Early Years Childcare Essay


Early acquisition is, rather merely, critical for all kids as it lays the foundation for everything that is to come ( John Hopkins University, n.d. ). Research surveies indicate that the development of active nervous tracts ( Shonkoff and Phillips, 2000 ) in the encephalon chiefly take topographic point before the age of three and that it is during the early childhood period that the encephalon is most receptive to larning ( John Hopkins University, n.d. ; endorsed by State of Victoria, 2010 ). Therefore, it is critical that kids in their early old ages are given chances for societal, physical, emotional and rational development through high quality early old ages proviso which in bend provides the potency for non lone educational but economic and societal benefits ( Barnett, 2008 ).

The manner in which this proviso is facilitated is a grade of how good any state takes attention of its kids inclusive of their wellness and safety, their instruction and socialization, their material security, “… their sense of being loved, valued, and included in households and societies…” ( UNICEF, 2007, p. 4 cited in Aldgate in McCauley and Rose, 2010, p. 23 ). Adults who wish to work with kids in this age group have to have on many ‘different hats’ in order to ease children’s demands which necessitates their holding an apprehension of their function and duties with respect to interacting with kids ( Rose and Rogers, 2012 ). The purpose of this essay is to foreground the most of import elements which need to be considered in the instruction, readying and preparation of those who wish to work within the field of Early Old ages Childcare.

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The Early Old ages Sector – Work and Training

Equally early as 2009-10, the House of Commons recognised the demand for greater cogency in the preparation of instructors for Early Years age group, saying that criterions should be modified in order that this sector was no longer associated with the least skilled portion of the children’s work force ( House of Commons, 2009 -10 ). These remarks concur with the findings of research surveies such as that of Sylva et Al ( 2004 ) which indicated that the quality of the proviso provided for kids is commensurate with the quality of the grownups working in them ( Miller, 2010 in Cable et Al, 2010, p. 55 ). As from September 2014, Early Old ages educator makings have been introduced in the United Kingdom in order to run into the Early Old ages educator standards as set by the National College for Teaching and Leadership. This making operates at Level 3 ( A-level ) and enables practicians to be “… included in the ratios specified in the Early Years Foundation Stage Statutory Framework” ( National College for Leadership & A ; Teaching, 2013, p. 2 ).

This making aims to supply scholars with chances to develop their apprehension of how to back up and advance children’s early instruction and development, to develop accomplishments of be aftering for effectual attention which prepares kids for school, to use appraisal efficaciously, to work with kids in a safe environment which safeguards their public assistance, to develop effectual working patterns and to work in partnership alongside the cardinal individual, other co-workers and parents for the benefit of immature kids ( National College for Leadership & A ; Teaching, 2013 ). A similar making is the CACHE Level 3 Diploma for the Early Old ages Workforce ( Early Old ages Educator- QCF ) which has been developed for usage from September 2014 to supply a high quality making that “… reflects the precedences of practicians and employers to run into the demands of immature children” ( CACHE, 2011, para 4 ). Minimal entry demands include the judicial admission that all entrants to these type of preparation classs must hold GCSEs in English and Mathematics at grade C or above which should hold the consequence of raising the “… overall quality and literacy and numeracy accomplishments of those come ining the workforce” ( Foundation Years, 2014, para 1 ).

Clearly, one time qualified, these persons will work closely with those who have Early Old ages Teaching makings. Those who wish to ship upon deriving Qualified Teacher Status ( QTS ) must hold a minimal criterion of a class C GCSE in English, Maths and a scientific discipline topic every bit good as a grade. Campaigners for instructor preparation must besides hold experience of the school system, over and above holding been a pupil themselves ; most classs stipulate that persons must hold at least 10 yearss experience prior to shiping upon their preparation ( Department for Education, n.d. ). Prospective instructors must besides go through numeracy and literacy accomplishments trials as portion of the application procedure ( Department for Education, n.d.a ) prior to shiping upon Early Years Initial Teacher Training.

There are four ways in which Early Old ages teacher position can be accredited – alumnus entry ( a one twelvemonth full-time class ), graduate employment-based ( a one twelvemonth parttime class for alumnuss in Early Old ages scenes who need farther experience and/or developing to show Teacher Standards ), undergraduate entry ( full-time Level 6 making in an early childhood related capable in concurrence with Early Old ages Teacher position over a 3 or 4 twelvemonth period ) and assessment merely ( alumnuss with important experience of working within the age scope [ 0 – 5 ] over a period of three months ) ( Gov. UK, n.d. ). In add-on to this, a clear set of Teachers’ Standards have been developed by the authorities in order to guarantee that practicians are “… accountable for accomplishing the highest possible criterions in their professional pattern and conduct” ( National College for Teaching & A ; Leadership, 2013a, p. 2 ).

The principle behind these freshly implemented standards and renewed accent upon appropriate makings is the demand to set up an instruction system which allows kids to travel from one stage to another seamlessly, as a consequence of the fact that practicians recognise that acquisition is a continuum from the Early Old ages through to Key Stage 4 and beyond ( National College for Teaching & A ; Leadership, 2013a ). It is based upon the grounds that 94 % of kids who attain good degrees of development by the age of five advancement to accomplishing their expected reading degrees at Key Stage 1 and are statistically five times more likely to accomplish higher degrees ( Department for Education, n.d.c ). It is clear that these degrees of attainment are attributable to the increasing impact that alumnus practicians are holding on the quality and the bringing of Early Old ages proviso across the United Kingdom ( Mathers et Al, 2011 ). Furthermore, Sylva et Al ( 2004 ) contend that there is a direct correlativity between practitioners’ makings, the quality of the acquisition environment and the attainment degrees of kids in a pre-school acquisition scene.

Learning and Play

In order for practicians to make quality larning environments, it is indispensable that they have an apprehension of how kids learn. Learning is rather hard to specify as it can include the procedure of thought and going cognizant, utilizing imaginativeness and creativeness, detecting, hearing, retrieving and job resolution ( Malone, 1991 cited in Ostroff, 2012, p. 2 ). Ostroff ( 2012 ) contends that larning is something which is embedded deep in our mind which is rooted in the demand to absorb new information through actively researching the environment. She believes that the procedure of acquisition is physical in nature, taking topographic point within the centripetal systems which feed information back to the encephalon in order to order an individual’s actions.

Pollard et Al ( 2008, p. 170 ) respect it as the mechanism through which “… cognition, constructs, accomplishments and attitudes are acquired, understood, applied and extended” whilst Pachler and Daly ( 2011, p. 17 ) position it as “… twin procedures of ‘coming to know’ and ‘being able to operate’ successfully in and across new and of all time altering contexts and acquisition infinites, as a procedure of intending making…” that occurs as a consequence of communicating and interaction with others. Learning, for kids, is the development of their thought procedures and knowledge base as a consequence of adding new constructs and thoughts to what they already know ( Wood in Anning, Cullen and Fleer, 2004 ). The means through which immature kids achieve this is drama. This is an umbrella term ( Bruce, 1991 ) which describes a procedure of interaction between different persons which facilitates the development of believing accomplishments ( Dunn, 1993 ; Meadows, 1993 ).

This is regarded as a societal cultural procedure that is impacted upon by the context and the environment in which any interaction takes topographic point ( Robson, 2006 ). It is an built-in portion of children’s development physically, intellectually and emotionally ( Elkind, 2008 ). Play allows kids to garner a wealth of first-hand experience as a consequence of the geographic expedition of the environment in which they find themselves and it is the agencies through which they solve jobs and in so making develop an grasp of the universe around them ( Bruce, 1993 ; Hurst, 1997 ; Phillips and Soltis, 1998 ; Edgington, 2004 ).

Play provides chances for kids to do finds non merely about the universe around them but about themselves. Hughes ( 2006 ) indicates that there are many different types of drama which contribute to children’s development including the usage of linguistic communication, expressive motion, the scrutiny and usage of infinite every bit good as physical ‘rough and tumble’ drama. It is the vehicle through which kids learn to be originative and to use their imaginativeness through interacting and pass oning with others in their group in a assortment of different functions ( Edgington, 2004 ). It is through this vehicle that they learn about cultural conventions ( Wood and Attfield, 2005 ) every bit good as the means through which they are able to develop physically as a consequence of exerting through running about ( Manning-Morton and Thorp, 2003 ). Play besides appears to hold a positive consequence upon children’s emotions ( Russ, 2004 ) and it is the mechanism through which they are able to larn about how to command their ain emotions and derive an grasp of the positions and feelings of others ( Sayeed and Guerin, 2000 ). However, larning through drama can non take topographic point unless there is an grasp and a deep apprehension of its intent and map in children’s lives. It is hence of import that the thought which underlies kid centred acquisition is besides taught to, and understood by prospective practicians.

The impression that kids could make their ain bank of cognition was foremost mooted by Piaget who believed that single kids were immature research workers of their universe who experimented with their environment in order to garner an grasp and apprehension of it ( Moore, 2000 ). He stated that there were distinguishable phases in children’s development ( sensorimotor, 0 – 2 old ages of age ; preoperational, 2 – 6 old ages of age ; concrete operational, 7 – 11 old ages of age ; formal operational, 11+ ) ( Jardine, 2006 ) through which kids developed their beliefs and how to show them ; it besides allowed them to hone their logical thought as a consequence of modifying their beliefs and subsequent actions as a consequence of absorbing new information ( Barnes, 1976 ). Piaget believed that each experience that kids undergo is critical to their development which is an sentiment shared by Vygotsky.

However, it is his contention that acquisition is a societal activity and it is the agencies through which kids develop as a consequence of larning to pass on with each other utilizing both linguistic communication and gesture. He believed that kids learnt as a consequence of detecting the actions and reactions of others and that through collaborating with persons within their environment who are more experient, they are able to accomplish a greater grade of acquisition. The apparent spread between that which kids are able to accomplish entirely and with the assistance of person else he called the Zone of Proximal Development ( ZPD ). It is the map of the practician to make an environment in which kids learn as a consequence of single work and through interacting with those around them in order to develop accomplishments for their hereafter ( Brown, 2006 ).

Good Practice

The creative activity of a vibrant, child-centred acquisition environment is critical in encouraging drama and communicating, a point which is recognised in the government’s bing literacy and numeracy schemes ( Wood, 2004 in Anning, Cullen and Fleer, 2004 ). The drama based course of study as highlighted in the Early Years Foundation Stage ( EYFS ) certification ( 2012, p. 6 ) as being “… necessity for children’s development, constructing their assurance as they learn to research, to believe about jobs, and associate to others.” Children should be provided with chances to larn through drama which they initiate themselves and by prosecuting with activities lead or guided by grownups. It is critical, in making any learning environment, that children’s involvements and demands are catered for, inclusive of the different ways persons learn.

The EYFS provinces that the features of effectual instruction and acquisition are playing and researching ( supplying kids with chances to look into and to see different things ), active acquisition ( kids are motivated to concentrate and be relentless if they enjoy their experiences ) and making and believing critically ( persons are provided with chances to develop their ain thoughts, make connexions between different constructs and to use different schemes to make things ) ( Department for Education, 2012 ). It is the map of the Early Old ages practitioner to take the kid in their acquisition, back uping and assisting them as and where appropriate ( MacShane, 2007 cited in Allen and Whalley, 2010, p. 4 ) which is achieved through the planning and resourcing of suitably disputing larning activities embedded in drama ( Wheeler and Connor, 2009 ). It must be understood that it is be aftering which ensures a continuity of acquisition ( Wood, 2004 in Anning, Cullen and Fleer, 2004 ) and that the acquisition environment which is dependent upon drama will take to persons holding a more rounded educational experience taking to a greater deepness of cognition, understanding and accomplishments ( Moyles and Adams, 2001 ).

In order to ease the rounded development of persons, as highlighted by the EYFS, parents must be involved in the educative procedure so that kids have support for their acquisition in both the place and school environments. The demands of each person must be discussed with parents in order to make a working partnership ( Department for Education, 2012 ) which can further united attacks towards learning and larning to guarantee that kids are able to maximize their possible. Families can go involved in a figure of activities to promote their child’s acquisition ; for illustration, reading with kids, learning baby’s room rimes, learning vocals, rehearsing letters and Numberss, pulling and picture, sing the library, taking kids on twenty-four hours trips and prosecuting in drama with their friends at place ( Sylva et al, 2003 ). If parents are encouraged to take an active function in their child’s instruction they can hold the consequence of heightening their child’s rate of development and advancement ( Wheeler and Connor, 2009 ), can guarantee that kids are to the full cognizant of their cultural background and can further a positive attitudes towards diverseness.

Inclusion and Cultural Awareness

All prospective pedagogues need to be cognizant of the thought of inclusion and inclusive pattern. This involves patterning positive behavior towards everyone no affair their background, their abilities or their race in order that everyone is seen as being of equal value. It is critical that every kid is provided with equal chances to larn about and see their civilization and that they face no barriers to their acquisition. Furthermore, it is important that diverseness in all its signifiers is a affair for jubilation ( Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education [ CSIE ], 2014 ). In pattern, this necessitates practicians and schools supplying a course of study that allows complete entree for all in order that they are able to see success to the extent of their ability ( Mittler, 2000 ).

It is besides every bit of import that kids are taught the accomplishments that enable them to stay safe and healthy, to accomplish everything that they are able, to do a valuable part to society and to achieve fiscal stableness in the hereafter ( Every Child Matters Green Paper, 2003 ). Within the EYFS, practicians are expected to handle every kid as being alone, to develop positive relationships with every person in their attention, to make environments which enable them to larn as an person and as a member of a group whilst admiting that every individual develops and learns at a different rate but still needs to be provided with activities that cater for their demands ( Department for Education, 2012 ).


Clearly, there are a figure of of import elements which contribute towards the instruction, readying and preparation of those who wish to go Early Old ages pedagogues. It is critical that they have an apprehension of the importance of this stage of a child’s instruction and the duty that is commensurate with working to provide for their demands. Prospective Early Old ages practicians must be suitably qualified and have an grasp of how kids learn. They must develop the ability to program activities which cater for the demands of every kid in their attention and an ability to use different attacks towards learning and larning. It is of import that they are able to pass on with non merely the kids in the schoolroom but besides their parents and develop positive working relationships with them in order that they feel valued and involved in a partnership towards the instruction of their kid. In the schoolroom, they must be able to supply support, attention and encouragement every bit good as positive feedback to every kid in order that they are able to experience positive about themselves and their acquisition.

It is of the extreme importance that each prospective pedagogue is willing to happen out approximately and cater for the differing cultural demands of those with whom they are covering and guarantee that each single kid and their household experience valued members of the community. They besides need to show the ability to reflect upon their public presentation, show determination doing accomplishments, the ability to be a function theoretical account, to take and back up others, instil values within their on the job environment and work aptly to consequence alteration ( Whalley et al, 2008 cited in Allen and Whalley, 2010, p. 2 ). In short, they must show a willingness to cultivate an apprehension of how kids develop and learn, how practicians are able to back up and heighten that procedure every bit good as raising and cultivate their beliefs about what instruction should be for kids, and how that vision should be supported ( Stewart and Pugh, 2007 cited in Allen and Whalley, 2010, p. 4 ).


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