E-voting implementation in nigerian Essay

Chapter FIVE

5.1 Recommendation on E-voting Implementation in Nigerian

Basically, the recommendation on e-voting execution in Nigeria was incorporated as counsel on how to plan, implement, operate and oversee e-voting systems to guarantee that they are dependable and unafraid as traditional paper-based methods. It emphasises the demand for new voting methods to run into the democratic rules of cosmopolitan equal right to vote, every bit good as for free and secret ballots, and for electronic systems to be robust, crystalline and accessible. The recommendation besides addresses related issues such as enrollment and hallmark of electors, presentment of elections, nomination of campaigners and proviso of information to electors. The specific recommendations for alternate steps refering the chosen system of voting would heighten the secretiveness, truth and to underpin the hereafter development of electronic vote in Nigeria and degrees of assurance environing its usage at elections in Nigeria. This standards/recommendation consists of the legal, procedural, operational, core proficient demands and audit, if followed in an e-voting system, would ease conformity with the rules of democratic elections and referendums:

5.1.1 Recommendation Based on Legal Standards

I. Cosmopolitan Right to vote:

  1. The elector interface of an e-voting system shall be apprehensible and easy useable
  2. Possible enrollment demands for e-voting shall non present an hindrance to the elector engagement in e-voting,
  3. E-voting systems shall be designed, every bit far as it is operable, to maximize the chances that such systems can supply for individuals with disablements,
  4. Unless channels of distant e-voting are universally accessible, they shall be merely an extra and optional agencies of vote.

two. Equal Right to vote:

  1. A elector shall be prevented from infixing more than one ballot into the electronic ballot box. A elector shall be authorized to vote merely if it has been established that his/her ballot has non yet been inserted into the ballot box.
  2. The e-voting system shall forestall any elector from projecting a ballot by more than one vote channel.
  3. Every ballot deposited in an electronic ballot shall be counted, and each ballot dramatis personae in the election or referendum shall be counted merely one time.
  4. Where electronic and non-electronic vote channels are used in the same election or referendum, there shall be a secure and dependable method to aggregate all ballots and to cipher the right consequence.

three. Free Right to vote:

  1. The organisation of e-voting shall procure the free formation and look of the elector ‘s sentiment and, where required, the personal exercising of the right to vote.
  2. Voters shall be able to change their pick at any point in the e-voting procedure before projecting their ballot, or to interrupt off the process, without their old picks being recorded or made available to any other individual.
  3. The e-voting system shall non allow any manipulative influence to be exercised over the elector during the vote.
  4. The e-voting system shall supply the elector with agencies of take parting in an election or referendum without the elector exerting a penchant for any of the vote options, for illustration, by projecting a clean ballot.
  5. The e-voting system shall bespeak clearly to the elector when the ballot has been cast successfully and when the whole vote process has been completed.
  6. The e-voting system shall forestall the changing of a ballot once that ballot has been cast: ballot one time read multiple times.

four. Secret right to vote:

  1. E-voting shall be organized in such a manner as to except at any phase of the vote process and in peculiar, at elector hallmark, anything that would jeopardize the secretiveness of the ballot.
  2. E-voting system shall vouch that ballots in the electronic ballot box and ballots being counted are and will stay, anon. and that is non possible to retrace a nexus between the ballot and the elector.
  3. The e-voting system shall be so designed that the expected figure of ballots in any electronic ballot will non let the consequence to be linked to single electors.
  4. Measures shall be taken to guarantee that the information needed during electronic processing can non be used to transgress the secretiveness of the ballot.

5.1.2 Recommendation Based on Procedural Safeguard

a. Transparency:

  1. Electoral officers shall take stairss to guarantee that electors understand and have assurance in the e-voting system in usage.
  2. Information on the operation of an e-voting system shall be made publically available.
  3. The vote system package shall be freely inspect-able by the populace. Software will be available in both beginning codification and binary format, this includes: constellation files, application, runing system, peripheral thrusts, font files, and all microcode including picture subsystems without any non-disclosure understandings.
  4. Voters shall be provided with the chance to rehearse any new method of e-voting before and individually from, the minute of projecting an electronic ballot.
  5. Any perceivers, to the extent permitted by jurisprudence, shall be able to be present to detect and notice on the e-elections, including the establishing of the consequences.

b. Verifiability and Accountability:

  1. The constituents of the e-voting system shall be disclosed, at least to the competent electoral governments, a required for confirmation and enfranchisement intents.
  2. Before any e-voting system is introduced, and at appropriate intervals thenceforth, and in peculiar after any alterations are made to the system, an independent organic structure, appointed by the electoral governments, shall verify that the e-voting system is working right and that all the necessary security steps have been taken.
  3. There shall be the possibility for a recount. Other characteristics of the e-voting system that may act upon the rightness of the consequences shall be verifiable.
  4. The e-voting system shall non forestall the partial or complete re-run of an election or a referendum.

c. Reliability and Security:

  1. All possible stairss shall be taken to avoid the possibility of fraud or unauthorised intercession impacting the system during the whole vote procedure.
  2. The e-voting system shall incorporate steps to continue the handiness of its services during the e-voting procedure. It shall defy, in peculiar, malfunction, dislocations or denial of service onslaughts.
  3. Before any e-election or e-referendum takes topographic point, the competent electoral authorization shall fulfill itself that the e-voting system is echt and operates right.
  4. Lone individuals appointed by the electoral authorization shall hold entree to the cardinal substructure, the waiters and the election informations. There shall be clear regulations established for such assignments. Critical proficient activities shall be carried out by squads of at least three people. The composing of the squads shall be on a regular basis changed. Equally far as possible, such activities shall be carried out outside election periods.
  5. While an electronic ballot box is unfastened, any authorised intercession impacting the system shall be carried out by squads of at least three people, be the topic of a study ; be monitored by representatives of the competent electoral authorization and any election perceivers.
  6. The e-voting systems maintain the handiness and unity of the ballots. It shall besides keep the confidentiality of the ballots and maintain them sealed until the numeration procedure. If stored or communicated outside controlled environments, the ballots shall be encrypted.
  7. Votes and elector information shall stay certain every bit long as the information is held in a mode where they can be associated.

5.1.3 Recommendation Based on Operational Standards

a. Presentment:

  1. Domestic legal commissariats regulating an e-election or e-referendum shall supply for clear timetables refering all phases of the election or referendum, both before and after the election or referendum.
  2. The period in which an electronic ballot can be cast shall non get down before the presentment of an election or a referendum. Particularly with respect to remote e-voting, the period shall be defined and made known to the public good in progress of the start of vote.
  3. The electors shall be informed, good in progress of the start of vote, in clear and simple linguistic communication, of the manner in which the e-voting will be organized and any stairss a elector may hold to take in order to take part and ballot.

B. Voters:

  1. There shall be a electors ‘ registry which is on a regular basis updated. The elector shall be able to look into, as a lower limit, the information which is held about him/her on the registry, and request corrections.
  2. There shall be possibility of making an electronic registry and presenting a mechanism leting on-line application for elector enrollment.
  3. In instances where there is an convergence between the periods for elector enrollment and the vote period, proviso for appropriate elector hallmark shall be made.

c. Campaigners:

  1. The possibility of presenting on-line nomination may be considered.
  2. A list of campaigners that is generated and made electronically shall be publically available by other agencies.

d. Vote:

  1. It is peculiarly of import, where distant e-voting return topographic point while canvassing Stationss are unfastened, that the system shall be so designed that it prevents any elector from voting more than one time.
  2. Distant e-voting start and or stop at an earlier clip than the gap of any polling station. Remote e-voting shall non go on after the terminal of the vote period at canvassing Stationss.
  3. For every e-voting channel, support and counsel agreements on vote processs shall be set up for, and be available to, the elector.
  4. There shall be equality in the mode of presentation of all vote options on the device used for projecting an electronic ballot.
  5. The electronic ballot by which an electronic ballot is cast shall be free from any information about vote options, other than that purely required for projecting the ballot. The e-voting system shall avoid the show of other messages that may act upon the elector ‘s pick.
  6. If is it decided that information about vote options will be accessible from the e-voting site, this information shall be presented with equality.
  7. Before projecting a ballot utilizing a distant e-voting system, electors ‘ attending shall be explicitly drawn to the fact that e-election or e-referendum in which they are subjecting their determination by electronic agencies is a existent election or referendum.
  8. In a supervised environment, the information on the ballot shall vanish from the ocular, audio or haptic show used by the elector to project the ballot every bit shortly as it has been cast.

e. Consequences:

  1. The e-voting system shall non let the revelation of the figure of ballots cast for any vote option until after the closing of the electronic ballot box. This information shall non be disclosed to the populace until after the terminal of the vote period.
  2. The e-voting system shall forestall treating information on ballots cast within intentionally chosen sub-units that could uncover single electors ‘ picks.
  3. Any decryption required for the numeration of the ballots shall be carried out every bit shortly as operable after the closing of the vote period.
  4. When numbering the ballots, representatives of the competent electoral authorization shall be able to take part in, and any perceivers able to observer, the count.
  5. A record of the numbering procedure of the electronic ballots shall be kept, including information about the start and terminal of and the individuals involved in the count.
  6. In the event of any abnormality impacting the unity of ballots, the affected ballots shall be recorded as such.

f. Audited account:

  1. The e-voting system shall be auditable.
  2. The decisions drawn from the audit procedure shall be applied in future elections and referendums.

5.1.4 Recommendation Based on Technical Requirements

a. Handiness:

  1. Measures shall be taken to guarantee that the relevant package and services can be used by all electors and, if necessary, supply entree to alternative ways of vote.
  2. Users shall be supplied, whenever required and possible, with extra installations, such as particular interfaces or other tantamount resources. User installations shall follow every bit much as possible with the guidelines set out in the Web Accessibility Initiative ( WAI )
  3. Consideration shall be given, when developing new merchandises, to their compatibility with bing 1s, including those utilizing engineerings designed to assist people with disablements.
  4. The presentation of the vote options shall be optimized for the elector.

B. System Operation:

  1. The competent electoral governments shall print an official list of the package used in an e-election or e-referendum. They might except from the list informations protection package for security grounds. At the really least, it shall bespeak the package used the versions, its day of the month of installing and a brief description. A process shall be established for on a regular basis put ining updated versions and corrections of the relevant protection package. It shall be possible to look into the province of protection of the vote equipment at any clip.
  2. Those responsible for runing the equipment shall pull up a eventuality process. Any backup system shall conform to the same criterions and demands as the original system.
  3. Sufficient backup agreements shall be in topographic point and be for good available to guarantee that voting returns swimmingly.
  4. Those responsible for the equipment shall utilize particular processs to guarantee that during the polling period the vote equipment and its usage satisfy demands. The backup services shall be on a regular basis supplied with monitoring protocols.
  5. Before each election or referendum, the equipment shall be checked and approved in conformity with the protocol drawn up by the competent electoral governments. The equipment shall be checked to guarantee that it complies with proficient specifications. The findings shall be submitted to the competent electoral governments.
  6. All proficient operations shall be capable to a formal control process. Any significant alterations to identify equipment shall be notified.
  7. Cardinal e-election or e-referendum equipment shall be located in a unafraid country and that country shall, throughout the election or referendum period, be guarded against intervention of any kind and from any individual. During the election or referendum period a physical catastrophe recovery program shall be in topographic point.
  8. Where incidents that could endanger the unity of the system occur, those responsible for runing the equipment shall instantly inform the competent electoral governments, who will take the necessary stairss to extenuate the effects of the incident.

c. Security

  1. Technical and organisational steps shall be taken to guarantee that no information will be for good lost in the event of a dislocation or a mistake impacting the e-voting system.
  2. The e-voting system shall keep the privateness of persons. Confidentiality of electors ‘ registries stored in or communicated by the e-voting system shall be maintained.
  3. The e-voting system shall execute regular cheques to guarantee that its constituents operate in conformity with its proficient specifications and that its services are available.
  4. The e-voting system shall curtail entree to its services, depending on the user individuality or the user function, to those services explicitly assigned to this user. User hallmark shall be effectual before any action can be carried out.
  5. The e-voting system shall protect hallmark informations so that unauthorised entities can non misapply, stop, modify or otherwise gain cognition of all or some of this information. In uncontrolled environments, hallmark based on cryptanalytic mechanisms is advisable.
  6. Designation of electors and campaigners in a manner that they can unmistakably be distinguished from other individuals ( alone designation ) shall be ensured.
  7. E-voting systems shall bring forth dependable and sufficiently elaborate observation informations so that election observation can be carried out.
  8. Electoral governments have overall duty for conformity with these security demands, which shall be assessed by independent organic structures.

d. IT Security Footings:

The following IT security footings are to be used in this subdivision. The definitions have chiefly been taken from relevant ISO Standards:

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Access Control: & A ; Acirc ; The bar of unauthorized usage of a resource ( ISO 7498-2:1989 )

Authentication: The proviso of confidence of the claimed individuality of an entity

( ISO/IEC 10181-2:1996 )

Handiness: The belongings of being accessible and useable upon demand ( TR 13335-1:1996 )

Confidentiality: The belongings that information is non made available or disclosed to unauthorised persons, entities, or procedures ( ISO 7498-2:1989 ) ( TR 13335-1:1996 )

Protection Profile: An implementation-independent set of security demands for a class of merchandises that meet specific consumer demands ( ISO 15408 )

User or Actor: An entity that is authorized to interact with the e-voting system as a whole or with its constituents. This includes, inter alia, electors, campaigners, hearers, etc.

5.1.5 Recommendation Based on Audit

  1. The audit system shall be designed and implemented as portion of the e-voting system to corroborate the genuineness of the consequence. Audited account installations shall be present on different degrees of the system: logical, proficient and application.
  2. End-to-end auditing of an e-voting system shall include recording, supplying monitoring installations and supplying confirmation installations.

a. Recording:

  1. The audit system shall be unfastened and comprehensive, and actively study on possible issues and menaces.
  2. The audit system shall enter times, events and actions including:
    1. all voting-related information, including the figure of eligible electors, the figure of ballots cast, the figure of invalid ballots, the counts and recounts, etc ;
    2. any onslaught on the operation of the e-voting system and its communications substructure.
    3. System failures, malfunctions and other menaces to the system.

B. Monitoring:

  1. The audit system shall supply the ability to supervise the election or referendum and to verify that the consequences and processs are in conformity with the applicable legal commissariats.
  2. Disclosure of the audit information to unauthorised individuals shall be prevented.
  3. The audit system shall keep voter namelessness at all times.

c. Confirmation:

  1. The audit system shall supply the ability to cross-check and verify the right operation of the e-voting system and the truth of the consequence, to observe elector fraud and to turn out that all counted ballots are reliable and that all ballots have been counted.
  2. The audit system shall supply the ability to verify that an e-election or e-referendum has complied with the applicable legal commissariats, the purpose being to verify that the consequences are an accurate representation of the reliable ballots.
    1. The audit system shall be protected against any signifiers of onslaught which may pervert, alter or lose records in the audit system.
    2. Electoral governments shall take equal stairss to guarantee that the confidentiality of any information obtained by any individual while transporting out scrutinizing maps is guaranteed.

See the diagram of Audit informations set attack for elucidation intents:

5.1.6 The Drafted Presidential Electoral Result Summary:


Electoral Toll

Method of Voting

Votes Received


Engagement Rate

Invalid ballot

Valid ballots


Capital of nigeria

23, 234




20.63 %

0.00 %

730 %






28.79 %

0.00 %

650 %






3.75 %

0.00 %

987 %










Needless-to-say, that the possible benefits and grounds for presenting or sing the execution of e-voting in one or more phases of a political election or referendum differs from state to state ; depending on the specific domestic context in each country. & A ; Acirc ; However, using the rules of democratic elections to e-voting entails advancing and protecting human rights, democracy and the regulation of jurisprudence.


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