Ecology Final Exam

Which statement about changing ecosystem properties during succession is false?

A) biomass increases

B) community respiration increases

C) primary production increases

D) soil depths decrease

E) stream spiraling lengths decrease

D
A set of species that have similar ways of making their living make up a __________.
Guild
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A relatively discrete ecological event that kills or damages organisms or alters the physical or biological environment is called a __________.
Disturbance
How does canopy shading influence succession of pines and deciduous trees in the Piedmont of North Carolina?

A) Canopy shading by deciduous trees is required for growth of pines.

B) Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents establishment of pines until late in succession.

C) Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents persistence of pines in late successional stages.

D) Canopy shading by pines prevents establishment of deciduous trees.

E) Canopy shading by pines kills deciduous trees that were established early in succession.

C
In the area of Glacier Bay, Alaska, the climax community is

A) hemlock forest.

B) muskeg.

C) hemlock forest on steep slopes, and muskeg on shallower slopes.

D) hemlock forest on shallow slopes, and muskeg on steeper slopes.

E) Dryas mats with scattered alders and cottonwoods.

C
Prairie dog disturbances maximize plant diversity

A) by burrowing and grazing.

B) by creating patches open for dispersal.

C) by allowing good competitors and good colonizers to coexist in the grassland.

D) at intermediate levels.

E) All of the choices are correct.

E
2. In most ecological communities, we find

a) more rare species than moderately common or very common ones.
b) more very common species than moderately common or rare ones.
c) more moderately common species than rare or very common ones.
d) roughly equal proportions of rare, moderately common, and very common species.
e) no rare species – apparently “rare” species are artifacts of incomplete sampling.

C
In the Grass Park Experiment, researchers have fertilized a grassland at the Rothamsted Experimental Station in Great Britain since 1856. Sampling for species diversity through time shows that rank-abundance curves have gotten __________ over time, indicating _________ species evenness.

A) steeper; increasing

B) steeper; decreasing

C) more shallow; increasing

D) more shallow; decreasing

E) Rank-abundance curves have not changed through time.

B
Disturbances can alter a community’s stable environmental conditions, also called its

A) frequency.

B) intensity.

C) heterogeneity.

D) equilibrium.

E) niche space.

D
Given two habitats, Habitat 1 and Habitat 2, which habitat would have greater species diversity?
Habitat 1: Species A, 10; Species B, 10; Species C, 10
Habitat 2: Species A, 10; Species B, 10; Species C, 10; Species D, 10; Species E, 10

A) Habitat 1

B) Habitat 2

C) neither; Habitat 1 and Habitat 2 have equal diversity

D) neither; Habitat 1 and Habitat 2 have equal species richness

E) neither; Habitat 1 and Habitat 2 have equal species evenness

B
Higher species evenness in a community can be measured by a shallower slope on a rank-abundance curve. T/F
T
During primary succession at Glacier Bay, species diversity continues to increase throughout succession for which group(s) of plants?

A) tall shrubs and trees

B) low shrubs and herbs

C) mosses

D) lichens

E) all groups of plants

B
Robert MacArthur’s study of forest warblers suggested that

A) fewer warbler species can survive in more complex habitats.

B) warbler species diversity increases with habitat complexity.

C) warbler species diversity decreases with habitat complexity.

D) most warblers have rather similar foraging niches.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B
Joseph Connell’s “intermediate disturbance hypothesis” proposes that

A) species diversity is highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.

B) species diversity is lowest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.

C) population growth rates are highest at intermediate frequencies of disturbance.

D) competitive exclusion is fastest at intermediate levels of disturbance.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A
In the Amazon forest, slight changes in soil properties tend to be correlated with

A) similarly slight differences in plant communities.

B) no detectable differences in plant communities.

C) dramatic differences in plant communities.

D) dramatic differences in plant communities only if the soil property in question is moisture.

E) dramatic differences in plant communities only if the soil property in question is bedrock type

C
___________ occurs in areas where disturbance destroyed the previous community without destroying the soil.

A) Pioneer succession

B) Climax succession

C) Secondary succession

D) Primary succession

E) Disturbance succession

C
The change in plant, animal, and microbial communities in an area following disturbance or the creation of new substrate is called _________.
Succession
A simple tree community consists of 4 maples, 3 oaks, and 1 alder. The species richness of this community is

A) 0.42.

B) 0.97.

C) 1.5.

D) 3.

E) not possible to calculate from the data given.

D
A community is defined as

A) a group of organisms that all make their living in a similar way.

B) a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.

C) the portion of a defined area that supports life.

D) a group of subpopulations living in separate locations with active exchange of individuals among subpopulations.

E) an association of interacting species inhabiting a defined area.

E
On intertidal boulders in California, the diversity of diatoms and algae

A) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.

B) increases steadily through succession.

C) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.

D) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.

E) first decreases, but later increases.

A
In the Piedmont of North Carolina, as plant diversity increases through secondary succession, bird diversity

A) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.

B) increases steadily through succession.

C) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.

D) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.

E) first decreases, but later increases.

D
During primary succession at Glacier Bay, overall plant species diversity

A) first increases rapidly, then levels off.

B) increases steadily throughout succession.

C) increases slowly at first, then more rapidly after a few hundred years.

D) peaks at intermediate successional stages.

E) decreases steadily throughout succession.

A
In the “transition phase” of forest succession,

A) biomass increases rapidly as the community reorganizes.

B) biomass declines from an earlier peak.

C) biomass stays constant, but species composition turns over rapidly.

D) nutrient export increases dramatically and soils become depleted.

E) one climax community gives way to another.

B
In plants, a combination of growth dynamics and structure is known as ____?

A) cohort

B) guild

C) life form

D) phenotype

E) B&D

C
Species diversity is composed of ______?

A) Number of species present

B) Population of members of species present

C) A & B

D) Not listed

C
A ___________ is integral to the health of a ecosystem.

A) dominant species

B) Lotka species

C) Keystone species

D) Tertiary consumer

C
Preston graphed abundance of species in collections as frequency distribution and these resembled:

A) bell-shaped curves

B) sigmoidal tendencies

C) transdential convergences

A
Succession can be defined by all the following EXCEPT:

A) an orderly and directional change in plant communities

B) a predictable change in plant communities

C) seasonal changes in plant communities

D) changes in animal communities taken place in a span of time from 1 -500 years

E) B & D

C
Communities where small, random changes in plant numbers occur around some long-term mean:

A) Apex community

B) Climax community

C) Seral community

D) Typical community

B
Begins with the germination of r-selected species from seeds already in soil:

A) Pioneer succession

B) Autogenic succession

C) Primary succession

D) Xerarch succession

E) Secondary succession

E
____________ begins with a body of water, progresses to a marsh-like state, and finally to a stand of native vegetation:

A) Hydrarch succession

B) Oldfield succession

C) Xerarch succession

A
Allogenic succession includes all the following changes except:

A) those caused by long-term drought

B) those caused by changes in soil due to plants

C) those caused by introduction of exotics

D) those caused by change in sea level or topography

B
Species associated with ecotone are _____ species.
edge
Species not found in ecotones are _______ species.
interior
Physical and biological transitional habitat between two ecosystems.
ecotone(s)
Heterogeneous area composed of several ecosystems.
landscape
On islands and habitat patches on continents, species richness _____ with area and _________ with isolation:

A) decreases, stays the same

B) increases, increases

C) decreases, increases

D) increases, decreases

D
4. A simple tree community consists of 4 maples, 3 oaks, and 1 alder. The Shannon-Wiener diversity of this community is

a) 0.42.
b) 0.97.
c) 1.5.
d) 3.
e) not possible to calculate from the data given.

B
6. Estimates of the number of species present in a community

a) are not affected by the sampling effort devoted to estimation.
b) usually require only limited effort by ecologists.
c) can usually be made more easily by sampling only a single indicator taxon.
d) are all that is necessary to calculate species diversity.
e) must, to be useful, be based on standardized sampling techniques.

E
8. Niches of single-celled algae, such as diatoms, seem most often to be distinguished by their requirements for

a) different combinations of inorganic nutrients.
b) different light environments.
c) different water-flow environments.
d) different water temperatures.
e) Most single-celled algae have indistinguishable niches.

A
Concentrations of inorganic nutrients typically don’t vary much across the surface of a single lake. T/F
F
In terrestrial soils, local patches with high water availability and local patches with high nitrate availability often show rather little overlap. T/F
T
In Carl Jordan’s studies of Amazon forest diversity, the highest tree diversity was found on soils with

a) very high fertility.
b) moderate fertility.
c) very low fertility.
d) either high or low, but not moderate, fertility.
e) There was no relationship between diversity and soil fertility.

C
In soil and water fertilization experiments, increasing fertilization tends to reduce the number of limiting resources for plant growth until a single resource limits growth of all species. This “ultimate” limiting resource tends to be

a) carbon.
b) oxygen.
c) phosphorus.
d) nitrogen.
e) light.

E
Winter storms can affect diversity on intertidal boulders because

a) cold water temperatures kill algae and invertebrates.
b) some invertebrates are more vulnerable than others to being dislodged by currents.
c) dessication of exposed invertebrates by unusually high winds is an important source of mortality.
d) strong storm waves overturn boulders and thereby accelerate competitive exclusion.
e) strong storm waves overturn boulders and thereby remove competitive dominants.

E
In lake sediment records from rain forests in the Darien region of Panama, which of the following increase at the onset of Native American agricultural use, 4,000 years ago?

a) corn pollen
b) particulate carbon
c) nitrate levels
d) all of the above
e) both (a) and (b)

E
We have good evidence of human disturbance in the New World tropics beginning approximately

a) 400 years ago.
b) 4,000 years ago.
c) 11,000 years ago.
d) 110,000 years ago.
e) 3 million years ago.

C
European chalk grasslands

a) were a common habitat type before being largely destroyed by human disturbance.
b) have only become common since human disturbance intensified about 10,000 years ago.
c) grow on thick, fertile soils associated with deeply buried chalk deposits.
d) are a very low diversity habitat.
e) are often destroyed by farmers planting crops.

B
Dominance of chalk grasslands by the grass Brachypodium is increased by

a) protection of grasslands in undisturbed nature reserves.
b) early summer mowing for hay.
c) cessation of fertilizer application.
d) grazing by cattle and sheep.
e) none of the above

A
Ecologists summarize feeding interactions among species in a community when they compile a _________.
Food web
Teja Tscharntke’s studies of the food web associated with Phragmites reeds revealed that

a) only a single parasitoid species can persist exploiting a single species of herbivore.
b) only a single herbivore species can persist attacking a single species of plant.
c) predation by birds actually protects herbivores, because the birds feed on parasitoid-infested herbivore galls but uninfested galls.
d) within local food webs, all interactions tend to be of roughly the same strength.
e) recognizing variation in interaction strength can greatly simplify the depiction of a food web.

E
A keystone species is one

a) that makes up a very large proportion of total community biomass.
b) that feeds on a very large fraction of all available prey species.
c) that is fed on by a very large fraction of all predators in its community.
d) whose feeding activities have a disproportionate effect on the structure of its community.
e) that occupies the lowest level (the base) of the food web.

D
In zooplankton and intertidal communities, as the overall diversity of the food web increases, the proportion of predators in the web

a) tends to decrease.
b) tends to increase.
c) first decreases, then increases again.
d) first increases, then decreases again.
e) stays about the same.

B
In Robert Paine’s studies of the Washington intertidal community, which organism proved to be a keystone species?

a) the whelk Thais
b) acorn barnacles
c) chitons
d) the starfish Pisaster
e) limpets

D
Removal of Pisaster starfish in the Washington intertidal leads to a decline in diversity of other invertebrate species. T/F
T
In the Washington intertidal community studied by Robert Paine, the most important limiting resource is

a) space.
b) light.
c) plankton.
d) nitrogen.
e) water.

A
In Jane Lubchenko’s tidepool system, removal of the herbivorous snail Littorina led to

a) dominance of the tidepools by the unpalatable alga Chondrus.
b) replacement of Chondrus by the more palatable alga Enteromorpha.
c) replacement of Chondrus by other algae better adapted to herbivory.
d) replacement of Enteromorpha by other algae that are better competitors.
e) no marked change in the algal community.

B
Which statement best sums up the relationship between density of the herbivorous snail Littorina and the diversity of algae in its habitat?

a) highest diversity when Littorina are abundant, in all habitats
b) highest diversity when Littorina are rare, in all habitats
c) highest diversity when Littorina densities are intermediate, in all habitats
d) highest diversity in tidepools when Littorina are rare, but in emergent habitats when Littorina densities are intermediate
e) highest diversity in tidepools when Littorina densities are intermediate, but in tidepools when Littorina are rare

E
Keystone species

a) appear to be common in terrestrial systems, but not in aquatic ones.
b) appear to be common in both terrestrial and aquatic systems.
c) appear to be common in aquatic systems, but not in terrestrial ones.
d) by definition, cannot occur in aquatic systems.
e) by definition, cannot occur in terrestrial systems.

B
In Swedish and North American forests, the exclusion of birds from small forest plots

a) suppressed insectivorous reptiles and therefore led to increased insect densities.
b) led to higher insect densities, and therefore enhanced plant pollination.
c) lowered densities of insect herbivores, and therefore reduced leaf damage to shrubs.
d) increased densities of insect herbivores, and therefore increased leaf damage to shrubs.
e) increased densities of insect herbivores, but with no detectable consequences for plants.

D
We can infer a statistically significant difference between two population means when, approximately,

a) our estimates of the two means are different.
b) the variances of the two means do not overlap.
c) the standard deviations of the two means do not overlap.
d) the 95% confidence intervals for the two means do not overlap.
e) the 95% confidence intervals for the two means are of different widths.

D
Which statement about Nile perch in Lake Victoria is most likely true?

a) Nile perch are native to Lake Victoria.
b) Introduction of Nile perch to Lake Victoria increased fish diversity in the lake.
c) Introduction of Nile perch to Lake Victoria wiped out all native fish species in the lake.
d) Introduction of Nile perch to Lake Victoria immediately decreased fish diversity in the lake.
e) Introduction of Nile perch to Lake Victoria decreased fish diversity in the lake, but only after many years of no apparent effect.

E
Cleaner wrasse are mutualists of other coral reef fishes. What benefit do they provide to those other fish?

a) They suppress diseases because they consume carcasses of dead fish.
b) They keep water oxygenated because they consume organic debris before it can rot.
c) They keep fish relatively free of externally-feeding parasites.
d) They maintain fish habitat by keeping corals free of encrusting algae.
e) They reduce fish mortality by repelling large vertebrate predators.

C
The presence of cleaner wrasse enhances diversity of fishes on coral reefs. T/F
T
Invasive Argentine ants have an important effect on community structure of the South African fynbos because

a) they do not disperse seeds, while native ants do.
b) they disperse seeds more effectively than do native ants.
c) they disperse seeds in different spatial patterns than do native ants.
d) as keystone species, they greatly increase the local diversity of native ants.
e) Argentine ants have invaded many communities, but not the South African fynbos.

A
The impact of Argentine ants on species diversity in the South African fynbos is most dramatic following fires. T/F
T
Human hunters in the Amazon rain forests kill

a) large numbers of almost every mammal and bird species, for food and for skins.
b) large numbers of the smallest mammal and bird species, which are easiest to catch.
c) large numbers primarily of the largest mammal and bird species.
d) large numbers of mammals and birds, but do not greatly affect population densities.
e) only a few mammals and birds, but because humans are keystone species, these few kills greatly reduce population densities.

C
The use of predaceous weaver ants to control pest insects in citrus orchards was first recorded in

a) California in the 1950s.
b) Florida in the 1920s.
c) Mexico in Mayan times.
d) China in the 17th century.
e) China in the 4th century.

E
Weaver ants provide effective protection of citrus trees because they

a) remove harmful soft-scale insects (mealybugs).
b) remove all plant-feeding insects.
c) cultivate soft-scale insects, but do not allow them to feed on the trees.
d) cultivate soft-scale insects, but still allow them to be attacked by parasitoids and predators.
e) none of the above

D
The total amount of energy fixed by autotrophs in an ecosystem is called ________________.
Gross Primary Production
Net primary productivity is the primary productivity of an ecosystem, after subtracting energy lost in

a) dead plant tissues.
b) inedible plant tissues.
c) respiration by primary producers.
d) respiration by primary consumers.
e) inefficiencies of photosynthesis.

C
Primary producers make up the first, or basal, ____________ in most food webs.
trophic level(s)
Carnivores that feed on herbivores (or on detritivores) are referred to as

a) primary producers.
b) primary consumers.
c) secondary consumers.
d) parasitoids.
e) keystone species.

C
5. “Actual evapotranspiration” for an ecosystem refers to the amount of water that

a) is taken up from soils by plant roots.
b) evaporates from soils.
c) is transpired by plants.
d) evaporates from soils plus the amount transpired by plants.
e) could evaporate from soils, if they were kept wet at all times.

D
The terrestrial ecosystems with highest primary production are usually those that are

a) warm and wet.
b) warm and dry.
c) cool and wet.
d) cool and dry.
e) intermediate in both temperature and moisture.

A
Leibig’s “Law of the Minimum” stated that

a) the lowest primary productivity occurs in the coldest ecosystems.
b) primary productivity is typically controlled entirely by climate.
c) primary productivity is typically controlled by both climate and soil nutrients.
d) a single soil nutrient typically limits primary productivity.
e) the highest primary productivity occurs at the lowest trophic level.

D
The low productivity of arctic tundra ecosystems results

a) entirely because tundra has low evapotranspiration.
b) entirely because tundra soils are low in nutrients.
c) entirely because tundra soils retain water poorly.
d) because tundra soils have low nutrients and retain water poorly.
e) because tundra has low evapotranspiration and low-nutrient soils.

E
Among lakes, primary productivity seems to be mainly controlled by levels of

a) light.
b) nutrients.
c) temperature.
d) pollutants.
e) none of the above

B
Among marine systems, primary productivity is highest in tropical portions of the major oceans, far from terrestrial influences. T/F
F
The major source of nutrients in surface waters of the open ocean is

a) mixing of subsurface with surface waters.
b) deposition from the atmosphere.
c) addition by ocean currents bringing nutrients from nearshore waters.
d) decomposition of dead organic material.
e) photosynthesis by planktonic algae.

A
Experimental fertilizations in the Baltic Sea suggest that primary productivity there is normally limited by

a) phosphorus.
b) nitrogen.
c) iron.
d) potassium.
e) temperature.

B
The influences of nutrients and temperatures on ecosystem properties are part of what ecologists call “bottom-up controls.” T/F
T
The “trophic cascade hypothesis” emphasizes the role of

a) nutrients in controlling primary productivity.
b) nutrients in controlling primary consumption.
c) grazing by herbivores in controlling primary productivity.
d) grazing by herbivores in controlling ecosystem nutrient levels.
e) primary productivity in controlling primary and secondary consumption.

C
In Stephen Carpenter and colleagues’ manipulations of lake food webs, increased densities of adult largemouth bass led to

a) increased rates of grazing on phytoplankton by zooplankton.
b) decreased rates of grazing on phytoplankton by zooplankton.
c) increased population sizes of planktivorous fish.
d) increased consumption of zooplankton by planktivorous fish.
e) no noticeable effects on food web structure.

A
On the Serengeti plain of eastern Africa, large grazing mammals consume what fraction of total primary production?

a) a negligibly small amount
b) about 10%
c) about 25%
d) about 66%
e) nearly all

D
On the Serengeti plain of eastern Africa, intensive grazing by large mammals greatly decreases primary productivity in the grazed areas. T/F
F
In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the largest “standing stock” of energy is represented by biomass of

a) living plant tissues.
b) dead plant tissues.
c) invertebrate herbivores.
d) vertebrate herbivores.
e) vertebrate carnivores.

B
In Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, the fraction of available solar energy fixed by primary producers is

a) approximately 2%
b) approximately 15%
c) approximately 50%
d) nearly all of it
e) primary produces do not fix solar energy

A
Nitrogen stable isotopes are useful tools for the study of food web structure because isotope ratios

a) change in predictable ways across trophic levels.
b) often vary among alternative food sources for a consumer.
c) for a predator exactly match the isotope ratio in its prey.
d) both (a) and (b)
e) both (b) and (c)

D
An increase about 1,000 years ago in 13C content of human collagen from archeological sites in eastern North America probably records

a) replacement of vegetables and grains in the diet by meat.
b) replacement of corn by beans and squash in the diet.
c) increasing consumption of corn.
d) increasing levels of 13C in soils.
e) increasing levels of 13C in the atmosphere.

C
Phosphorus is an important constituent of

a) DNA.
b) bone tissue.
c) RNA.
d) ATP.
e) all of the above

E
The largest reservoir of phosphorus in most ecosystems is phosphorus

a) in the atmosphere.
b) dissolved in water.
c) in rocks and sediments.
d) bound in animal tissues.
e) bound in plant tissues.

C
The major pool of nitrogen in the atmosphere is the direct source of nitrogen for most organisms. T/F
F
“Nitrogen fixation” refers to the conversion of

a) carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.
b) nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).
c) ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).
d) ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).
e) ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-).

B
Which of the following is NOT an agent of nitrogen fixation?

a) mycorrhizal fungi
b) cyanobacteria (blue-green algae)
c) bacteria associated with legume roots
d) lightning
e) actinomycete bacteria associated with alder roots

A
“Nitrification” is the conversion of

a) carbon compounds to nitrogen compounds.
b) nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH2).
c) ammonia (NH3) to nitrogen gas (N2).
d) ammonium (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3-).
e) ammonium (NH4+) to nitrite (NO2-).

D
The “denitrification” reaction converts nitrate (NO3-) to nitrogen gas (N2) under aerobic conditions. T/F
F
The release of ammonium (NH4+) from decaying organic material is called ____________.
ammonification
A major perturbation of the carbon cycle by human activity is associated with

a) release of carbon from carbonate rocks.
b) release of carbon from fossil fuel deposits.
c) removal of carbon from the atmosphere in the industrial production of fertilizers.
d) accelerated removal of carbon from the atmosphere by forests.
e) respiratory production of CO2 by the large human population.

B
The release of nutrients from organic material in inorganic form is called _____________.
mineralization
The rate of decomposition of leaf litter in woodlands can be strongly influenced by

a) moisture.
b) nitrogen content.
c) leaf toughness.
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

D
High soil nutrient content usually leads to slower decomposition, because soil organisms have less need for nutrients of organic origin. T/F
F
In aquatic ecosystems, leaves with high lignin content decompose

a) rapidly because lignin is a nutrient-rich compound.
b) rapidly because lignin enhances colonization by decomposing fungi.
c) slowly because lignin reduces colonization by decomposing fungi.
d) slowly because lignin is a carbon-poor compound.
e) slowly because lignin-containing leaves sink rapidly.

C
In aquatic ecosystems, the major agents of decomposition are

a) aquatic fungi.
b) bacteria.
c) algae.
d) detritivorous fish.
e) piscivorous fish.

A
Which of the following is NOT an assumption of the t-test?

a) Each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution.
b) The two populations being compared have equal variances.
c) The two populations being compared have equal means.
d) All of each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution, the two populations being compared have equal variances, and the two populations being compared have equal means are assumptions.
e) None of each sample is drawn from a population with a normal distribution, the two populations being compared have equal variances, or the two populations being compared have equal means are assumptions.

C
The combination of nutrient cycling and downstream movement of nutrients in streams is called ____________.
nutrient spiralling
Spiralling length of nutrients in streams can be calculated as S = VT. In this equation,

a) V represents nutrient concentration, and T represents water temperature.
b) V represents the speed of water flow, and T represents water temperature.
c) V represents the speed of water flow, and T represents the time required for nutrients to cycle.
d) V represents nutrient retentiveness, and T represents the time required for nutrients to cycle.
e) V represents nutrient retentiveness, and T represents species diversity.

C
Streams with higher densities of stream invertebrates would be expected to have shorter spiralling lengths. T/F
T
In stream ecosystems, rates of leaf breakdown

a) increase with shredder species diversity.
b) decrease with shredder species diversity.
c) peak at intermediate shredder diversity.
d) are lowest at intermediate shredder species diversity.
e) are unrelated to shredder species diversity.

A
Pocket gophers change the nitrogen cycle in prairies because they

a) bring nitrogen-rich subsoil to the surface.
b) bring nitrogen-poor subsoil to the surface.
c) bury nitrogen-rich organic material in their burrows.
d) cultivate nitrogen-fixing bacteria in burrow chambers.
e) selectively remove nitrogen-fixing legumes from plant communities.

B
Invasive Acacia species in the South African fynbos were introduced

a) accidentally in contaminated agricultural seed.
b) accidentally in ships ballast.
c) deliberately to provide cattle forage.
d) deliberately to stabilize sand dunes.
e) deliberately by ecosaboteurs.

D
Effects of introduced Acacia in the South African fynbos include

a) reduced rates of decomposition.
b) reduced rates of plant litter production.
c) increased soil nitrogen content.
d) increasing soil erosion.
e) all of the above

C
Clearcutting at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest sharply

a) increased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.
b) decreased export of nitrate (NO3-) in stream water.
c) increased rates of denitrification in soils.
d) decreased deposition of ammonia (NH3) from the atmosphere.
e) increased deposition of ammonia (NH3) from the atmosphere.

A
In Judy Meyer and Gene Likens’ study of phosphorus in Bear Brook,

a) most phosphorus inputs occurred during spring snowmelt.
b) phosphorus inputs were nearly constant over the year.
c) most phosphorus losses occurred during autumn leaf fall.
d) most phosphorus losses occurred during storms and snowmelt.
e) phosphorus losses were nearly constant over the year.

D
Nitrogen enrichment of ecosystems by human activity is largely driven by

a) addition of nitrogen fertilizers.
b) nitrogen pollution from burning of fossil fuels.
c) nitrogen fixation by bacteria in landfills.
d) Both addition of nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen pollution from burning of fossil fuels.
e) Both addition of nitrogen fertilizers and nitrogen fixation by bacteria in landfills.

D
The first plants in a successional sequence are called the ______________.
pioneer community
“Primary” succession is succession that

a) involves establishment of primary producers where there were none.
b) leads to establishment of a climax community dominated by primary producers.
c) occurs on newly exposed geologic substrates, not organic soil.
d) occurs where organic soils have been exposed but not destroyed by disturbance.
e) occurs after fire or agricultural abandonment.

C
In the area of Glacier Bay, Alaska, the climax community is

a) hemlock forest.
b) muskeg.
c) hemlock forest on steep slopes, and muskeg on shallower slopes.
d) hemlock forest on shallow slopes, and muskeg on steeper slopes.
e) Dryas mats with scattered alders and cottonwoods.

C
The pioneer species at Glacier Bay, Alaska include

a) mosses.
b) Dryas.
c) alders.
d) horsetails.
e) hemlocks.

D
In secondary succession on abandoned fields in the Piedmont of North Carolina, important pioneer species include

a) horsetails.
b) Dryas.
c) broomsedge (Andropogon).
d) pine seedlings.
e) crabgrass and horseweed.

E
How does canopy shading influence succession of pines and deciduous trees in the Piedmont of North Carolina?

a) Canopy shading by deciduous trees is required for growth of pines.
b) Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents establishment of pines until late in succession.
c) Canopy shading by deciduous trees prevents persistence of pines in late successional stages.
d) Canopy shading by pines prevents establishment of deciduous trees.
e) Canopy shading by pines kills deciduous trees that were established early in succession.

C
In the Piedmont of North Carolina, as plant diversity increases through secondary succession, bird diversity

a) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.
b) increases steadily through succession.
c) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.
d) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.
e) first decreases, but later increases.

D
On intertidal boulders in California, the climax community is dominated by perennial red algae. T/F
T
Which statement about changing ecosystem properties during succession is false?

a) biomass increases
b) soil depths decrease
c) primary production increases
d) community respiration increases
e) stream spiralling lengths decrease

B
A set of sites differing in successional age is called a ____________.
chronosequence
As Hawaiian lava flows age over 4 million years,

a) total soil phosphorous levels decrease.
b) total soil phosphorous levels increase.
c) total soil phosphorous stays about the same, but more phosphorous becomes weatherable.
d) total soil phosphorous stays about the same, but more phosphorous becomes refractory.
e) phosphorous limitation of primary production becomes less important.

c
During succession in Arizona streams, nitrogen retention

a) increases at first, but then declines late in succession.
b) increases steadily through succession.
c) increases slowly at first, but then rapidly late in succession.
d) increases rapidly at first, then plateaus late in succession.
e) first decreases, but later increases.

A
High nitrogen retention early in stream succession is probably due to

a) nitrogen fixation by aquatic fungi.
b) increasing biomass of algal and animal populations.
c) increasing nitrogen inputs from surrounding terrestrial soils.
d) increasing binding of nitrogen to developing organic sediments.
e) reduced denitrification following disturbance.

B
According to the “facilitation” hypothesis, pioneer species modify the environment in ways that

a) make it more suitable for their own survival, and less suitable for other species.
b) make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of other pioneer species.
c) make it less suitable for their own survival, but more suitable for survival of late-successional species.
d) make it less suitable for survival of all species.
e) make it more suitable for survival of all species.

C
Wayne Sousa’s studies of succession on intertidal boulders demonstrated which elements of the inhibition hypothesis?

a) inhibition of mid- and late-successional species by pioneers
b) inhibition of late-successional species by mid-successional ones
c) higher mortality of pioneer species
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

D
Succession in old fields in the Piedmont of North Carolina involves succession driven

a) largely by facilitation
b) largely by inhibition
c) largely by tolerance
d) both by inhibition and by tolerance
e) both by facilitation and by inhibition

E
A tendency for a community to maintain its structure even when subject to potential disturbance is called ____________.
resistance
A community in which secondary succession is very rapid has

a) high resistance.
b) low resistance.
c) high resilience.
d) low resilience.
e) high replication.

C
A large value of the patch shape index, S = P/(2√πA), indicates a

a) shape near a circle, with a high perimeter-to-area ratio.
b) shape near a circle, with a low perimeter-to-area ratio.
c) very elongate shape, with a low perimeter-to-area ratio.
d) very elongate shape, with a high perimeter-to-area ratio.

D
The recognition that the length of a coastline depends on the scale at which it is measured is a result of the branch of mathematics called ___________.
fractal geometry
Mowing experiments in a Kansas prairie established that, for small mammals,

a) moving individuals travel farther in more fragmented landscapes.
b) moving individuals travel farther in less fragmented landscapes.
c) more individuals move in more fragmented landscapes.
d) fragmentation affects movement distance but not the likelihood of movement.
e) fragmentation affects the likelihood of movement, but not movement distance.

A
For Glanville fritillary butterflies in Finland, larger habitat patches (compared to smaller ones) support

a) higher population sizes and higher population densities.
b) higher population sizes but equal population densities.
c) higher population sizes but lower population densities.
d) equal population sizes, due to lower population densities.
e) equal population sizes and equal population densities.

C
More isolated Finnish meadows support higher densities of Glanville fritillaries. T/F
F
Connections of similar habitat maintained between habitat fragments are known as ___________.
corridor(s)
In studies of experimental clear-cuts at the Savannah River Site, open patches connected to other open patches

a) had higher butterfly densities.
b) supported more frequent butterfly movements.
c) had higher rates of plant pollination.
d) all of the above
e) both (a) and (c)

D
Groundwater inputs to lakes tend to

a) increase from the upper to lower end of a flow system.
b) decrease from the upper to lower end of a flow system.
c) remain roughly constant from the upper to lower end of a flow system.
d) be higher for lakes with less input from surface runoff.
e) make up the great majority of water supply for all lakes.

A
During droughts, water levels are likely to drop most steeply in lakes at the lower end of hydrological flow systems. T/F
F
The “Mann-Whitney test”

a) is based on ranked data rather than actual measurements.
b) is identical in calculation to a t-test.
c) assumes that data from the populations being compared are normally distributed.
d) is a procedure for measuring concentrations of dissolved nitrates in freshwater.
e) is a procedure for measuring levels of calcium and potassium in soils.

A
A “caliche layer” in soil is

a) a hard layer formed by precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
b) a hard layer formed by precipitation of nitrates (KNO3, MgNO3) from over-fertilization.
c) a water-absorptive layer of peat.
d) a layer of younger soil overlaying an old, depleted soil.
e) a layer polluted with heavy metals.

A
“Argyllic horizons” in soil are rich in

a) phosphorous.
b) organic matter.
c) sand.
d) gravel.
e) clay.

E
Vegetation in bajadas of the Arizona Sonoran Desert

a) is largely uniform, as are the soils it grows on.
b) is largely uniform, despite variation in the soils it grows on.
c) varies in space, primarily reflecting a mosaic of ancient and recently disturbed patches.
d) varies in space, primarily reflecting a mosaic of soil types.
e) varies in space, primarily reflecting patchy enrichment by agricultural fertilization.

D
A major recent (last 50 years) change in landscape structure of Eastern North America has been

a) fragmentation of forests due to clearing for agricultural use.
b) increases in forest cover due to abandonment of agricultural land.
c) decreases in forest cover due to climate change.
d) increases in forest cover due to climate change.
e) decreases in lake habitats due to breaching of dams.

B
Expansion of forest in Veluwe, Netherlands at the expense of heathland has occurred primarily as a result of

a) reduction of grazing pressure as native herbivore populations were decimated by hunting.
b) changing climates due to the greenhouse effect.
c) new legal restrictions on land use.
d) reductions in sheep farming as Australian wool became less expensive.
e) reductions in sheep farming as young people left family farms for other careers.

D
Recent conversion of forests to beaver ponds and wet meadows

a) is producing a novel landscape structure, because beavers have never been as numerous as they are now.
b) is producing a novel landscape structure, because beavers previously exploited natural wetlands.
c) is restoring prehistoric landscape structure.
d) decreases nutrient levels in areas affected by beaver damming.
e) increases nutrient levels in remaining forests, but not in beaver ponds.

C
Vegetation in southern California burns frequently because

a) summers there are hot and very dry.
b) the vegetation contains highly flammable oils.
c) lightning strikes easily ignite dry vegetation.
d) human activities provide sources of ignition.
e) all of the above

E
Because southern California has an active fire suppression program, while northern Baja California does not, wildfires are smaller and less severe in southern California. T/F
F
Which is NOT an important effect of floods on landscapes and ecosystems in riverine floodplains?

a) isolating oxbow lakes
b) reducing rates of decomposition
c) enriching soils through silt deposition
d) creating new river channels
e) causing pulses of seed germination in riparian plants

B
Flood control on the Kissimmee River of Florida

a) was achieved primarily by regulating water input to Lake Kissimmee.
b) greatly decreased wetland area in the river basin.
c) allowed increased populations of game fish, including largemouth bass.
d) all of the above
e) Both greatly decreased wetland area in the river basin and allowed increased populations of game fish, including largemouth bass.

B
Reduced regulation of water flow in the Kissimmee River has led to increases in populations of fish that require highly oxygenated water. T/F
T
A positive relationship between area and species diversity is commonly observed for

a) oceanic islands.
b) lakes.
c) wooded mountaintops in the American Southwest.
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

D
In the American Southwest, forest habitats

a) currently extend unbroken between mountaintops over thousands of km.
b) have never extended unbroken between mountaintops.
c) last extended unbroken between mountaintops in the Cretaceous.
d) last extended unbroken between mountaintops in the Permian.
e) last extended unbroken between mountaintops in the Pleistocene.

E
For aquatic organisms,

a) drainage lakes are more isolated than seepage lakes.
b) seepage lakes are more isolated than drainage lakes.
c) seepage and drainage lakes are equally isolated.
d) seepage lakes include more habitat area than drainage lakes.
e) because they have stream inlets and outlets, seepage lakes include more habitat types than drainage lakes.

B
Birds on oceanic islands have highest diversity on

a) large islands close to the mainland.
b) large islands far from the mainland.
c) small islands close to the mainland.
d) small islands far from the mainland.
e) small islands of recent geologic origin.

A
Ferns often maintain high diversity even on very isolated islands. This is because

a) ferns are often planted deliberately by human colonists.
b) ferns are often introduced accidentally by human colonists.
c) ferns are easily dispersed by light wind-blown spores.
d) ferns are easily dispersed because birds carry their seeds.
e) new fern species most often evolve on isolated islands.

C
The equilibrium model of island biogeography explains diversity on islands as a balance between

a) speciation and extinction.
b) immigration and extinction.
c) speciation and emigration.
d) immigration and emigration.
e) speciation and immigration.

B
MacArthur and Wilson hypothesized that larger islands would experience more extinction events because more species present means

a) more chances for extinctions.
b) more likelihood of competitive exclusion.
c) smaller population size of each.
d) all of the above
e) Only more chances for extinctions and smaller population size of each.

D
In the equilibrium model of island biogeography, the immigration rate to an island is assumed to depend mainly on

a) distance from sources of migrants.
b) island size.
c) extinction rate.
d) extent of introductions by human colonists.
e) existence or lack of a climax community.

A
The equilibrium model of island biogeography predicts that, once equilibrium is reached, an island will be occupied

a) by an unchanging set of species as extinctions and immigrations stop.
b) by an unchanging number of species, but extinctions and immigrations will continue.
c) by a steadily increasing number of species.
d) by a steadily decreasing number of species.
e) only by species that evolved on that island.

B
Daniel Simberloff studied recolonization by

a) birds on California islands after defaunation by storms.
b) birds on California islands after defaunation by experimental fumigation.
c) arthropods on Florida mangrove islands after defaunation by storms.
d) arthropods on Florida mangrove islands after defaunation by experimental fumigation.
e) small mammals on desert mountaintops after defaunation by climate change.

D
A 100-year record of the colonization of Swedish islands by plants shows

a) a diversity-area relationship becoming evident only after many years of colonization.
b) a diversity-area relationship established early in colonization, but disappearing as smaller islands “caught up.”
c) diversity increasing to equilibrium on large islands, but equilibrium not yet reached on smaller ones.
d) diversity increasing to equilibrium on small islands, but not on large ones.
e) diversity increasing rapidly to equilibrium on all islands.

C
For most groups, species diversity most often

a) increases from the tropics to the poles.
b) increases from the poles to the tropics.
c) is low at the equator and the poles, and peaks at temperate latitudes.
d) is high at the equator and the poles, and lowest at temperate latitudes.
e) shows no clear relationship with latitude.

B
A well-known exception to the usual dependency of diversity on latitude is the ___________ wasps.
ichneumonid
The “time since perturbation” hypothesis proposes that, compared to temperate and polar regions, the tropics are

a) more diverse because they are disturbed less frequently.
b) more diverse because they are disturbed more severely by cooling during glaciations.
c) less diverse because they are disturbed more severely by cooling during glaciations.
d) more diverse because they are less heterogeneous in habitat.
e) more diverse because humans have not yet had much impact there.

A
Diversity tends to increase with productivity, both in surveys across habitats and in experimental manipulations within habitats. T/F
F
The largest fraction of land area on Earth is found in the

a) tropics.
b) temperate zone.
c) boreal forests.
d) tundra.
e) Southern hemisphere.

A
Among the major regions of Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands, diversity is

a) highest in California, which has the largest area.
b) highest in California, although it has the smallest area.
c) highest in the fynbos of the Cape Floristic Province, which has the largest area.
d) highest in the fynbos of the Cape Floristic Province, although it has the smallest area.
e) roughly equal across regions, even though they differ in area.

D
Temperate tree diversity is higher in Europe than in North America, because North American trees have been subject to many more glacial extinctions. T/F
F
The network of satellites allowing a handheld receiver to determine latitude, longitude, and altitude is known as a ______________.
global positioning system
Remote sensing of chlorophyll a concentrations in the Earth’s oceans has revealed that marine plankton biomass is

a) nearly homogenous over huge expanses of ocean.
b) highest in the open ocean.
c) highest in the warmest waters.
d) highest in the deepest waters.
e) highest in cooler, upwelling areas near shore.

E
Computer software programs for storing, analyzing, and displaying geographically-structured data are known as _______________.
geographic information systems
Concentrations of ozone in earth’s atmosphere are highest in the

a) troposphere.
b) stratosphere.
c) mesosphere.
d) thermosphere.
e) ozonosphere.

B
Which of the following gases contribute to warming of the Earth’s surface through the greenhouse effect?

a) carbon dioxide
b) methane
c) water vapor
d) nitrous oxide
e) all of the above

E
Before life evolved on Earth, the atmosphere

a) had much higher concentrations of oxygen.
b) had much lower concentrations of oxygen.
c) was more or less the same as it is now.
d) had much lower concentrations of carbon dioxide.
e) had much lower concentrations of hydrogen.

B
El Niño events

a) occur when the Southern Oscillation index is high.
b) occur when barometric pressure is lower in the western Pacific than in the eastern Pacific.
c) include the appearance of warm currents on the Pacific coast of South America.
d) are always accompanied by La Niña events at the same time.
e) are accompanied by westward movement of the location of storm generation in the Pacific.

C
Episodes of lower sea surface temperatures and higher barometric pressure in the eastern tropical Pacific are known as La Niña events. T/F
T
During El Niño events,

a) Australia experiences drought.
b) western North America experiences drought.
c) Canada and Alaska are cooler than average.
d) populations of anchovies and seabirds increase along the South American coast.
e) primary production increases around the Galápagos Islands.

A
Fur seals and sea lions in the Galápagos Islands experience population declines during El Niño events because

a) their hibernation cues are disrupted by the unusual climate.
b) they are not capable of effective thermoregulation in the cooler waters around the islands.
c) the fish they feed upon move further offshore in search of warmer water.
d) the fish they feed upon move offshore and deeper in search of cooler water.
e) the fish they feed on are driven to local extinction.

D
During El Niño events, primary production by phytoplankton increases sharply in the Great Salt Lake of Utah. This is because

a) water temperatures increase.
b) nutrient concentrations are increased as lake volume shrinks.
c) decreasing salinity allows invasion of predators that control brine shrimp populations.
d) decreasing salinity allows invasion of more phytoplankton species.
e) decreasing salinity increases the efficiency of photosynthesis.

C
Periodic increases and decreases in red kangaroo populations in Australia are associated with

a) predator-driven population cycles.
b) disease-driven population cycles.
c) sunspot cycles.
d) the El Niño – Southern Oscillation.
e) none of the above

D
Nitrogen fixation due to human activities now exceeds total global fixation by all other biotic and abiotic agents. T/F
T
Which of the following make important contributions to nitrogen fixation by human activities?

a) combustion of fossil fuels
b) industrial production of nitrogen fertilizers
c) use of crop rotation in agriculture
d) all of the above
e) only (b) and (c)

D
The nation containing the largest fraction of the world’s tropical rain forest is

a) Congo.
b) Brazil.
c) Mexico.
d) The United States.
e) Indonesia.

B
Which of the following statements does NOT apply to tropical forest edges?

a) Edge habitat is hotter than the forest interior.
b) Edge habitat is drier than the forest interior.
c) Edge habitat has higher solar radiation than the forest interior.
d) Trees grow more rapidly and survive better in edge habitat than in the forest interior.
e) Forest fragmentation increases the ratio of edge habitat to forest interior.

D
A carbon dioxide concentration record from the Vostok ice core indicates

a) little change in atmospheric CO2 concentration before the Industrial Revolution.
b) dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 associated with ice ages.
c) dramatic increases in atmospheric CO2 associated with interglacials.
d) dramatic changes in atmospheric CO2, but no obvious association with the glacial/interglacial cycle.
e) an inverse correlation between atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature

C
Atmospheric CO2 concentrations began their most recent steep increase about

a) 5000 B.C.
b) 1000 B.C.
c) 1400 A.D.
d) 1800 A.D.
e) 1950 A.D.

D
Human release of CO2 into the atmosphere accelerated during World War I and World War II. T/F
F
The reduction in atmospheric 14C/12C ratio associated with fossil fuel combustion is known as the ____________.
Suess Effect
Ozone plays an important role in shaping the environment for life on Earth because it

a) absorbs ultraviolet radiation.
b) emits ultraviolet radiation.
c) absorbs visible radiation.
d) reflects visible radiation.
e) dissolves more readily than oxygen gas in seawater.

A
Ozone in the stratosphere is destroyed during breakdown of ________ molecules.
chlorofluorocarbons
The 1987 Montreal Protocol was an agreement to limit human production of

a) carbon dioxide.
b) nitrate.
c) PCBs.
d) lead paint.
e) chlorofluorocarbons.

E
In the “U.S. LTER Network”, LTER stands for ________.
Long term ecological research
Ecotones are transitions between ecosystem and another ecosystem. T/F
T
What is ecology?
A. the study of the relationships between organisms and the enviornment
B. the study of animal and plant population interactions
C. the study of abiotic portion of the environment
D. the study of the biosphere
E. The study of environmental change
A
A biome is characterized primarily by
A. climate and predominant plant types.
B. temperature and moisture
C. Flora and fauna
D. global weather patterns
E. none of the above
A
Which of the following levels of organization is/are correctly ordered?
A. population, ecosystem, landscape, individual, interaction
B. individuals, population, interactions, community, ecosystem
C. biosphere, landscape, individuals, community, interactions
D. ecosystem, landscape, region, interactions, populations
E. none of the above
B
A population can be defined as

A) a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a defined area.

B) an association of interacting species.

C) a group of individuals of a single species and all of the physical and chemical factors influencing them.

D) all of the organisms in a defined area.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A
The highest level of ecological organization focuses on

A) the gene.

B) the biosphere.

C) warbler use of trees.

D) forests.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B
An ecosystem is defined as

A) all the organisms that live in an area.

B) the physical environment with which organisms interact.

C) an association of interacting species.

D) all of the organisms that live in an area and the physical environment with which they interact.

E) all of the individuals of a single species that live in an area and the physical environment with which they interact.

D
Merriam’s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys meriami) meet a portion of their water requirements through the metabolic processing of their food intake, but they still need to drink free-standing liquid water in order to survive. T/F
F
Tropical dry forests are located between

A) 0° and 10° north and south latitudes.

B) 0° and 25° south latitude.

C) 10° and 25° north and south latitudes.

D) 10° and 25° south latitude.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C
Most of the earth’s deserts are

A) located at 0°latitude.

B) located at 30°north and south latitudes.

C) located at 60°north and south latitudes.

D) located at 90°north and south latitudes.

E) randomly scattered around the earth’s surface.

B
Müllerian and Batesian mimicries differ from one another because

A) in Müllerian mimicry, the mimic is actually harmless.

B) in Müllerian mimicry, the model is actually harmless.

C) Müllerian mimicry is a form of comimicry.

D) Müllerian mimicry is a form of camouflage.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C
Which of the following vertical aquatic zones is correctly ordered?

A) bathypelagic, mesopelagic, epipelagic, abyssal, hadal

B) epipelagic, mesopelagic, bathypelagic, abyssal, hadal

C) abyssal, bathypelagic, hadal, mesopelagic, epipelagic

D) epipelagic, bathypelagic, mesopelagic, hadal, abyssal

E) mesopelagic, abyssal, epipelagic, hadal, bathypelagic

B
Temperate forests have deep soil structure, while tropical rain forest trees have shallow, easily eroded soils. T/F
T
Earth’s climatic variation is due to

A) the spherical shape of the earth.

B) earth’s axial rotation as it orbits the sun.

C) uneven heating of the earth’s surface.

D) All of the choices are correct.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D
As altitude increases temperature decreases, likewise as latitude decreases temperature decrease. T/F
F
Heating of the earth’s surface causes

A) cool air to rise and warm air to sink.

B) warm air to rise and cool air to sink.

C) warm and cool air to condense.

D) warm and cool air to mix.

E) None of the choices are correct.

B
In general, warm air can hold more moisture than cool air and therefore has a stronger evaporative effect. T/F
T
Which of the following terrestrial biomes are maintained by fires?

A) tropical dry forests

B) temperate forests and mountains

C) Mediterranean woodlands and shrublands

D) tropical savannas and temperate grasslands

E) boreal forests and tundra

D
Estuaries are junctions between rivers and lakes. T/F
F
Of the following aquatic environments, which has the highest productivity?

A) lakes

B) rivers

C) oceanic zone

D) intertidal zone

E) coral reefs

E
The Great Lakes are troubled with invasive species. Which of the following aquatic organisms is considered invasive?
A. sea lamprey
B. river ruffe
C. zebra mussels
D. all of the above
E. None of the above
D
It is a very hot day, and you jump into a lake to cool off. What is the method of heat exchange?

A) conduction

B) radiation

C) evaporation

D) convection

E) None of the choices are correct.

D
Getting up from your chair you realize that it is warm. What is the method of heat exchange?

A) conduction

B) convection

C) evaporation

D) radiation

E) None of the choices are correct.

A
It’s a hot summer day, and you begin to sweat. What is the method of heat exchange?

A) conduction

B) convection

C) evaporation

D) radiation

None of the choices are correct.

C
Desert plants can prevent overheating by utilizing all of the following temperature regulating methods except:

A) paraheliotropism.

B) decreasing rates of radiative heating.

C) decreasing conductive heating.

D) increasing evaporative cooling.

E) increasing convective cooling.

D
Fitness is defined as the :
A. health of an individual organism
B. ability of an organism to adapt to new enviornmental situations
C. quality of offspring produced
D. number of genes contributed by an individual to the next generation
E. all of the above
D
The term ecology is defined as the study of:
A. enviornment
B. relationships between organisms
C. relationships between organisms and their enviornment
D. impact of humans on the enviornment
C
A biotic community and its abiotic community is referred to as a(n)
A. biosphere
B. ecosystem
C. population
D. biome
B
A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area is referred to as a(n)
A. community
B. biome
C. population
D. ecosystem
C
All of the interacting microbes, plants, and animals inhabiting a forest would be referred to as a(n)
A. community
B. ecosystem
C. biome
D. biosphere
A
The layer of water where the most rapid change in temperature occurs is the:
A. thermocline
B. hypolimnion
C. epilmnion
D. benthic zone
A
The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that

A) genotypic changes will result in phenotypic changes.

B) phenotypic changes will result in genotypic changes.

C) allelic frequencies within a population will not change unless certain conditions are met.

D) allelic frequencies within a population will change unless certain conditions are met.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C
All of the following conditions are included in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle except:

A) no mutation.

B) large population size.

C) non-random mating.

D) no immigration.

E) genotypes of equal fitness.

C
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation:

A) q2 – qp + p2 = 1.0

B) 2pq – q2 – 2p = 1.0

C) q2 – qp2 + p = 1.0

D) p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.0

E) p2 + pq + q2 = 1.0

D
______________ is/are defined as a group of potentially breeding organisms within a species in a given space and time.

A) Density

B) Populations

C) Distribution

D) Abundance

E) Community

B
Density is defined as

A) the number of individuals within a population.

B) abundance.

C) the number of individuals per unit area.

D) the distribution of individuals within a given area.

E) None of the choices are correct.

C
Type III survivorship curve indicates

A) low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

B) high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

C) low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

D) high juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

E) equal chance of dying at any age.

B
Humans would best be represented by which of the following survivorships curves?

A) III

B) II

C) I

D) IV

E) None of the choices are correct.

C
Nt = N0 λt represents

A) geometric population growth.

B) annual growth rate.

C) exponential growth rate.

D) logistic growth.

E) None of the choices are correct.

A
dN/dt = rmaxN [(K – N)/K] represents

A) annual growth rate.

B) geometric population growth.

C) exponential growth rate.

D) logistic growth.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D
dN/dt=rmaxN represents:
A. annual growth rate
B. geometric population growth
C. exponential growth rate
D. logistic growth
E. none of the choices are correct
C
When R=0 then the population stops growing and N=K. T/F
T
Density dependent factors include all of the following except:

A) competition.

B) disease.

C) predation.

D) temperature.

E) None of the choices are correct.

D
Type II survivorship curve indicates

A) low juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

B) high juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

C) low juvenile mortality and low mortality in older adults.

D) high juvenile mortality and high mortality in older adults.

E) equal chance of dying at any age.

E
If the age distribution diagram is bell shaped or the number of individual in each age class is evenly distributed, this indicates that the population is

A) stable.

B) declining.

C) growing slowly.

D) growing rapidly.

E) not able to be determined.

A
If the age distribution diagram is bottom heavy or pyramidal in shape, this indicates that the population is

A) stable.

B) declining.

C) growing slowly.

D) growing rapidly.

E) cannot be determined

D
The age distribution of a population can reveal

A) growth potential.

B) survivorship.

C) reproduction.

D) both growth potential and survivorship.

E) growth potential, survivorship, and reproduction.

E
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