Ecological Succession

Do ecosystems have limited or unlimited resources?
limiting factors
what are the things that limit the size of a population?
We will write a custom essay sample on
Ecological Succession
or any similar topic only for you
Order now
abiotic and biotic
what two kinds of limiting factors are there?
organisms compete for resources
What happens when there are limiting factors?
carrying capacity
What is the number of organisms of any single species that an ecosystem can support called?
birth, death, number of individuals that enter/leave population
What are three factors that can affect population size?
Does human population growth tend to increase or decrease over time?
birth rates, death rates, and age structure of a population
What helps predict why some countries have high growth rates while other countries grow more slowly?
exponential growth
what is it called when population grows slowly at first but then accelerates quickly?
logistic growth
what is it called when the population reaches its carrying capacity?
ecological succession
What is a change in a community over time/when species replace each other over time referred to as?
on bare rock surfaces with no soil
where does primary succession occur?
when disturbance changes community without getting rid of soil
when does secondary succession occur?
climax community
eventually succession leads to formation of a stable community called a __________.
pioneer organisms
What are the first organisms to reoccupy an area which had been disturbed by a disruption called?
What kind of succession is from bare rock to forest?
what kind of succession is from lake to forest?
the root system of larger plants
In primary succession, as the depth of soil increases it can support ___________.
sediments from erosion
In secondary succession, the lake will gradually accumulate __________.
organic debris from plants and dead organisms.
In secondary succession there is a buildup of ________ and ________.
swamp; mature forest
In secondary succession, as the lake fills, it becomes shallower turning into a ____ and then a ______.
any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms
limiting factors
living things
any nonliving component of an environment
orderly, natural changes, and species replacements that take place in communities of an ecosystem over time
Living and nonliving things in an environment, together with their interactions
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
Succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists. Takes a long time.
primary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil. Takes a shorter time than primary succession. Examples of things start secondary succession: lava flow, fires, avalanches, humans
secondary succession
links all the food chains in an ecosystem together
food web
the increasing and decreasing of a population
population growth
non-living factors including temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks and soil
abiotic factors
the living things in an ecosystem: animals, human
biotic factors
Growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate.
exponential growth
largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
carrying capacity
the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions
limiting factor that depends on population size: such as competition, disease, and parasites
density dependent factors
Limiting factor that affects all populations in similiar ways, regardless of population size. Such as weather and natural disasters.
density independent factors
Last community in a succession, like hardwood trees
climax community
First species to populate an area during primary succession.
pioneer species
an organism that eats another organism
orderly changes in an environment
when a community reaches equilibrium and there are no significant changes in the environment
climax community
the 1st organism to appear during primary succession, example is lichen
pioneer species
the metabolic process by which carbon dioxide is given off by most organisms
Organic matter being used as materials for combustion after being in the ground for millions of years (examples: coal, oil, natural gas)
fossil fuels
The process by which water enters the atmosphere from a lake, ocean, river, etc.
The process of evaporation from a plant
The process by which water (in many forms) falls from the air
The process of forming a cloud from water from evaporation
The burning of organic material that puts carbon into the air
When an ecosystem has many varieties of plants and animals.
Occurs when an ecosystem becomes unstable; It is a gradual and natural change in an ecosystem over hundreds or thousands of years.
Ecological Succession
Begins in an area without soil; or in an area of newly exposed rock, sand , or lava; or any area that has not been occupied previously by a living community.
Primary Succession
The first organisms to grow in a bare area such as a rock. Examples include mossess and lichens.
Pioneer Species
A tiny organism that often is both algae and fungi that help to break down the bare rock into soil particles during primary succession.
The last stage of succession when an ecosystem has regained its equilibrium, and is now both stable and balanced.
Climax Community
Occurs when a stable and balanced ecosystem (climax community) is disturbed. This disturbance could be in the form a forest fire, flood, change in climate, volcanic eruption, or another disaster.
Secondary Succession
Bare rock; Pioneer species (soil); Moss; Grasses; Flowers and shrubs, Climax community (forest).
Primary Succession Stages
Disturbance; grasses; shrubs; trees (climax community).
Secondary Succession Stages
An ecological community made up of all the living populations in an area along with the nonliving parts of that environment.
average of 84 cm per year
Blackland Prairie-Prairies and lakes -precipitation
soil-rich black clay soil
grasslands, few scattered woodlands, oak, elm, cottonwood trees, blue stem grasses
Blackland Prairie-Prairies and lakes-Type of Soil/Plants
average of 20-50 cm per year
Big Bend Country-precipitation
average of 127 cm per year
Gulf Coast-precipitation
average of 30-75 cm per year
Hill Country-precipitation
average of 54 cm per year
Panhandle Plains-precipitation
average of 117 cm per year
Piney Woods-precipitation
average of 50-80 cm per year
South Texas Plains-precipitation
short grasses, cactus, few trees
Big Bend Country-Type of Soil/Plants
soil-sandy, rocky soil
pine, elm, oak, grasses
Gulf Coast-Type of Soil/Plants
soil-sandy, rocky soil
pecan trees, switch grass, cattails
Hill Country-Type of Soil/Plants
soil-neutral to slightly alkaline soil with coarse sands and clay
grass, few trees, cactus, cedar, mesquite
Panhandle Plains-Type of Soil/Plants
soil-black clay, acidic sandy soil
ash, elm,mesquite, cypress trees
Piney Woods-Type of Soil/Plants
soil-acidic, rocky soil
honey mesquite trees, sugar berry, brushes, shrubs
South Texas Plains-Type of Soil/Plants

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out