement run, or quarterly.
  • Payment footings are purely 30 yearss on issue of bill
  • We can accept your payment either by cheque or by major recognition card. We are based in Australia, and so payment in Australian dollars is preferred ( and is required when paying by recognition card ) .
  • We will rede you of the exact Australian dollar equivalent before having payment from you. In general, we use the Currency Calculator /for doing currency transition computations.
  • Where we have concerns about your recognition worthiness, we reserve the right to have payment before get downing your advertisement plan.

Free Redistribution

“The licence shall non curtail any party from selling or giving away the package as a constituent of an sum package distribution incorporating plans from several different beginnings. The licence shall non necessitate a royalty or other fee for such sale” ( OSI 2004 ) .

By guaranting free redistribution, unfastened beginning package is non hampered by short-run additions which would impact existent long-run gross revenues from customised versions of the package or contracted support and care. Therefore, a provider may bring forth transcripts of the package and sell them or give them off without paying anyone for that privilege. As a consequence, many unfastened beginning package can be bought on Cadmium or DVD by paying for the cost of the medium merely, since the provider is non adding any excess costs.

“The plan must include beginning codification, and must let distribution in beginning codification every bit good as compiled signifier. Where some signifier of a merchandise is

THE OPEN SOURCE MODEL

non distributed with beginning codification, there must be a well-publicised agencies of obtaining the beginning codification for no more than a sensible reproduction costpreferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The beginning codification must be the preferable signifier in which a coder would modify the plan.

Intentionally obfuscated beginning codification is non allowed. Intermediate signifiers such as the end product of a preprocessor or transcriber are non allowed” ( OSI 2004 ) .

To germinate and spread out unfastened beginning package, the beginning codification must be available and in a modifiable province. The original or modified beginning codification is so provided along with the package and any derived plants, in order to guarantee future fix or alterations.

“The licence must let alterations and derived plants, and must let them to be distributed under the same footings as the licence of the original software” ( OSI 2004 ) .

Future package updates and care of the distributed beginning codification, as seen in subdivision 3.2.2, has no existent usage if the modified package can non be distributed. Therefore, the ability to merely modify the beginning codification is non plenty to back up independent equal reappraisal and rapid evolutionary choice.

Alternatively, it should be possible to redistribute the modified package along with the modified beginning codification.

Redistributed package can utilize the same licence footings as the original package. Although this is non a demand to make so but an option at the custodies of the distributer. This demand means ; a licence may non let re-licensing or alteration of its footings, or may let re-licensing and sub-licensing of derived plants.

Chapter 4

Contented Management Systems

CMS Classs

Contented Management Systems ( CMS ) are non merely a merchandise or a engineering.

CMS is a generic term which defines a broad scope of procedures which underpin the “next-generation” of medium to large-scale web sites ( Browning & A ; Lowndes 2001 ) . A content direction procedure ; creates, shops, modifies, retrieves and shows informations, or content, as seen in chapter 2.

The applications of CMS can non be clearly defined. Even though a CMS is scope of procedures and managed package, the boundaries of the CMS infinite are blurred. The country covered by CMS convergences with a broad scope of traditional package systems, as seen in figure 4.1. As a consequence of this convergence of functionality, an intranet groupware system or practical acquisition system can easy be implemented via the same CMS ( Browning & A ; Lowndes 2001 ) .

CMS have no individual interface or execution, they are efficaciously designed on the demands of each concern. The executions of CMS differ from web based to integrated server-side applications.

Requirements & A ; Prerequisites

  • Document direction systems
  • Knowledge direction systems
  • Enterprise application integrating systems
  • E-commerce solutions
  • Web portals

CMS classs

executions vary from PHP, Perl and Python. Integrated application waiter executions use popular linguistic communications like Java 2 Enterprise Edition and C++ . Figure 4.2 shows a ocular reading of the construction of a typical CMS.

This study does non cover with the application or usage of CMS, for illustration ; document direction or practical acquisition. Alternatively, this study takes a comparative attack to net portals merely, based on their functionality from a concern position. Web portals are web sites which act as a chief “point of entry” for users. They offer a scope of services, for illustration ; intelligence subdivision, hunt engine and web catalogue. Web portals are CMS solutions which offer content over the web, therefore they may look limited in functionality over traditional applications. To the contrary, due to the permeant nature of the cyberspace, the web has become the preferable method for content bringing ( Browning & A ; Lowndes 2001 ) .

Requirements & A ; Prerequisites

Although demands on package bundles vary between concerns, they still have certain common demands. The aim of this study is to compare the widest possible choice of unfastened beginning content direction systems, which can be used by concerns. The most suited CMS solutions

Requirements & A ; Prerequisites

Applications

Deployment

Workflow

Versioning

Integration

Content

User

Management

Datas

Depository

Integration & A ;

Authentication Servicess

Syndication Management

Link

Interface

User

Data Repository

Relational

are selected based on a set of clearly defined demands, all others have been rejected. Figure 4.3 lists these demands.

All the systems compared within this study are required to be licensed by an OSI-approved unfastened beginning licence, as defined in chapter 3. Open beginning package is widely recognised for its criterions conformity, which is critical for concerns. For illustration, making a web site which uses proprietary informations constructions will impede future enlargement to new systems or engineerings due to mutual exclusivenesss. Open beginning package are more likely to follow criterions like the W3C Extensible HyperText Markup Language ( XHTML ) or XML specifications while guaranting they can interact with each other. Commercial package be given to be incompatible with each other in order to maintain the client hooked to a specific engineering or provider.

Compatibility with the Apache HTTP waiter is critical. The Apache HTTP waiter is the most widely used web waiter on the cyberspace. Netcraft ( 2004 ) reports that more than 67 % of the web sites on the cyberspace are utilizing Apache, with 4 million new hostnames growing in the first half of 2004.

Chapter 5

Planing to implement MIS in the administration:

Information System

An information system is a set of interconnected constituents that collect, procedure, shop and distribute information to back up determination devising and control in an administration. In add-on to back up determination devising, coordination, and control, information system may besides assist directors and workers analyze jobs and visualise complex topics and make new merchandises. Information systems contain information about important people, topographic point and things within the administration or in the environment environing its. By information we mean informations that have been shaped into a signifier that is meaningful and utile to human existences. Data is contrast are watercourses of natural facts stand foring events happening in administration or physical environment before they have been organised and arranged into a signifier that people can understand and utilize.

There ‘s more growing and invention in calculating and ICT than in any other country of concern. The persons and administrations best equipped to react to the challenge of quickly altering engineerings are those with the vision to guarantee that their accomplishments and cognition are kept current and set in a wide educational context. Computing and ICT professionals with a strong accomplishment set are much in demand today, and inscribing on a graduate student calculating class with the OU will maintain you at the head of this influential subject. Our Postgraduate Computing and ICT classs provide you with the scope of advanced, practice-based classs and makings that you need to develop your calling. We offer several certifications, sheepskin and Masterss grades in calculating and ICT, and you can take to analyze subjects such as package development and direction, undertaking direction, computing machine forensics, information security, communicating engineerings and webs. You do n’t necessitate to hold a first grade to register for a class, but you do necessitate either old survey to the equivalent of HND degree in the UK, or practical experience, which will enable survey at postgraduate degree.

Management Data Resources

Implementing a database requires widespread administration alteration in the function of information, the allotment of power at senior degrees, the ownership and sharing of information, forms of organizational understanding. A database direction system challenges the bing power agreements in an administration and for that ground frequently generates political opposition. In a traditional file environment each section constructed files and plans to carry through its specific demands. Now with a database files and plans must be built that take into history the full administration ‘s involvement in informations. Traveling database environment can be a dearly-won long term procedure, .

Electronic Business, Electronic Commerce

Throughout this edition we emphasize the benefits of incorporating information across the endeavor, making an information engineering substructure in which information can be flow seamlessly from one portion of the administration to another and from the administration to its clients, providers, and concern spouses. The emerging digital house require this degree of information integrating and companies progressively depend on such an substructure today to stay efficient and competitory. Internet engineering has emerged as the cardinal enabling engineering for this digital integrating.

Chapter 6

Decision

The cyberspace has been introduced major alterations in the manner companies conduct concern.

It has created a dramatic bead in the cost of developing, directing and hive awaying information while doing that information more widely available. Millions of people can interchange monolithic sums of information straight, immediately, for free. These demands apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable subdivisions of that work are non derived from the Program, and can be moderately considered independent and separate plants in themselves, so this License, and its footings, do non use to those subdivisions when you distribute them as separate plants. But when you distribute the same subdivisions as portion of a whole which is a work based on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the footings of this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the full whole, and therefore to each and every portion regardless of who wrote it.

Mention

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and note, in ‘Proceedings of the 1st International Conference

on Adaptive Hypermedia and Adaptive Web-based Systems ‘ .

Michelinakis, D. ( 2003 ) , SotonOne undertaking, Master ‘s thesis, University of Southampton, Department of Electronics and Computer Science.

MozillaFoundation ( 2004 ) , The mozilla browser. Last entree: 20-4-2004.

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Nakano, R. ( 2001 ) , Web Content Management A Collaborative Approach, Addison-Wesley.

Netcraft ( 2004 ) , Web server study. 2004 Web Server Survey, last entree: 20-4-2004.

Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //news.netcraft.com/archives/web waiter survey.html

OSI ( 2004 ) , The unfastened beginning definition. Open Source Initiative, last entree: 20-4-2004.

Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.opensource.org

Perens, B. ( 1997 ) , The unfastened beginning definition. Treasurer, Open Source Initiative, last entree: 20-4-2004.

Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //perens.com/Articles/OSD.html

Perl ( 2004 ) , The perl linguistic communication. Last entree: 20-4-2004.

Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.perl.org

PostgreSQL ( 2004 ) , Postgresql database. Last entree: 20-4-2004.

Uniform resource locator: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.postgresql.org

Roure, de, D. , Baker, M. , Jennings, N. & A ; Shadbolt, N. ( 2003 ) , The development of the grid, Technical Report 6871, University of Southampton.

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