Has Kurdistan the needed capacity to set up shelters for a million IDPs in Northern Iraq?
Iraq has seen a revival of large-scale supplanting and pressing human-centered demands in the past 12 months. The civil war in Syria forced 100s of 1000s of people to seek shelter in Iraq, including Iraqi refugees who fled at that place after the U.S.-led invasion. More late, over three-fourthss of a million internally displaced individuals IDPs have arrived in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq KRI, and an even larger figure are displaced throughout the remainder of the state( Kurd, 2010 ) .Kurdistan is a affluent district located in northern Iraq consisted of three governorates “Erbil the capital, Dohuk and Sulimanya” . It has an estimated population of 4.9 Million and 41,000 km2 country. The bulk are Kurds with a mixture of other minorities of Assyrian, Turcoman, Azdieys, Arab and Chaldeans. Despite of the oil and investings grosss of Kurdistan, most of its lands considers as one of the best agricultural lands in Iraq. However, immense lands in Kurdistan are besides rugged for its mountains and vales nature. Therefore, 1000s of hectares are still neglected by the authorities until today. The Kurdish authorities intends to better use it in several investings and assist a wider economic development consequently ( Frank, 2006 ) .
Since January 2014, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq “KR-I” has received about half of the displaced Iraqis, amount of 860,000, in consecutive moving ridges.The freshly displaced individuals are in add-on to the over 200,000 IDPs from old moving ridges of force since 2003 in add-on to over 200,000 refugees from Syria ( UNHCR, 2014 ) . This monolithic inflow of people in a short period has created a grave human-centered crisis and is forcing to the bounds the capacity of the Kurdistan Regional Government “KRG” , the United Nations, the larger human-centered community and so, the people of the Kurdistan part, to run into even the basic demands of the IDPs. The state of affairs remains unstable as the IDP population remains widely dispersed, nomadic and in great demand ( Zebari, 2014 ) .
The authorities of Kurdistan is presently promoting the international community represented by the United Nations and other international givers, every bit good as local Non-Governmental Organizations “NGOs” to organize with the support of the authorities to happen a better solution for impermanent good lodging shelters. Education is besides a precedence and some preliminary indicants of demands are besides included in their programs. It is good understood that a batch of attempts is needed in several sectors ( Samonz, 2014 ) .
The KRG Ministry of Planning and IOM have carried out an exercising to place the current caseload of displaced people across the three northern governorates. Of the estimated 1.8 million people in all of Iraq who have been displaced since early 2014, there are 862,000 IDPs or 143,800 families HH in KR-I. Duhok has the highest figure of displaced 63 per cent followed by Erbil 20 per cent and Sulaymaniyah 16 per cent ( IOM, 2014 ) .
1.2 Problem and Objective:
With such high and continues inflow of IDPs and Syrian refugees to the Kurdish part, the Kurdistan regional authorities remains unsure of its preparedness to bring forth appropriate adjustment and services for a figure of IDPs/ refugees that is spread outing to more than 1 million, about 20 % of its ain population ( OCHA, 2014 ) . Therefore, this research intends to:
- Analyze the geographic landscape and available resources.
- Focus on the Kurdish building sector and substructure preparedness for such population increasing.
- Analyze the available substructure and direction capacity to get the better of such crisis.
- Answer the inquiry with a comparing survey of similar instance survey in Turkey or Jordan.
- Produce specific action program depending on the concluding findings.
2. Preliminary literature reappraisal:
Due to the current armed struggle between the Islamic State IS and the KR-I Peshmerga military has pushed the confirmed figure of internally displaced Iraqis IDPs countrywide to over one million as of August 7th, 2014.
In Kurdistan, both local governments and human-centered community are working together to research feasible options for IDPs shelter challenges. Local governments agreed to set up an IDP cantonment with support of UN in Lylan sub territory and travel IDPs life in the public edifices to bivouac. The human-centered community is waiting for the authorities action to fix the identified cantonment site. The execution is slow ( KRG, 2014 ) .
There are presently no cantonments inside Sulaimanyiah. The IDPs have sought safety in edifice constructions, halls, and churches. There is one cantonment merely outside of Sulaimanyiah governorate in Diyala ; it is located in Quratu country of Kalar territory ( IOM Iraq, 2014 ) .
Besides, it’s worth to advert that several cantonments were emptied in other topographic points due to the contending go oning on the boundary lines between the ISIS and the Peshmerga ( KRG, 2014 ) .
In entire, IOM/UN has identified 176,150 IDP households “an estimated of 1,056,900 individuals” in 1,381 locations throughout Iraq since January 2014. More than 54 % or 94,597 households “an estimated 567,582 individuals” of the entire became displaced after June 2014 ( IOM Iraq, 2014 ) .
The moving ridge of Yezidi cultural and spiritual minorities who fled to the Sinjar Mountains on the boundary line with Syria in Iraq ‘s Ninewa governorate remained trapped on the mountain, unable to make safe countries ( IOM Iraq, 2014 ) .
As of the IOM and UN studies of 2014, the capacity of the available IDP cantonments in Kurdistan is:
- Duhok governorate:
- Bajid Kandala/1 cantonment has a capacity for 3010 IDP households
- Bajid Kandala/2 cantonment with capacity of 1000 IDP households. This cantonment is presently under building.
- Khanki cantonment hosts 650 IDP households. An extra 750 collapsible shelters will spread out the capacity to 1700 IDP households.
- Garmawa cantonment hosts 180 IDP households
- Erbil cantonments:
- Al-Khazir Transit Camp is now empty due to military operations doing the cantonment to shut.
- Al-Khazir Camp located on the opposite side of the theodolite cantonment. All building activities are suspended due to the military operation.
- Baharka Camp is between Ankawa and Baharka. The cantonment has a capacity of 600 IDP households. There is a program to spread out the cantonment by 500 collapsible shelters in two phases “1st – 300 tents” and “2nd 200 tents” .
- Nishtiman Commercial composite is located in the centre of Erbil City and presently hosts 280 households.
- The Agriculture Research Camp “ARC” is presently being finalized. The cantonment has 297 collapsible shelters.
- The unfinished edifice of Ankawa promenade has a capacity for 250 IDP households.
- The unfinished edifice opposite St. Joseph Church is located inside Ankawa town. The capacity of the location is 200 IDPs household.
- The MoDM cantonment in Ankawa is opposite the Babylon Culture Hall. The cantonment has 170 collapsible shelters.
- One site near to Ankawa municipalities needs land readyings before the program of 200-250 collapsible shelters can be erected.
The entire capacity is 9210 households, entire IDPS is 94,597 which clearly show that it’s covered merely 10 % from the entire families’ refugee.
The preliminary literature reappraisal showed hapless probe and readyings on the building sector, the UN-HABITAT, the UNFPA, KR-I Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Housing and Construction have produced several researches and studies concentrating on some of major Fieldss with a high spot on the investing, building enterprises and undertakings in the part. Few surveies and studies were concentrating on the preparedness of the Kurdish lands, cantonments and building sector to host certain Numberss of IDPs on crisis. Where, How and What?
As per the OCHA study of 2014, the jutting additions in IDP Numberss will set force per unit area on bing capacity of spouses, host locations and cantonments. A graduated table up of capacity is required to run into current and jutting demands ( OCHA, 2014 ) . Precedence demands have been identified as shelter ( equipment, points and capacities to construct IDP cantonments ) and non-food points. Notwithstanding, information on the existed capacity and an substructure needs appraisal is extremely recommended to continue rapidly and instantly. IDPs will besides necessitate entree to schools and wellness centres, H2O and other of import services. All of this is linked together to one of import fact, what is the existent capacity and how to use better quick schemes to get the better of it ( ECHO, 2014 ) .
- Proposed methodological analysis
Literature study:secondary informations will be reviewed utilizing the university library, UN studies and authorities studies.
Data aggregation:To prove current pattern against the historical record an online study will be conducted to garner primary beginning informations from local and international bureaus every bit good as governmental entities presently engaged in the crisis bar of the IDPs in Kurdistan and from the IDPs themselves utilizing field visits. The study will roll up quantitative informations on the scope of cantonments and building sector enterprises every bit good as the function of the Ministry of planning and three of import sectors Education, Health and Water.
Datas analysis:As the figure of bureaus, engaged in the defined activity, has yet to be established the information analysis method has non yet been decided. However, it is anticipated that a questionnaire bundle would be suited. The research will besides depend on the substructure needs assessment study presented by the UNDP Iraq to the Kurdish authorities in 2012 and other utile paperss from the Kurdish Ministry of Planning.
- Kurd, D. ( 2010 )the Kurdistan Region Brief, Kurdistan Regional Government, Erbil, Iraq. Available from www.cabinet.gov.krd ( Accessed on 23 April 2010 ) .
- Frank, V. ( 2006 )the Kurdistan Control, National Geographic, Kurdistan, Iraq. Available from www.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/iraq/iraq-kurds-text ( Accessed on 10 January 2006 ) .
- UNHCR, ( 201 ) ,Syrian and Iraqi Refugees moved to a new Camp in Kurdistan Iraq, Sulaymania, Iraq. Available from www.unhcr-arabic.org/53be42a6.htm ( Accessed on 9 June 2014 ) .
- Zebari, A. ( 2013 )Kurdistan Iraq requests an International Support to the Refugees Relief, Al-monitor, The Pulse of the Middle East, Iraq Pulse.
- Samonz, N. ( 2014 )Life is Cruel on Syrian Refugees in Kurdistan Iraq, Amnesty’s planetary homo right. Available from www.amnesty.org/ar/2014 ( Accessed from 27 January 2014 ) .
- IOM Iraq, ( 2014 ) ,Thousands of Religious Minorities displayed from Sinjar City and Surrounding Areas arrive in Dahuk Governorate, IOM flash Report.
- OCHA, ( 2014 ) ,Iraq IDP Crisis, Situation Report No.7, Kurdistan, Iraq.
- KRG, ( 2014 ) ,IDP’s Situation in Kurdistan Region Report, Ministry of Planning, Kurdistan, Iraq.
- ECHO, ( 2014 ) ,Iraq Crisis, Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO Civil Protection message No.4, Kurdistan, Iraq.