Ecosystems And Energy

At the bottom (autotrophs or producers) make their own food (energy source)-> from the sun
At which level of the food web is the supply of energy greatest? Explain
They are all herbivores
Which feeding relationship do first-order heterotrophs have in common?
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They are all carnivores
Which feeding relationship do second-order heterotrophs have in common
They produce their own food through photosynthesis (using the sun)
Explain why plants are called autotrophs
Food chain-> specific order of organisms; showing how they feed
Food webs-> contain many food chains (related)
Food webs and food chains both involve multiple trophic levels. How do they differ
Increased producers, decreased consumers
How would organisms in a food web be affected is most of one first order consumer were destroyed by disease
The sun
What is the source of energy for all the ecological pyramids shown in the transparency
Grasses, trees, algae
In general, what kinds of organisms make up the base of the pyramid of energy?
90% is not transferred and is lost as heat or used for the organism (metabolism)
Explain why about 10% of the energy available at one trophic level is transferred to the next higher trophic level
Since there is less energy available as you move up trophic levels, there is a smaller number of organisms
How is the energy loss from one trophic level to the next reflected in the pyramid of numbers shown in the transparency
The pyramid would be inverted (upside down), or possibly diamond like
Suppose an ecosystem had a greater number of individual herbivores than individual producers. How would this affect the shape of the ecosystems pyramid of numbers
The ability to do work or cause change
What is energy
Potential, kinetic, chemical, and free
What are the four types if energy
Stored energy (before the pitcher releases the ball)
What is potential energy
Energy of motion (the pitched ball)
What is kinetic energy
From organic molecules, nutrients (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis)
What is chemical energy
Energy needed for a cell to work (such as from ATP) *eat food-> glucose -> ATP*
What is free energy
Autotrophs and heterotrophs
What are the two types of organisms that need energy
•make their own food such as plants using light for photosynthesis are called photo autotrophs
•energy using chemicals (chemosynthesis) such as bacteria are called chemo autotrophs
How do autotrophs make their own energy
Heterotrophs cannot make their own food and must obtain it such as animals, fungi, and most bacteria
How do heterotrophs differ from autotrophs
Both use cellular respiration in order to release energy for cells to stay alive (glucose-> ATP)
What reaction do both autotrophs and heterotrophs use
Both store energy (chemical energy) and use some of it to do work (free energy)
What do both store
1. Producers (autotrophs such as plants)
2. Consumers (heterotrophs such as herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores)
3. Decomposers (heterotrophs SUV as bacteria and fungi)
What is the ecosystem structure
Break down and recycle matter for nutrients
What do decomposes do
Show energy flow based upon what organisms eat
What do food chains show
•producer ->usually plants
•consumer-> primary/first order
•consumer-> secondary/second order
•consumer-> tertiary/third order
•consumer-> quaternary/fourth order
What are the levels of an exosystem
Trophic levels
What are these known as
Many food chains
Food webs are made up of what
Shows the interactions between the members of an ecosystem -> for energy and nutrients
What do good webs show
From producers to consumers to decomposes
What is the order of the food chain
Producers followed by the consumers
What is at the base of all of the pyramids of energy (biomass, numbers, and energy)
All three decrease
What happens to all three as you go from the bottom to the top
Law of conservation of energy, entropy
What are the 2 laws of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed but can change form
What is the first law of thermodynamics
Systems tend to change in a way that increases disorder (entropy) of the system and it’s surroundings
•free energy increases, entropy decreases
•free energy decreases, entropy increases
What is the second law of thermodynamics
They obtain energy
How do organisms overcome this tendency for increased entropy
Nutrients contain energy that is converted into free energy by an organism and made available to do work
What is the relationship between energy and nutrients
Heterotrophs, such as animals, must obtain organic molecules (food) from other organisms. Autotrophs, such as green plants, can make their own organic molecules using light energy and inorganic nutrients
Distinguish between heterotrophs and autotrophs and give examples of each
Photo autotrophs use light energy to synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water in a process called photosynthesis. Chemo autotrophs use inorganic chemicals to extract energy needed for cellular work
Describe two processes by which autotrophs extract energy from the environment
Producers, consumers, and decomposers are linked in a food web. Energy flows from the sun, to producers, then to consumers, and finally to decomposers. Nutrients cycle from producers to consumers to decomposers. Decomposers make nutrients available for use by producers
Describe the relationships between producers, consumers, and decomposers in an ecosystem
Living systems can neither create nor destroy energy, but only change it’s form. Living systems avoid the Trent toward entropy, or disorder, by a constant input of energy from the environment and constant output of entropy to the environment.
How do the laws of thermodynamics apply to living systems
Living things maintain a high degree of organization despite the tendency toward entropy by constantly taking in energy from their surroundings
How do organisms remain highly organized in spite of the universal tendency toward entropy
Entropy is a measure of disorder, as entropy increases, disorder increases
What happens to a system as entropy increases
Chemical energy is energy stored in chemical compounds. Chemical reactions in calls make energy available for cell work such as metabolism and growth
What is chemical energy? How to organisms make energy available for work
Free energy and entropy have a reciprocal relationship. As free energy increases, entropy decreases and vice versa.
How are free energy and entropy related

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