Enterprise Architecture ( EA ) is being progressively adopted in organisations these yearss. Yet the research sing the measuring of value generated by EA is limited ( Kaisler, et Al. 2005 ) . This paper is a work-in-progress paper that provides an penetration into the EA value measuring procedure. Achieving strategic alliance between concern and IT is one of the major concerns the top direction feel organisations are confronting today. In this paper we try to turn to this job through EA and seek to show how EA helps in accomplishing strategic alliance. We start off with public presentation direction and look into how it affects assorted aspects of organisation, why it is indispensable for organisations and other related subjects. During the last 20 old ages, both EA and public presentation direction have evolved as two separate lines of activities many times slackly touching each other but ne’er to the full integrated. One of the chief parts of this paper would be to widen the thoughts laid out and to develop an incorporate theoretical account that can be a foundation for measuring procedure in a wide scope of endeavors. They can utilize this research to better the efficiency and effectivity of the public presentation direction procedure itself and to do the Enterprise Architecture a living-actionable agency for organisations. This paper serves as an initial measure in placing the cardinal countries of concerns in accomplishing the integrating and a kick start by value measuring procedure of EA. Here, we discuss the current province of pattern of Enterprise Architecture ( EA ) in item, its model, benefits from EA execution in organisations and besides value measuring for an EA through end driven attack. We besides propose study methodological analysis in order to analyze above mentioned constructs in industrial universe and to beef up our apprehension of prosodies in organisations, to propose a comprehensive list of prosodies classs, look into single prosodies themselves used by successful companies implementing EA and the demand for holding a comprehensive regulative process for reexamining the set of prosodies chosen. Through this paper we are seeking to bind theory and pattern together which to our best of cognition is losing in most EA research articles that talk about EA value measuring.
Performance direction, Enterprise Architecture ( EA ) , concern scheme, strategic alliance, prosodies, Goal Question Metric ( GQM ) , Representational Theory of Measurement.
Organizations these yearss are recognizing the increasing demand for holding effectual concern procedures and accomplishing strategic alliance of concern and IT. The top concern for organisations is how to aline IT with their concern demands. Many academic articles have addressed these issues in the past but seting it into pattern in a existent and dynamic environment is far from world. ‘IT and Business Alignment ‘ remains the top direction concern as per taking study studies [ 1 ] . Pull offing huge sum of informations, avoiding redundancy, accomplishing effectual and efficient flow of information across organisation and cross organisation would be some of the top precedences organisations have [ 2 ] . These are some of the turning demands of service industry today to last in the radical market. This has led to the increasing acceptance of Enterprise Architecture pattern in organisations.
Companies have to recognize the fact that they can non pull off things if they do n’t mensurate it decently. Prosodies are the agencies used to clearly and systematically indicate public presentation. Performance direction trades with managing and keeping prosodies. There has been much research carried on the demand for prosodies and measuring in Enterprise Performance Management plans [ 3, 4 ] . Metzenbaum in her article discuss the trouble in finding what constitutes appropriate steps and marks every bit good as trouble in finding how frequently to mensurate [ 3 ] . In this paper, we propose that without dependable, consistent steps, accurate communicating of public presentation tendencies and marks is non possible. In order to accomplish this we propose a conceptual theoretical account based on good known and widely adopted IS theories – Goal Question Metric ( GQM ) attack and Representational theory of measuring. This theoretical account serves the intent of strategic transmutation and EA value measuring enterprise. In order to complement our literature findings, we have designed a study instrument and farther study the consequences with an effort to formalize our averments to estimate market tendencies.
The paper is outlined as follows: Section 2 provides an overview on background literature or anterior work. In this, we discuss the procedure of public presentation direction, its definition, importance of public presentation direction system, assorted modern-day theoretical accounts, and how companies have adopted them to accomplish their mark ends, some restrictions of each of these theoretical accounts. We will besides discourse the significance, importance, model and concern positions of endeavors architecture and the how it supports business-IT alliance.
Section 3 trades with the debut to prosodies and the function played by public presentation prosodies in organisations and the turning demand for comprehensive prosodies for accomplishing organisational aims.
Following in subdivision 4, we have our research inquiries and the design flow. The design flow involves the stairss we follow through the procedure of our research design.
In subdivision 5, we review the existing IS theories relevant to our research. This includes reexamining GQM theoretical account and representational theory of measuring. GQM is one of the widely applied IS theories to find package prosodies in IT field but less common in EA field. We extend this attack with some add-ons to EA value measuring to find EA prosodies in add-on to mensurating strategic alliance achieved by implementing EA.
In Section 6 we discuss our research methodological analysis where we suggest a conceptual theoretical account for mensurating the value of EA uniting the IS theories mentioned above with few sweetenings to widen it to EA. This subdivision besides involves analysis of our theoretical account through illustration that explains the working of our theoretical account.
Section 7 includes some of the challenges that organisations encounter during the procedure of measuring.
The last Section 8 discusses about decision and future work.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
In this subdivision, we provide a elaborate background on assorted subjects which includes public presentation direction theoretical accounts ( Balanced Scorecard, public presentation theoretical account for time-based companies ) , restrictions of these theoretical accounts, constructs related to EA including EA models, importance of business-IT alliance. We review the bing literature related to these subjects and lay a foundation for developing an integrated public presentation driven EA theoretical account.
2.1 Performance Reporting and Performance Management
Performance direction has become important to any concern runing from little concern endeavors ( SMEs ) to big net income devising corporations to accomplish organisation broad success [ 9 ]
Organizations today are puting immense sum of money on public presentation related activities [ 62 ] . In order to stay competitory, they are following assorted public presentation steps to heighten the value of their intangible and rational assets.
Majority of the companies are inclined towards traditional system of describing and direction construction where concern procedures are non consistently measured. [ 5 ] Measurement is still viewed as a section related or decentralized activity pretermiting the large image of organisation as a whole.
One of the related plants and widely accepted one in corporate public presentation measuring is Balanced Scorecard ( BSC ) [ 7 ] by Kaplan and Norton. BSC measures corporate public presentation across four countries: fiscal, clients, concern procedures, larning and growing [ 7 ] . Figure 1 illustrates BSC model. BSC emphasizes the demand for companies to understand the demand for bettering their intangible assets to accomplish better public presentation through improved client relationship, develop invention in merchandises and services, effectual cognition direction, increased throughput of high-quality merchandises and transfusing a demand for uninterrupted acquisition and growing rhythm in organisations [ 7 ] .
Before BSC was introduced, organisations were chiefly concentrating merely on fiscal steps. One of the major parts of BSC is widening the country of focal point to organisation ‘s vision and scheme in add-on to fiscal measuring to visualize future ends and achieve long term concern aims.
Some of the drawbacks of BSC are: It addresses issues in public presentation measuring merely to some extent in that it lacks a clear way for concern procedure public presentation measuring [ 6 ] . Besides it limits non-financial steps to client satisfaction which is non a comprehensive list of steps for companies looking for invention [ 8 ] . It besides does non see factors like providers, civilization and other end related factors.
CUI Song et al. , have proposed an incorporate Performance theoretical account for time-based companies. [ 9 ] They argue that better direction of clip is one of the critical success factors that determine company ‘s public presentation. They mention that by effectual direction of clip, organisations can increase their client service, cut down costs, and expeditiously manage resources. This theoretical account addresses public presentation direction from the position of clip and hence we feel it lacks to turn to the broader image of organisation in its entireness.
In order to accomplish better public presentations, companies must understand the clear limit between Performance direction and Performance coverage.
Harmonizing to Gartner, public presentation coverage refers to describing on how good a procedure or organisation performs. This is normally measured in footings of service degrees effectiveness, informations volumes and cost of goods and services. These are considered to be of import prosodies but they are besides dawdling prosodies ( historical in nature ) i.e, they do non hold any sort of future province associated with them.
In contrast public presentation direction procedure involves set of methodological analysiss to place the right set of prosodies, organize and supervise the consequences and utilize them towards comprehensive enterprises to turn to organisation as a whole across all degrees. It involves direction of people, procedure and engineering to accomplish desirable results for the public assistance of the full organisation.
Therefore, we can deduce that major part of public presentation direction is largely inclined towards bespeaking future public presentation and hence employs prima prosodies like tendencies, discrepancies, benchmarking steps, alteration direction, scorecard coverage and trailing. The whole intent of public presentation direction step is non merely specifying prosodies but developing solid concern instance to place concern aims and pass oning the same to line of stockholders to put a clear vision. This needs to be clearly understood by the direction in order to accomplish the aims set to the fullest possible extent.
2.2 Overview of Enterprise Architecture
Harmonizing to Anne Lapkin et al. , ( 2008 ) in their Gartner research article clearly specify what Enterprise Architecture means as follows [ 60 ] :
“processes that help organisation interpret its concern mission and scheme into effectual organisational alteration through clear apprehension of endeavor ‘s current as-is province and work towards achieving a better hereafter or to-be province through evolution.”
Companies today are seeking to be more agile in an attempt to react to internal or external drivers quickly. This can be achieved by following a solid architecture. Many big organisations are recognizing the strategic impact and concern value EA generates [ 28 ] . Main outlooks of endeavor architecture will be to cut down complexness and accomplish better truth in jointing scheme, holding a precise scoping for undertakings ( with nowadays and future projections ) , seamless integrating of package services ( both homogenous and heterogenous [ 30 ] ) and be aftering processs [ 29 ] . They should besides affect methods that are necessary to provide to the demands of all the stakeholders ( clients, providers, employees, stockholders, the populace, confederates, and Government ) to stay crystalline in the concern. Kurpjuweit and Winter ( 2007 ) claim that EA assists stakeholders of the organisation in determination devising procedures like effectual undertaking planning, design and certification for reusability, clear communicating between IT and direction staff etc.
EA is widely implemented by endeavors to get by with the increasing demands of the concern and set up an incorporate attack towards pull offing people, procedure and engineering. It helps in set uping effectual and efficient administration non merely in single sections but besides across full organisation and cross-organization. It besides helps direction prioritise their ends and be more transparent in pass oning the same to staff across organisation which reduces complexness and misinterpretations [ 29 ] .
Harmonizing to Ross et Al. ( 2006 ) , EA is being widely adopted and has become a good established concern procedure direction system in recent old ages.
Its chief part is in alining IT with concern demands and aid puting up effectual administration to accomplish better legerity [ 10 ] . Some of the identified benefits of EA include:
- aids in better determination doing procedure of the endeavor [ 11 ]
- enhance concern through amalgamations and acquisitions
- better alliance of IT and concern, better predictability of undertaking costs ( includes acquisition cost, operational cost and care cost )
- aids in avoiding information redundancy in concern procedures and better use of resources [ 12 ]
Traveling on, allow us see what EA comprises.
There are four architectural subdivisions ( Figure 2 ) that are normally used as portion of overall endeavor architecture and are described below [ 5 ] :
- Business Architecture: defines cardinal concern procedures, organisational scheme and theoretical accounts, administration construction used by organisation to run into its ends.
- Application Architecture: defines specifications for edifice applications that serve concern intents. It provides an thought of the application systems that needs to be deployed to set up the necessary correlativity with the concern procedures of organisation.
- Data ( Information ) Architecture: involves informations definition, classification and sharing of informations through good defined Service Level Agreements ( SLAs ) between stakeholders. Information architecture besides includes managing informations beginnings and provides answerability for information demands of the organisation.
- Infrastructure / Technical Architecture: trades with the IT substructure like hardware and webs that supports the information, applications and concern dealt in the above architectures. It besides includes establishing criterions for engineerings and methods used to run Application architecture and support application demands.
2.3 Role of EA in business-IT alliance
Today, companies are recognizing the increasing demand for alining IT along with their concern demands in order to cut down the spread that exists between the two and to accomplish possible returns from IT investings. Today, IT has been progressively viewed non merely as concern enabler but besides as concern reformist [ 43 ] . IT assets contribute to a major part of company ‘s public presentation. Surveies in the yesteryear have revealed that the wellness of the company is extremely determined by IT assets including strategic alliance and other intangible prosodies that add value [ 43 ] . Rising concern amalgamations and acquisitions, increasing economic crisis, unstable administration are some of the state of affairss that lead to dynamic concern environment [ 13 ] . Strategic alliance has a important function to play in public presentation betterment procedures of organisations and allows companies to be more productive and competitory in these dynamic market conditions [ 50 ]
Figure 3 represents ‘Strategic Alignment theoretical account ‘ foremost suggested by Henderson and Venkatraman about a decennary ago.
This theoretical account is utile for analysing the aims of IT section and aims of the organisation as a whole. As illustrated this theoretical account has two distinguishable countries – Business and IT which farther has two parts associated with each [ 14 ] .
Under concern subdivision, the theoretical account suggests inclusion of concern scheme and organisational substructure. Business scheme farther includes range of the concern, administration and competences. The range of the concern includes anything that is portion of the concern runing from clients, merchandises and services, providers to external factors like market portion, rivals and other environmental factors. Governance includes governmental regulations, conformity enterprises and other regulative steps. Business competences include invention, improved R & A ; D index, scheme impulse, new merchandise development and other research related activities.
Under organisational substructure we have the organisational accomplishments, the administrative construction ( which includes the direction functions and coverage construction ) and organisational procedures.
IT scheme can be farther divided into IT scheme and IT substructure. IT scheme comprises of the engineering related competences, IT range and IT administration. In recent old ages IT scheme has been progressively applied to back up non merely infrastructure direction but besides in hazard direction, public presentation related activities and other integrating undertakings.
IT range includes the capablenesss of information engineering like IT systems and services that are important for the organisation.
IT competencies includes engineering related properties that contribute towards quality control and other high degree competences like dependability, consistence, legerity etc for better alliance with the concern demands of the organisation.
IT administration includes effectual SLA ‘s ( Service Level Agreements ) in partnerships, hazard direction and extenuation, other IT related ordinances.
IT substructure includes IT architecture ( applications and technological criterions and regulations driving towards integrating of services and merchandises towards a common concern end ) , IT processes include development and care related activities, IT skills refer to the human resource capablenesss and rational accomplishments.
Harmonizing to Gilbert ( 2007 ) there are many facets of strategic alliance that needs to be studied in deepness. They include turn toing the issue of strategic alliance in Small and Medium Enterprises ( SME ) , alliance in Multi Business Company ( MBC ) , the tantrum between administration and concern scheme and many other countries which needs farther research and needs to be explored in greater item.
Even though the construct of alliance is non new, there are many inquiries left unreciprocated. There are limited surveies done that show how to accomplish practical alliance in organisations which is besides one of the major concerns of organisations. Harmonizing to Luftman et Al. alliance of concern and IT consequences in transmutation and this should function as the base to better organisational public presentation in add-on to turn toing a peculiar issue [ 27 ] .
In the subdivisions below we show how EA can be a agency to accomplish business-IT alliance.
2.4 EA model
Enterprise architecture is a organic structure of cognition used to incorporate assorted concepts of organisation – people, procedure and engineering to present the right information to the right people at the right clip. EA frameworks aid in systematic certification of concern procedures and IT assets [ 26 ]
Developing a model for EA includes specifying information systems and how these systems interact in accomplishing organisational ends [ 16 ] . EA frameworks play a major function in accomplishing benefits of EA. Some of them include:
- EA frameworks embed a list of criterions for systems within them.
- They assist the designers in tools choice and enterprise broad determination devising procedure and set uping administration [ 10 ] .
- Supports integrating and accounting for information resources on a planetary graduated table [ 15 ] .
Some organisations have adopted already bing EA models while bulk of other organisations have developed a model of their ain ( intercrossed model ) with some customization to primary models. Some of the chiefly used EA models by organisations include Zachman framework [ 56 ] , The Open Group Architecture Framework ( TOGAF ) [ 57 ] , Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework ( FEAF ) [ 59 ] adopted by the Government of USA, Department of Defense Architecture Framework ( DoDAF ) [ 58 ] used by the Dept of Defense.
Zachman model for EA was proposed by John Zachman in 1987. He is considered to be the male parent of EA. This model fundamentally trades with six concepts or six basic inquiries: what, how, when, why, where and who [ 17 ] . Even though this model is foremost of its sort and considered a solid model for EA, it does non supply a comprehensive solution in that it provides a high degree position of set uping procedure. It lacks way sing the sequence and execution and has no expressed conformity regulations defined as there is no standard industrial methodological analysis adopted [ 17 ] . However some believe that following it in complete will automatically carry through all conformity demands [ 18 ] .
The chief characteristic of TOGAF when compared to Zachman model is it incorporates a formal procedure ( series of stairss ) for constructing EA [ 19 ] .
FEA was developed by the Chief Information Officer ( CIO ) in the US Federal Council [ 20 ] chiefly helping information sharing across assorted Federal bureaus to accomplish integrating [ 17 ] . One of the complementary attempts to FEA was The Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996 [ 63 ] which was introduced in the Federal Government in order to maximise the benefits realized from IT. One of the chief concerns raised sing this act was it did non needfully turn to IT administration wholly.
DoDAF was built chiefly to manage mission critical state of affairss and used to implement EA in defence.
Hybrid model: is uniting the characteristics from different primary EA model and edifice a customized model to accommodate the single concern demands of organisation. Nowadays, the inclination of companies is towards implementing intercrossed models.
Through our study research we are seeking to capture information sing the principle behind organisations developing a loanblend model ( it can be based on the positions or abstractions in these models [ 16 ] ) and the ground for loanblend technique being so popular in the EA community. We besides try to happen out what elements are taken from these primary models and used in constructing a intercrossed model for EA.
Measurement is non a new subject to us. We deal with measuring in some or the other signifier in our day-to-day lives. Get downing from weather prognosis to mensurating velocity about all activities involve measuring. When speaking about prosodies for concern processes the whole construct of starts with the expert ‘s statement “You can non pull off what you can non mensurate. And you can non better something which you can non pull off properly” [ 23 ] . Harmonizing to Andy Neely ( 1995 ) the term metric refers to series of measurement stairss – specifying a step, how the measuring will be done ( may affect mathematical computations ) , who will be making the computation and the source/origin of informations.
There has been many attempts to formalise the procedure of package measuring but none of them have specified how precisely to cipher the step. In the class of this attempt many package tools have been built which gives different values of steps for the same plan [ 22 ] . The procedure of measuring is so complex that there is non merely one theoretical account that serves as a best tantrum for all steps. Every organisation has its ain customized measuring procedure depending on the demands and direction determinations. Ross et Al ( 1993 ) reference in their article that there had been a long on-going demand for holding a metrics plan for package betterment procedure but there is really small research done on measuring these prosodies plan [ 40 ] .
A systematic and solid corporate public presentation direction procedure is needed for companies to last in this information age [ 7 ] . And an of import rap of public presentation direction is prosodies. Performance prosodies gives us a image of the wellness of the company, place the strengths and failings across sections and besides detect procedures ( eg. mistake sensing, hazard analysis ) that deviate from the normal behaviour [ 24 ] . Organizations need prosodies to measure and better client satisfaction, time-to-market factors and other innovative procedures for bettering their public presentation steps [ 25 ] . There has been extended research survey carried out to demo the impact of these prosodies, client prosodies [ 38 ] in peculiar on fiscal public presentation and organisational public presentation overall [ 37 ] . Accounting for touchable assets is really common and an easy procedure which every company does through fiscal coverage but when it comes to intangible assets, there is no individual criterion or a comprehensive coverage technique to officially describe them [ 36 ] . Many research surveies have identified assorted concepts of client prosodies like discernible or touchable concepts and unobservable or intangible concepts and how they affect organisational public presentation. Experts believe that the easiest manner of roll uping informations to mensurate these unobservable client prosodies is through client studies.
4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND DESIGN
Our research inquiry chiefly revolves around EA value measuring and how organisations view it. In order to turn to this we have our research inquiries laid out as follows:
- How do organisations mensurate the value of an Enterprise Architecture plan? What prosodies are used in the procedure?
- What are the issues / challenges organisations face during the class of EA value measuring procedure?
Figure 4 provides the design flow for our research and the stairss involved. We started off with extended interdisciplinary literature reappraisal which includes non merely academic diaries and taking conference documents but besides concern imperativeness releases to acquire on-going image of the existent universe state of affairs.
Planing the study instrument and pilot testing follows the following measure in our research. To our best of cognition our study is foremost of its sort and is designed to capture inside informations of models used with EA plan, EA value measurement apart from capturing demographics of the industry and EA forces. This will be sent to EA experts who lead EA profession in their several organisations. These responses are important for our survey and will organize the footing for our apprehension and account of assorted facets related to EA.
After the study is completed, the information from the respondents will be collected and analyzed utilizing assorted statistical methods to pull of import deductions from them.
The following phase in the procedure is to utilize the study consequences to verify the conceptual theoretical account we developed for EA value measuring to pull necessary deductions and do comparings of theory and pattern.
The consequences from the comparing will so be reported utilizing standard coverage techniques which organisations can utilize to measure the value of EA plan or to help them do necessary alterations to their measuring procedure itself.
4.1 Survey Instrument
The study instrument is divided into four subdivisions. First two subdivision trades with demographic information of the organisation and about the persons.
In the following subdivision of the study, we try to capture inside informations sing models for endeavor architecture. Here we try to happen replies related to acceptance techniques of models for EA. Discussion related to this subdivision will non be done in this article.
The last subdivision of the study deals with EA value measuring. Here we probe inquiries like what are the organisational ends for EA plan, what are the prosodies organisations utilize to measure their EA plan. This includes classs of prosodies and single prosodies themselves. Besides we try to happen replies for inquiries like what are the challenges organisations face when roll uping information related to these prosodies, who evaluates/reviews these prosodies, how satisfied the organisation is with information on these prosodies.
5. REVIEWING Relevant INFORMATION SYSTEMS ( IS ) Theory
There has been a batch of research associated with package prosodies and many package tools have been developed utilizing these package prosodies [ 21 ] . But when it comes to EA value prosodies, organisations lack robust measuring techniques. And besides there are really few surveies and methods suggested to transport out EA value measuring [ 26, 39 ] .
Experts claim that following EA methodological analysis will better the efficiency and effectivity of the concern processes but there is no standard techniques to mensurate its value and is still a large concern in the industrial universe. There has been research theoretical accounts proposed to prove through empirical observation the extent to which EA frameworks serve the intent of EA value measuring. However we claim that this does non turn to the issue in its entireness. For illustration, research workers have extended task-technology tantrum theory to measure the efficiency of EA models [ 26 ] . But this straight does non reply all inquiries covering with EA value measuring.
In order to turn to this issue, we propose a model constructed utilizing two theories from IS as our implicit in base for value measuring – Representational theory of measuring and Goal Question Metric ( GQM ) which organisations can follow to construct their EA value measuring theoretical account. The model we propose can besides be used by organisations to redesign their EA value measuring techniques and enhance rating techniques to assist in supplying optimum feedback for appraisal.
As stated in old subdivisions, we will be utilizing the study instrument ( inquiries ) for proving our model in order to hold a robust working theoretical account and besides to add a practical spirit to our research design.
5.1 Undertaking the job of indirect measuring
The chief end of EA is to accomplish endeavor broad integrating and accomplish optimum public presentation utilizing the shared resources, make optimum usage of cognition base consisting of changing rational capablenesss of stakeholders of the organisation and using other organisational strengths.
As discussed before corporate public presentation appraisal has been one of the major concerns of companies today [ 32 ] . Despite immense sum of disbursals on public presentation measuring of integrating undertakings, organisations are unable to accomplish complete benefits from these disbursals. There are assorted methodologies/standards laid out for developing package quality prosodies. One of them is IEEE standard [ 33 ] . Some of the constructs of measuring included in IEEE criterion mentioned by Cem Kaner et Al ( 2004 ) are as follows [ 34 ] :
- Attribute – is physical or perceptual belongings of an entity that is mensurable
- Quality factor
- Metric – is the measuring map used to depict the property
- Direct metric – this metric is independent of the step of any other property. In simple footings it is the cardinal measuring as against derived measuring.
- Software quality metric – utilizing this metric we can stand for the package informations as a numerical value. Subsequently on we can analyse how the quality of the package associated with a given property gets affected utilizing this relation.
The writers besides suggest that finding the list of quality factors is really of import in order to develop a set of prosodies for any given undertaking. It is besides necessary that each quality factor be associated with a direct metric or a set of direct prosodies. They besides suggest that each direct metric in bend will function as the quantitative representation of a quality factor.
We know that throughout the class of EA procedure, the function played by worlds is really important ( eg, stakeholders form an of import portion in EA value measuring procedure ) . Many criterions developed for mensurating the package processes neglect worlds and carry out the measuring in order to do the system simple and easy to make a metric. But when we consider worlds as the chief histrions of the system, these techniques fail as the system is no longer additive and simple. It becomes a dynamic and multi-dimensional system. And therefore, it involves batch of indirect or derived steps.
In order to turn to this issue, Cem Kaner et Al ( 2004 ) suggest that specifying a metric should affect replying a inquiry foremost, delegating properties that can reply this inquiry and eventually specifying steps that relates to these properties. This correlates to GQM attack normally adopted in specifying package steps which we will discourse in our ulterior subdivisions.
Gupta.S et Al ( 2006 ) show ways to calculate numerical values for assorted client prosodies like client acquisition, client equity, client keeping. They besides discuss calculating cross merchandising, client life-time value etc associated with client seen as an of import stakeholder of the company [ 37 ] . In this paper the writers besides examine the nexus between discernible and unobservable client prosodies, how perceptual client prosodies influences company ‘s fiscal public presentation and how discernible prosodies influence company ‘s public presentation.
5.2 Using Representational Theory of Measurement
Analyzing the belongingss of an object needfully involves 3 basic operations that include: measurings, ratings, penchants and utilizing the representational theory of measuring we can analyse these operations [ 48 ] .
For transporting out measuring of an object, we need to delegate Numberss to belongingss of objects or entities that need to be judged which may include existent universe events in footings of empirical relationship [ 49 ] . To sum up this, a given observed or empirical phenomena can be assigned / mapped to a numerical value utilizing measurement process as shown in figure 5.
The representational theory of measuring therefore suggests the demand for holding a mathematical computation when covering with prosodies which we try to use in our survey of EA prosodies.
5.3 Goal Question Metric Approach ( GQM )
Goal Question Metric ( GQM ) ( Basili, et Al. 1994 ) is one of the widely used attacks used to mensurate package steps [ 35 ] . Goal Question Metric ( Figure 5 ) is an analytical theoretical account built based on the organisational ends to transport out the measuring procedure in a systematic manner. It uses bottom-up attack to analyse and construe the prosodies informations and it uses a top-down attack for specifying prosodies [ 39 ] . To follow this method, organisations must be clear of their ends and have them laid out clearly before any measurement procedure. The chief intent of utilizing GQM is to specify a measuring procedure which involves explicit regulations and a formal process to clearly understand what the end product is once we are done with the measuring activity. Since the prosodies are linked to ends through inquiries, the GQM attack proves to be an efficient technique in geting at a set of prosodies with a definite and intended usage [ 42 ] .
The GQM has its beginning from measuring and placing defects for a series of undertakings in the NASA Space Flight environment [ 31 ] . It has assorted paradigms associated with it get downing from end puting to quality betterment paradigm and its application to assorted package and information scenes [ 35 ] . It can be customized to broad assortment of measurement procedures at multi-organization degree and the success of the undertakings in the yesteryear where GQM is applied proves it to be really efficient methodological analysis [ 55 ] .
There are many customized measuring models developed from GQM attack to accommodate changing organisational demands. Some of them include: Patrik et Al ( 2006 ) have adopted GQM to construct and prove alteration direction and demands direction concern procedure systems [ 42 ] . Barclay C et Al ( 2009 ) have extended GQM attack to find the part of IS undertakings by developing a Undertaking Objectives Measurement Model ( POMM ) [ 44 ] . Robert W Stoddard ( 1996 ) extended the construct of GQM to analyse package dependability [ 46 ] . Janaina et Al ( 1999 ) developed GQM-PLAN tool to develop prosodies for package quality measuring procedure [ 47 ] .
The premiss of GQM is every end an organisation has is associated with a set of inquiries related to that end and these inquiries in bend are answered through quantitative steps ( prosodies )
Harmonizing to Basili et Al ( 1994 ) there are three degrees in GQM theoretical account: “Conceptual, Operational and Quantitative level” each of which separately correlates to Goal, Question and Metric. Brief accounts of each of these follows:
- GOAL – Any organisation holding a officially laid out corporate public presentation direction procedure should hold clearly identified set of ends in order to originate a value measuring procedure. In order to make this, they need to first identify objects for which end is defined. Some of the objects are identified as merchandises ( includes design artefact, demands papers, plans etc ) , processes ( depict the action done on merchandises like proving, planing etc ) and resources ( includes points utilized by procedures like hardware, package, adult male power etc ) . When organisations define a end, they should maintain in head assorted factors that go into the definition of measuring like the intent, issue, procedure and the spectator ( Basili et al 1994 ) .
- QUESTION – Every end is characterized by a set of inquiries and these inquiries help us to measure the quality and extent to which a end has been accomplished.
- METRIC – Prosodies help in replying the inquiries asked above in quantitative manner. They can be subjective or nonsubjective depending on how the measuring procedure is done. For illustration, prosodies defined merely for objects considered are said to be nonsubjective like size of the codification, figure of employees working on a peculiar undertaking, clip elapsed etc. If they measure the qualitative portion so they are subjective like mensurating client satisfaction, efficiency of a plan, throughput of a undertaking etc.
Even though GQM attack is one of the widely recognized attacks for package steps, it needs some alterations in order to accommodate EA value appraisal. Some of the restrictions of GQM are as follows:
- GQM does non explicitly address the issue of mensurating business-IT alliance which is one of the defects when utilizing this attack for EA value appraisal.
- In the traditional GQM attack, ends are being defined for ‘Project ‘ which is the primary object of measuring [ 35 ] . This limits its usage when we define ends for ‘Organization ‘ .
- GQM inherently does non affect any rating techniques or feedback cringle for measuring prosodies. This limits its design for EA plan where rating plays a major function.
In the following subdivision we discuss how we overcome these issues and widen the GQM to construct a conceptual theoretical account to accommodate organisational demands.
6. CONCEPTUAL MODEL FOR EA VALUE MEASUREMENT
There are many industrial studies that have tried to supply a solution for mensurating the value of EA by specifying set of prosodies for EA. To advert some:
- Leganza, G. ( 2002 ) references in one of the Forrester articles that EA prosodies need to be classified under two classs: activity prosodies ( prosodies associated with work load features of EA group ) and value prosodies ( prosodies that show enterprise Architecture value to organisation ) [ 41 ] . There are concerns raised sing this article that activity prosodies do non needfully pass on value of EA or advancement to the fullest extent. And value prosodies can non be straight correlated to patronize ‘s ends if there is no clear linkage between the two [ 53 ] .
- Scott, J. ( 2009 ) in his Forrester article references five indispensable prosodies for EA value measuring as: metric for mensurating scheme alliance, metric to mensurate fiscal stableness, mensurating improved client satisfaction, prosodies related to EA accomplishments and EA procedure betterment [ 52 ] .
We argue that the classs of prosodies provided by these articles are really high degree and do non needfully include all the prosodies used for EA rating. Through our research we are seeking to analyze exhaustively and propose a set of EA value prosodies for turn toing the issue of EA rating in industry. Our undertaking is to supply a solution for organisations to specify prosodies for their EA enterprise and accordingly set up an effectual EA value appraisal plan.
In order to reply our research inquiry 1, we propose a conceptual theoretical account to measure the public presentation of EA. Through our extended literature reappraisal procedure we have identified assorted classs of prosodies as: fiscal, IT, client, provider, business/strategy, growth/innovation, compliance/regulatory. Each class of prosodies in bend consists of single prosodies which can be associated inquiries to associate to a specific end. Through the study we try to capture prosodies under each of these classs and describe them consequently. We believe that holding EA experts as our respondents for the study, we can get at a comprehensive list of EA value prosodies.
Harmonizing to the literature analysis of GQM attack, one of the losing characteristics of this method is it does non turn to the issue of strategic alliance explicitly. In order to mensurate the strategic alliance in peculiar and to mensurate the value of EA plan in general we propose a conceptual theoretical account ( Figure 6 ) which serves both the intent.
Roche et Al ( 1997 ) have extended GQM to concern procedure measuring by proposing a method called “Measurement Application Method” [ 61 ] . Here the writers argue that measuring must be treated every bit non as merchandise / bring forthing prosodies but as a procedure. Without holding clear procedure patterning it is hard to bring forth efficient prosodies. They besides province that bettering the procedure automatically improves the merchandise. Through our treatment we could deduce that, EA plan has been germinating as an enabler of IT. The function played by EA designers is going progressively of import in bettering IT efficiency and effectivity. EA provides way for IT undertakings, helps in cost decrease and reusability of undertakings through shared services. Hence associating EA ends to IT ends of organisation is really important for EA value appraisal. One manner to accomplish this is through metric-based coverage which we have included in our theoretical account.
Another major characteristic of our theoretical account is ‘Business demand based Evaluation ‘ . This is peculiarly of import for any EA plan as measuring the consequences against concern aims through uninterrupted feedback ( iterative procedure ) is an of import measure in the transitional stage of developing to-be architecture from as-is architecture in organisations. There are assorted procedure theoretical accounts suggested which stress the demand for EA direction to be an on-going procedure with uninterrupted feedback for rating [ 45 ] . As shown in the figure, each degree in our theoretical account has feedback web tied to it where the prosodies developed during each loop can be gauged / evaluated depending on the end product produced ( i.e. , how far the ends have been accomplished ) . Further, this information can be used to do determinations sing following set of organisational ends ( to-be province ) .
As shown in the figure 6, GQM attack is applied to assorted degrees of an organisation – Strategic, Tactical, Process/Program degree, Operational level each of which have their ends established in a hierarchal manner in order to turn to organisation as a whole.
Let us seek and understand each bed in the organisational information system of our theoretical account in item:
- Strategic Level: Measuring strategic alliance is made easy and good defined with ends defined at the strategic degree where we have concern and IT strategies clearly laid out. This is depicted explicitly in our theoretical account at the strategic degree. Typically in organisations, concern scheme drives the IT scheme. Business ends and IT ends originate from each of these schemes. Further, each end is linked to a set of inquiries which address long term strategic aims. And these inquiries help in geting at the set of prosodies. Prosodies derived from this bed include business/strategy prosodies.
- Tactical degree: This bed is sometimes referred to as in-between direction. The ends here deal with short or mid term of organisations. Growth/innovation prosodies, compliance/regulatory prosodies of EA undertakings are defined in this peculiar degree.
- Program degree: this layer trades with the ends that enable set uping a sound plan maestro program, puting up developmental activities and concern operations. Financial prosodies refering to EA could be a major portion of prosodies ensuing from this bed.
- Operational degree: this bed is the bottom most bed in organisational system. It deals with ends refering IT and related service operations. This bed is characterized by day-to-day operations and is more structured. Some of the prosodies defined in this bed include IT prosodies, client prosodies, and supplier prosodies.
One other of import characteristic of this model is, since each degree is inter connected, one can see specifying ends sing the full organisation as opposed to the traditional GQM attack where the primary object of measuring is ‘Project ‘ and the ends are defined sing this. This serves the intent of turn toing and accounting for ends sing organisation as a whole.
See a simple illustration to show the working of our theoretical account:
See an operational Goal ‘A ‘ – “to achieve gross revenues effectiveness without dropping monetary value and hence border for items/services sold” by gross revenues squad in organisation ‘X ‘ which has the undermentioned concepts:
Purpose – Achieve/Improve
Issue – without dropping monetary value and border
Object – gross revenues effectivity
Viewer – from gross revenues director ‘s point of view
7. Challenge TO EA VALUE MEASUREMENT
Based on our literature reappraisal of industrial whitepapers and research articles, we have identified that there are many challenges organisations face in EA value measuring procedure. A Forrester study conducted in 2007 is one of the groundss for this. The study was taken by more than 50 European endeavor designers and they revealed that the EA plan was developed based on specific ends but the prosodies developed to accomplish those attempts were unclear or did non be in world [ 54 ] . Majority of the EA squads were non really clear on aims. They besides lacked a formal reappraisal process and blessing procedure for EA prosodies chosen. Some of these issues are direction based and we will seek to turn to these issues through our study inquiries.
8. Decision AND FUTURE WORK
We have suggested a conceptual theoretical account affecting both qualitative and quantitative measuring to measure the value of EA through extended GQM attack. The motive behind this research is the increasing demand for a comprehensive value direction plan in the field of EA. We agree that there could be assorted other techniques that serve similar intent and our method is merely one of such research thoughts. One of the interesting hereafter works of this research would be to look into the concern procedure or concern instance that is involved in developing the prosodies for EA and how it varies with regard to organisational context. And besides look into the cost associated with roll uping EA prosodies informations.
The success of our theoretical account depends on the right set of inquiries asked. The prosodies ensuing from our theoretical account depends on these inquiries and hence we feel that this can be one of the restrictions of our theoretical account. If the company has badly defined ends, so it would ensue in a incorrect set of prosodies or would take to unwanted consequences.
I would wish to thank to my adviser Dr. Brian Cameron for widening his priceless support and counsel in composing this paper. Besides my particular thanks to John Dodd from Industry Advisory Council for sharing his thoughts and lending towards this research.
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