E-procurement in the ministry of education in greece

E-procurement in the ministry of instruction in Greece: feasibleness and utility.

2.1 ) Procurement ‘s definition and basic footings.

There is a assortment of definitions during the bibliography about the term ‘ ‘ procurance ” .

The term procurance is used to specify the procedure of acquisition of goods or services, by the providers, in specific sum, quality, topographic point and clip. ( Geodis Wilson Freight Management Holding AB, 2010 ) .

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Another definition refers: ‘’Procurement is the procedure by which the resources ( goods and services ) required by a undertaking are acquired. It includes development of the procurance scheme, readying of contracts, choice and acquisition of providers, and direction of the contracts ” . ( APM,2010 ) .

In other words, procurance describes the full procedure ( APCC, 2002 ) for guaranting the needed goods or services from the providers in the needed measure, quality, clip, topographic point and attractive monetary value ( kardaras, 2007 ) . Thisprocess has been decided and should be obeying that the buying stuff will be guaranting the defined demands.

All these footings and constructs converge in some footings that are thought as the basic purposes of the procurance procedure. There is a axiom about procurance procedure that refers that ‘’the basic function of procurement section is to give the right good ( or service ) in the right measure to the right topographic point at the right clip and in the right monetary value ” . ( Fred Sollish, John Semanik, 2007 ) .

Summarized, procurance procedure is consisted of the satisfaction some purposes that is critical for the efficient and effectual direction of the resources and the satisfaction of client ‘s demands.

These basic purposes are: ( I?I±I?I?I‰IˆI·I?IµI‚ )

O Desirable Quality. The purchase of the goods and services should be covering the client ‘s demands and criterions. The good ‘s or service ‘s quality must be conform to the client ‘s demands.

O Desirable Quantity. The good ‘s measure should be conforming to the clients ‘ demands.

O Attractive Price. The monetary value for the good ‘s purchase must be the most involvement in relation with the needed quality.

O Desirable Resource. The resources should be suited selected for the right completion of order.

O Desirable Time. The buying goods and services should be delivered in the right clip, in the clip that is asked by the client in order to fulfill its demands.

In other words, procurance services mission is to vouch the needed goods and services in the right quality, measure and clip from the right resources and with the best monetary value. The procurance section has an of import function in the company ‘s attempt to cut down the cost of the entire merchandise. By this function the procurance procedure contributes in the warrant of company ‘s involvement.

2.1.1 ) Procurement rhythm ( I?I±I?I?I‰IˆI·I?IµI‚ )

The procurement rhythm consists of all the activities that are needed to guarantee the goods or services for an effectual direction of the resources and the satisfaction of client ‘s demands. Procurement rhythm, for the accomplishment of the purposes that are reported above, includes the follow stages:

Determination and description of demands:

It includes Acts of the Apostless such as: the issue of the purchasing application, the drawing of the specifications, the rating of the monetary value, clip of purchase and the program of the economic beginnings and purchase acts.A A

  • Research of procurement beginnings: A A A A A A A it includes Acts of the Apostless such as: interviews with providers, enrichment of provider ‘s catalogs, instance surveies, research of related bibliography.A
  • Choice and entrusting: It includes Acts of the Apostless such as: the pick of methods of provider ‘s rating, completion of Dutch action, dialogues with providers, allotments, pulling up of the conventions with the providers.
  • Procurement dealing: it includes Acts of the Apostless such as: observation of the conventions, acceleration of the orders, cargo, review, storage, accounting agreement.

2.1.2 ) Procurement in public sector in Greece and particularly in ministry of instruction

There are two sectors in where procurement dealing is take topographic point: public and private.

This undertaking emphasize in procurance in the populace sector in Greece and particularly in ministry of instruction. The procurance in the ministry of instruction in Greece is harmonizing the procurance in Greek populace sector. It is followed the same stairss and is managed by the same regulations.

Procurement in the public sector or public procurance is a term that is used about the contracts that became in composing between a provider and the assorted establishments in the public sector.A These minutess are about the bargain, the rental and the funding rental of goods. Besides, as procurance of the populace sector is thought the conventions of intrusting of execution of work of installing, care, conveyance and other plants.

Another definition harmonizing the Department of finance and forces of Northern Ireland refers that “Public procurance is the procedure of the acquisition, normally by agencies of a contractual agreement after public competition, of goods, services, plants and other supplies by the public service” .

Public procurance ( Carl Erik Moe et Al, 2006 ) is a sum of activities that guarantee goods or services for the public good utilizing public money. These activities are controlled by regulations in order to guarantee equal intervention for all parts. Public procurance through the buying procedure non merely satisfies its purpose but besides supports the private providers ( Jakob Edler, Luke Georghiou, 2007 ) .

Procurement in the populace sector are the purchases that are hold harmonizing concrete procedures by organisations of the public sector such as ministries, infirmaries, constabulary, firefighting. Besides, the purchases that are hold by sectors of the local authorities such as municipalities and communities and by authorities owned public utilities. These purchases are about goods and services that are thought necessary for the above organisations running.

Such as a buyer so the province in order to take the merchandise of its pick make research of market. In contrast to persons, the province does n’t travel to the providers in order to happen the most attractive monetary value but invites the providers to do their offer in a competition.
Public procurance is competed with the contracts that became in authorship. These contracts define the content and the footings of an understanding between an establishment and the provider.

Public sector in the chiefly corporate purchaser for the most national economic systems and the volume of the minutess between public disposals and the providers is immense. Consequently the European Commission ( 2002 ) , the purchases of goods, services and public plants by authoritiess and public public-service corporations are estimated at approximately 16 % of the Union ‘s GDP or a‚¬1500 billion in 2002. In Greece, the populace sector manages a large volume procurance that is more than 3500 billion in 2005, largely based handwritten processes. Besides public procurance is frequently considered as the engine of economic system as soak up the 15 % – 20 % ( general secretary of commercialism ) of entire national domestic merchandise. In many instances the province buys the sum or the major per centum of production of many companies.A

The procurance in the public sector policy should take in the creative activity of an equal, transparence and competitory without favoritisms environment. This environment would let the procurement stuff goods and services for the public establishments and will guarantee the most attractive value for these merchandises. As a consequence the populace beginnings will devour with cautiousness and will guarantee the public involvement.

2.1.2.1 ) Basic rules of public procurance.

Harmonizing the general secretariat of commercialism in Greece that has the supervising the public procurance should guarantee three basic rules:

  • Principle of promotion. Each procurement dealing in the public sector should be printing in the interested parts through the national type and the official diary of the European Union. By this rule are excluded some procurement types such as procurances of low cost and is fixed by the jurisprudence.
  • Principle of transparence of procedures. The regulations, that are the public procurances are based, are specific and known from the really get downing. These regulations are in consequence in all the continuance and should be clear, expressed and apprehensible in all parts. The regulations for the public procurances are non allowed to alter after the proclamation of competition but merely in the instance that be accepted by any opportunity expostulations.
  • Principle of equal intervention. The regulations for the public procurances are non allowed to import policy of favoritisms about concrete companies.

Publicprocurementmodels

For the accomplishment of the best advantage and the decrease of public disbursal in many instances is more utile to go aggregation of the demands of the markets of public organisations and intrusting of low cost procurance in external organic structures ( Darryl Coulthard, Tanya Castleman, 2001 ) . In the same clip is supported the healthy competition and the local market with crystalline procedures. The same though for high concentration of public procurance maps ( Marian Lemke Piotr, Nils Gorecki, 2008 ) to a organic structure is similar in many European provinces such as England, France, and Belgium etc. This centralised theoretical account of public procurance direction has many advantages:

  • Buying specialisation
  • Standardization and fusion of the procurance applications and their centralised direction.
  • The effectual procedure and direction the procurance services.

In the other manus there is the decentralised procurance theoretical account. In this theoretical account local disposals or individual decide the manner of procurance. They decide the clip, the mode and what will buy ( Nicola Dimitri et Al, 2006 ) . Harmonizing this theoretical account is required flexibleness in the public procurance procedures. Some advantages of the decentralized theoretical account are:

  • Simple communicating and cooperation between providers and public organic structure.
  • The velocity of dealing of procedures.
  • The effectual usage of local providers
  • The liberty of providers and public organisations.

The factors that affect the determination of chose between of centralised and decentralised theoretical account of procurement direction is the similarity of the stuffs or service, the measure of the procurance and geographic airing of the procedures.

2.1.2.2 ) Procedures of public procurance

The procedures of public procurance contracts are divided in unfastened competition, close competition, procedure with dialogue and off-hand competition. ( General secretariat of commercialism in Greece ) .

Open competition or unfastened procedure

This procedure is safeguarded the highest possible attending by possible suppliers. It demands publish of the entire invitation and allows in each interested to do an offer. The establishment that makes the competition has non the duty to subject petition to each interested provider.

Close competition or stopping point procedure

In this procedure the establishment print the invitation show of interesting. It is a really general invitation. The interested parts put in application of their attending with an envelope of module in where depict the company ‘s profile. The entire invitation, with its elaborate features, could larn merely the interested parts that would choose with the elements of their module. In this instance they will be invited to subject complete offer with monetary value, proficient features etc. In the close invitation the establishment could put lowest and highest sum of providers that intend to ask for.

Procedure with dialogue

It ‘s a procedure in which each establishment chose the providers that they wish and negotiate the footings of the contract with one or more providers, with or without the publication of the invitation of the competition. In the dialogue it is demanded to ask for at least three providers. This procedure is followed merely in the instance where it is anticipated by the jurisprudence ( I? . 2286/95, I¬I?I?I?I? 2, IˆI±I? . 13 I?I±I? I .I” . 370/95, I¬I?I?I?I? 10 ) for illustration for pressing demands or for extra supplies by the same provider etc. Besides, some times this procedure is followed in the instance that a competition fails or in the instance that the achieved monetary values are thought unprofitable and there is pressing demand. In that instance the competition is continued with the procedure of the dialogue with the seting in new economic offers and new proficient offers. In such instance new offers could seting in from ab initio subjecting in the competition providers.

Off – manus competition or concise procedure

For the low budget supplies, that are defined by the jurisprudence and are out of the Community right, is applied the off-hand competition. This competition is allowed for supplies of low budget until a concrete order that is defined by a Ministerial Decision. In this sort of competition is non required publication and is keeping by a panel of three persons with the entry in composing offers. In the off- manus competition are invited at least three suppliers.A

2.1.2.3 ) Legal frame in public procurance.

Consequently with the budget of the buying good, it is applied or the Grecian legal frame or the Grecian in relation with the European Union ‘s frame. More specific ( General secretariat of commercialism in Greece ) : A A

In the instance that the budget for the purchase of a good or service is lower than 200.000 euro, consequently the European ‘s Union Directive 36/93, is applied the national frame. The Grecian regulations that are about the procurance of public sector are I? . 2286/95 andIˆ.I? . 394/96.

If the budget for the purchase of the good is over the 200.000 euro the above regulations is applied in add-on with the European Union ‘s ( E.U ) legal frame.

O I I” 370/95 and I I” 105/2000 that integrate the national frame with the directives of E.U. 93/36 and 97/52.

O The Iˆ.I? . 57/2000that integrate the Grecian frame with the E.U. directives 93/38 and 98/4 and are about the procurance in the sector of public public-service corporations ( H2O supply ) , the energy and the transit.

O I? . 2522/97 and I? . 2854/00that guarantee the legal security of the rivals before the stage of the come ining into contract in connexion with the E.U directives 86/665 and 92/13.

2.2 ) E- procurement basic constructs

‘’E-procurement refers to the purchase of goods, and even services, via the Internet for concern intents ” ( EPIQ, 2010 ) . E-procurement is a portion of concern to concern map ( Nikolaos A. Panayiotou et Al, 2003 ) and is besides known as Business to concern market places, electronic supply concatenation etc ( EVGENIY A. AGESHIN,2001 ) .
‘’E-Procurement is more than merely a system for doing purchases online. A decently implemented system can link companies and their concern processes straight with providers while pull offing all interactions between them. This includes direction of correspondence, commands, inquiries and replies, old pricing, and multiple electronic mails sent to multiple participants ” . ( EPIQ, 2010 )
Another definition harmonizing ( Angappa Gunasekaran et Al, 2009 ) refers that ‘ ‘ E-procurement refers to the usage of incorporate information engineering systems for procurement maps, including sourcing, dialogue, telling, reception and post-purchase reappraisal ” .

In other words, electronic procurance ( Drigas ) is the procedure that an organisation purchasing goods and services utilizing the internet solutions. Through the cyberspace seek providers, accepts offers, make contracts and makes the all procurement‘s rhythm up to its completion and its concluding colony of provider with electronic way.A A E- Procurement is a system that is based to the cyberspace and provides more efficient electronic purchase procedure and possible cost cut downing to the organisation and its customers.A It constitutes built-in portion of the e-business procedure. E-procurement is based to electronic systems and processes that support the purchase of goods and services that an organisation is needed. It is divided in two chief classs:

  1. Private e- procurance, in the instance that the organisation is private. Private e- procurance is a signifier of e-commerce that is a portion of the general B2B class ( Business to Business class ) ( Joerg Leukel, Gregory Maniatopoulos, 2005 ) .
  2. Public e- procurance, in the instance that the organisation is a public service. Public e- procurance is a signifier of e-commerce that is a portion of the general B2A class ( Business to Administrator or Government ) ( Joerg Leukel, Gregory Maniatopoulos, 2005 ) .

E-procurement maps

The chief purpose of the e-procurement is to ease the supply concatenation direction of an organisation with the assistance of the information systems. As a consequence, they include all the operations of procedure of procurance. They include to the terminal procedure from the providers findings to the information analysis. The most basic operations of e-procurements could show the follow map.

MAP OF PROCUREMENT PROCESS

FindingA A A A RequirementA A A A A ApprovalA A A A OrderA A A A A ReceiptA A A A PaymentA A A A Analysis

2.2 E-procurement advantages

E-procurement benefits

There are many benefits by the application of e-procurement. The benefits could be measure and quality. These classs are equaled of import about the involved parts. Some of these benefits are the follow:

Cost decrease. This is the ground that e-procurement it is thought as revolution ( Simon Croom, Alistair Brandon-Jones, 2007 ) .

O Cost decrease could be achieved with the direction of human resources by the allotment of the forces in more efficient responsibilities.

O Cost decrease could be achieved with better direction of the markets by blessing providers and by blessing catalogs.

  • Improvement services. For illustration in the populace sector provided services could go more efficient and qualitative through the decrease of the bureaucratism.
  • Mistakes decrease. Through the on-line dealing is reduced the possible mistakes as is submitted specific order signifier with specific Fieldss ( Ganesh Vaidyanathan, Sarv Devaraj, 2007 ; Baron et al. , 2000 ) .
  • Decrease of the buying clip ( Ganesh Vaidyanathan, Sarv Devaraj, 2007 ) .
  • Monetary values decrease. In e-procurement is chosen the preferable providers after a rhythm of dialogues. This pick could be led to lower monetary values ( Vassilios Tatsis et al. , 2006 ) .
  • Decrease of administrative cost. In traditional manner of procurance is used a assortment of instruments such as phones, stations, run offing etc in order to finish the buying. Besides manual work is increase the cost. In e-procurement most of the procedures are become automatically. The most needles maps are reduced. After that a major portion of the administrative disbursals cut down ( Rayport, Jaworski, 2001 ) .

The benefits of e-procurement

The benefits of e-procurement can be classified into

seven classs, which are briefly described below:

_ Decreasing monetary values: In traditional procurance systems,

buying from non-contracted sellers, known as

rebel purchasing, tends to diminish the bargaining

power of companies ( Boer et al. , 2002 ; Morris et al. ,

2000 ) . E-procurement can leverage dickering power by

set uping contracts with preferable providers, perchance

taking to discounted monetary values ( Venkatesan, 1992 ) .

Research indicates that possible decreases can be of

up to 20 % of the entire monetary value ( Morris et al. , 2000 ; Smart

and Harrison, 2003 ) .

_ Reduction of administrative disbursals: Administrations cover

with big Numberss of requisitions every twelvemonth, many of

which refer to moo value points. Traditionally these

procedures have been paper-based and have required

considerable manual labor and other costs such as

intra-company mail, phone charges, postage, run offing

and storage. E-procurement automates the full

requisition-to-payment procedure, increasing efficiency

and extinguishing unneeded disbursals. Furthermore,

the machine-controlled system can besides cut down those costs

associated with informations mistakes and inaccuracies inherent

to manual procedures ( Morris et al. , 2000 ; Rayport and

Jaworski, 2001 ; Smart and Harrison, 2003 ) .

_ Inventory decrease: Shorter rhythm times cut down carrying

demands, conveying with it a decrease in stock list

degrees and the cost associated with them. This decrease

in stock list can besides hold a strong positive impact on

hard currency flow, since the money tied up in stock list can

become available for other intents ( Morris et al. ,

2000 ) .

_ Shorter order rhythm times: The mechanization and work flow

installations of e-procurement applications allow administrations

to cut down the rhythm clip of purchases ( Morris et al. ,

2000 ) , bettering the overall flexibleness and reactivity

of the system.

_ Improved communicating and information flow: A recent

study looking at the benefits of e-procurement ( Croom,

2000 ) revealed that around 46 % of respondents believed

that e-procurement would assist better information

flow, and 41 % answered that e-procurement would take

to better internal and external communications.

_ Improved planning and control: E-procurement systems

provide consolidated inside informations of existent spend with each

provider and in each merchandise class, which are an

indispensable input for planning and control. Furthermore,

studies have shown that in companies involved in

e-procurement, buying staff pass less clip on

operative undertakings and more clip on strategic issues ( Flicker

and Holler, 2000 ) . Another study indicated that over

40 % of respondents believed that e-procurement would

lead to betterments in planning ( Croom, 2000 ) .

_ Improved coaction with providers: Harmonizing

to Hoque ( 2000 ) e-procurement applications enable

Article IN PRESS

coactions,

streamlining procedures,

commanding costs, and

heightening information

exchange within and

across administration

boundaries ”

| | | | | |

Chaffey

( 2002 )

‘‘E-Procurement should

be directed at bettering

public presentation for each of

the ‘‘five rights ” of

buying, which are

sourcing points: at the

right monetary value, delivered at

the right clip, are of the

right quality, are of the

right measure, from the

right beginning ”

| | |

V. Tatsis et Al. / Journal of Purchasing & A ; Supply Management 12 ( 2006 ) 63-74 65

endeavors to construct and pull off long-run relationships

with providers. This can take to farther betterments in

footings of contract conformity, coaction and mistake

rates ( Fisher, 2000 ) .

2.2.4 ) E-procurementtypesinternational

The procurance in the populace and the private sector take topographic point in a assortment signifiers. This is a consequence of the usage of assorted engineerings, engineering platforms of assorted industries and different policies that are followed in the infinite in where the e-procurements take topographic point.

As a consequence the e-procurements international are supported by a sum of different methodological analysiss and systems. The basic value is that the operation of these systems is supported in the electronic exchange of informations through the cyberspace with the usage of engineerings such as CGI, ASP, Java, HTML, XML, Flash, Cobra, ERA etc. By the usage of these engineerings are searched providers, the procurance ‘s proclamation or the competition, send and credence of the indispensable elements, the pick of provider, and the procedures of blessing and signature of convention up to the completion of the process.A

E – Procurement is supported international by merchandises ( Commerce One, Ariba, Clarus, Broadvision, Openmarket, Intershop, Opensite, Trade Matrix, Web Sphere, , L @ dnscape, Icube, Exchange Market Place, Clarus, Cardonet, i2Technologies, Procurenet, Extricity, etc ) that are categorized to four large classs. These classs are solutions by the purchaser ‘s facet, the salesman facet, with the doctrine of the auctions or the solutions that support the operation supply concatenation. The methods that become the procurance in each class are different and conform to the demands. The sum of the techniques and the procedures that support the e-procurements, in the populace and in the private sector, are categorized in the follow classs:

  • E-marketplaces
  • E-auctions
  • Rearward e-auctions
  • E-catalogs
  • Command
  • E-exchanges
  • Hubs

E-MARKETPLACES AND THEIR FORMS:

E-marketplace is a topographic point in the cyberspace that hosts one or more topographic points of purchasing and merchandising.

Today e-marketplaces are really popular. The crisp development of the cyberspace has impact to all the signifiers of the markets. In history, market places give the chance to clients to run into the providers at a certain topographic point, at a certain clip and to do purchasing or merchandising. E-marketplaces give the competitory advantage as is focused to the client ( Teck-Yong Eng, 2003 ) . An e-marketplace has a alone feature that is the meet of assorted buyers and providers together in a cardinal market place.

E-marketplaces can be categorized as follow:

Public e-marketplaces, is an unfastened market that is characterized by international attending and assorted types of interaction ( one to many, many to many etc ) . Monetary values are guided by the market and could order in existent clip. Typical the electronic public market topographic point operate in a impersonal establishment that its basic function is to do the contact between salesman and purchaser. Public e-marketplaces are focused to the communicating and to do net income by functioned as agents ( Cristina Soh, M. Lynne Markus, 2002 ) . By conveying together purchasers and providers aim to take down the cost of probe. Besides,

Private e-marketplace is a private market that it allows accredited providers to do offers to large companies or to let fundss efficient dealing with the abilities of dialogues that offers. Is characterized by many types of interaction ( one – to – many, many – to – many etc ) . It aims to take advantage ‘’enabling big purchasers or providers to transact with their concern spouses online through the proviso of direct stuff procurance functionality ” ( Cristina Soh, M. Lynne Markus, 2002 ) .

Horizontal e-marketplace is a topographic point ( B2B ) with many companies that focus in common operations or enterprising procedures. The stuffs are standardized and could be channeled to providers that have fixed priced merchandises ( Andrew H. Chen, Thomas F. Siems, 2001 )

Vertical e-marketplace, these market ‘s topographic points ( B2B ) are focused to a narrow scope by merchandises and services. Harmonizing Andrew H. Chen, Thomas F. Siems “Vertical markets are industry-specific. They focus on an single industry, such as steel, plastics, electronic constituents, or chemicals” .

E-AUCTIONS AND THEIR FORMS: An auction is the procedure in where providers provide an object and many purchasers rival by giving the best monetary value in order to get the object ( Jarrod Trevathan and Wayne Read, 2005 ) .

E-actions, it allows to multiple buyer to do competitory offers for merchandises from independent providers ( electronic auction ) via cyberspace. The e-auctions are based and follow the classical types of auction some of these are:

Dutch auction is the auction that is concluded by a marketer and many buyers ( Jarrod Trevathan and Wayne Read, 2005 ) . The director of the auction increasingly reduces the command until a buyer accepts. The first buyer that accepts the marketer ‘s offer is the victor of the auction. The Dutch auction has the hazard in the instance that the victor would n’t pay an sum equal with the command.

English auction is the auction in where there is one marketer that provides a merchandise for sale.A In the other manus there are many possible buyers that try to win the command. The buyer increasingly increases the monetary value in the offer in order to purchase the point ( Enrique Dans, 2001 ) .A A The buyer that would offer the highest monetary value for the point will be the victor.

  • Nipponese auction is the action in where there is one marketer and many purchasers. In this procedure the director of the action starts from a low monetary value and increasingly increases the monetary value and the possible purchasers should accept the offer in each degree in order to remain in the action. The victor is the purchaser that stays until the terminal offer ( Enrique Dans, 2001 ) .
  • American auction is the auction that consists of one marketer and many purchasers and an point is provided in a stable monetary value. The purchaser that will offer to purchase the highest sum of the point will be the victor of the auction ( Enrique Dans, 2001 ) .
  • Sealed -bid auction is the action that consists of a marketer and many purchasers and each purchaser gives secret concealed offer. The highest offer wins the action ( Enrique Dans, 2001 ) .
  • Private action is the action in where a group of negotiants have entree in a private action and is n’t unfastened for all.
  • Multi-unit action auction is the action in where multiple transcripts of the merchandise are available to auction and purchasing by possible purchasers.

REVERCE E-AUCTIONS AND THEIR FORMS

Rearward e-auction is the procedure via cyberspace in existent clip. The participants that are involved in this dealing is a buyer and up to two Sellerss ( Cigdem A. Gumussoy, Fethi Calisir, 2009 ) . In rearward e-auctions the buyers publish their demands for a specific good or service and the Sellerss make an offer in order to fulfill these demands. In other words, is similar to the traditional auction in contrary ( Daesik Hur et Al, 2004 ) . On the contrary with the competitory command contrary e-auctions do non bespeak written offer and the Sellerss give their offer in existent clip. This auction with the cyberspace ‘s usage brings the providers and the buyers together. The types of contrary e-auctions are the follows:

  • Reverse Dutch auction is the auction with a purchaser and many Sellerss. In this type the auction ‘s director increase the monetary value, get downing from a low monetary value, until a marketer to hold selling in this monetary value.
  • Reverse English auction is the auction with a purchaser and many Sellerss. The Sellerss cut down continually the point ‘s monetary value in order to sale it to the purchaser.
  • Rearward Nipponese auction is the auction with a purchaser and many Sellerss. The auction ‘s director continually reduces the monetary value, get downing from a high monetary value, and the Sellerss must accept the offer in each degree in order to remain in the auction.
  • Reverse Sealed – Bid auction is the auction with a purchaser and many Sellerss. In this auction each marketer makes a secret command and the marketer that will do the lower offer wins the auction.

E-CATALOGS

Theoretically an e-catalog is an electronic image of the window of a store. But it is n’t merely that. E-catalogs are direction tools give the chance to make list of merchandises in every size. For each merchandise the marketer could add images, description, some more information, and monetary value etc. By the usage of e-catalogs the company provides information about the goods, colourful exposure, monetary values, maps etc ( Benjamin P. et Al, 2002 ) . Concisely, e-catalog is ‘’a aggregation of classified information ” ( Benjamin P. et Al, 2002 ) .

There are the follow types of e-catalogs:

  • Catalog collection is an e-catalog of merchandises with criterions of their informations by many industries in order to be easy to comparison.A
  • Catalog Aggregator is the concentration of many merchandises by many Sellerss with comparable monetary values with aim the creative activity picks of markets for the purchasers.

With the usage of e-catalogs ( Drigkas ) :

  • It is achieved cut down of clip in intervention of the informations
  • The standardised construction allows the determination of providers through plans that search the e-catalogs based on standard standards. ( E-Sourcing )
  • The pick of the appropriate provider it ‘s easier because the catalog ‘s informations could straight to be compared.
  • The e-order procedure is facilitated.

BID AND ITS FORMS

Bid is an offer for purchasing or merchandising of specific measure of a merchandise in standard monetary value ( Drigkas ) .

Some of its signifiers are the follows:

  • Replacement command. If the market allows the offers replacing could person to alter its offer ( in measure or monetary value or both ) in existent clip.
  • Schedule command. It is an offer with different monetary values for different measures. It contains an sum of brace of monetary values.
  • Sell command. It is an offer for the sale of concrete measure of a merchandise in concrete monetary value.
  • Submit a command. It is the entry of an offer in the market. The covering make the offer and the offer is judged if it is valid in order O be in the market.

E-EXCHANGES

E-exchanges are an e-marketplace in which the purchasers and the providers negotiate the monetary value based on the in & lt ; & lt ; supply and demand & gt ; & gt ; . In this type the monetary values are set dynamically.

Hub

Hubs is an electronic platform for the coordination of the commercial concatenation and for the easing the synchronism between the commercial co-workers ( Drigkas ) ..

PROCUREMENT HUB

The procurance hub is an e-marketplace for everyday procurances such as travel services, letter paper or computing machines that are needed in a concern in order to work but are n’t critical ( Drigkas ) .

Buying HUB

Buying hub is purchaser ‘s go-between that gathers the applications from little purchasers and negotiates better footings with large Sellerss ( Drigkas ) .

Prequalification Systems

In the public procurance maps companies should turn out that satisfy specific economic, funding and proficient demands and besides their experience. Besides they should subject some needed paperss. The systems of prequalification could cut down the bureaucratism processes by the automatic entry and cheque of the needed paperss ( Ekambaram Palaneeswaran, Mohan Kumaraswam, 1999 ) . The paperss are checked one time in specific clip and legal frame and after that are available online for all public organic structures.

E- Awarding.

This procedure supports the stamps gap. Through the determination support tools the providers are evaluated and become pick of contractor. After that the consequences are published responsible services ( IDA, 2005 ) . In add-on the determination is sent to the selected provider.

E- Tendering

Harmonizing IDA ‘’e-Tendering: covers the readying of an offer by a tendered in response to a call for competition, every bit good as its entry to and acknowledge by, the Contracting Authority ” .

E- Catching

This procedure supports the electronic of contract formation and the contract fulfilment ( Andrew Goodchild et Al, 2000 ) . ‘ ‘ E-contracting is the procedures of data format and negotiating of contracts electronically, and besides the supervising the contract public presentation over webs ( Lai Xu, Paul de Vrieze, 2005 ) . ”

E- Ordering.

E- Ordering is about the maps comparatively with the creative activity and the distribution in electronic manner of the all order paperss. This procedure includes the follow stairss ( IDA, 2004 ) :

  • The purchaser fills the order signifier
  • The order is sent to the provider
  • The provider accepts the order or sends the order to the purchaser for alterations.

E – Invoicing.

This map is responsible for the atomisation of the procedure of creative activity and distribution of bills between purchaser and provider ( IDA, 2004 ) .A

E – Payment.

E – Payment is defined by ( Changsu Kim et Al, 2008 ) as ‘ ‘ the transportation of an electronic value of payment from a remunerator to a payee through an e-payment mechanism ” . Via electronic payment mechanism is anticipated that this on-line dealing will be update straight. For to finish the purchasing dealing should all take parting to be led in the same decision that the payment is finished ( Panagiotis Katsaros, 2006 ) .

National frame for the e-procurement

In Greece a major portion of public procurance became by a cardinal organisation the General secretarial of commercialism ( gge ) of ministry of economic system, fight and transportation. The executing procedure of a goods buying for a province organisation begins with the specification of the demand for this buying. GGE informs one time a twelvemonth the public establishments and organisations for the presentment of indispensable supplies for the following twelvemonth. GGE assembles the supplies of establishments, design the national plan of procurance and submit to blessing in the curate of economic system, fight and transportation. This plan is published and after that are announced the competitions. The procedure of the public procurance is consists of the follow sub-processes: A

  • Preparation of Single Program of procurance.
  • Design and alteration of Single Program of procurance.
  • Publication and realisation of competitions.
  • Submit of applications of attending ( for the close competitions )
  • Submit of the providers offer.
  • Evaluation and Choice of providers.
  • Advancement of conventions.
  • Report ofA Single Program of procurance

The current plan of public procurance is based in a complex legal government with assorted clauses and as a consequence time-consuming procedures of public competition, high cost and opacity. In many instances it required 3-4 old ages from the proclamation of the competition to the terminal of it. As a consequence public organisations non are able to better their services for the citizens. In add-on, the bureaucratism in the procedure in the public procurance competitions dissuades new providers from the engagement and as a consequence reduces the competition and increases the monetary values that the province bargains.

National planning for e-procurement

Harmonizing the ‘’Special service operational planning ” the new Digital Strategy 2006-2013 improves the function of the current plan of A«Society of InformationA» . The new program 2006-2013 is compatible with the new European policy for the A«Society of informationA» and the program of A«Jobs & A ; GrowthA» of European Union. In the A«Digital Strategy 2006-2013A» , information engineerings are the mean for a dynamic economic system and for better quality of day-to-day life. The most of import axes of the A«Digital StrategyA» are:

  • Productivity betterment
  • Improvement of quality of day-to-day life of citizens.

The basic purposes of the new scheme harmonizing its demands are the follow ( Particular service operational planning ) :

  • Improvement of the provided services
  • Specialized of the strategic program
  • Modernization and betterment in the quality of public services.
  • Guarantee of compatibility with the purposes and the agencies of policy of plan.
  • Focus and service of advanced features of the plan.
  • Recognition of critical factors of success.
  • Expansion of possibilities and manner of action between the sectors.

In the frame of the digital scheme 2006-2013 is included and the major program for the e-procurement. More specific, in the frame of Acts of the Apostless for A«Benefit of digital services to the endeavors and parallel rearrangement of public sectorA» it is expected A«Benefit of services of electronic procurance in the public sectorA» . Besides, it is expected until 2013 the enlargement of the procedure of e-procurement in a major portion of the procurance in the public sector from a certain high of expense.A

The concretization of the system for the e-procurement in the populace sector is tried:

  • Reduce of bureaucratism. More simple procedure in the competitions for the public procurance through the decrease in the figure of requirement certification.
  • Reduce of holds.
  • Modernization in the procurance system and more simple engagement in the competitions with the supply of the possibility digital application of offers.
  • More information. The interested could take full information for the competitions.
  • More rapidly procedure of the competitions. With the application of the Directive 2004/18/EC for the decrease of the clip execution of competition.
  • Reduce of the clip of competency of the competitions.
  • Addition in the figure of the providers in the public competitions.
  • Addition of the transparence in the populace sector
  • Cost decrease in the public procurance.
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