Education Psychology; Learning Theories Essay

Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that asses how Information Is “absorbed, processed, and retained during learning”. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, and prior experience, all play a part in how we understand or view the world. This information is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained. Education today Is based on these basic and fundamental Educational psychology theories. Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in an educational settings.

The effectiveness of educational Interventions Is the best when psychology of teaching and social psychology schools are clubbed together as an education organized body. Educational psychology is concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities. The schools that I have chosen to learn, compare and write upon was the behaviorism school and the constructivist school of thought.

The behaviorism school understood the learning theory, Is based on a modification In knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning, Behaviorism can reaps be best summed up by the following quote from the famous psychologist John B. Watson: “Give me a dozen healthy Infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. –John Watson, The term behaviorism discusses the school of psychology founded by John 8. Watson eased on the assumption that behaviors can be measured, trained, and changed. Behaviorism was established with the publication of Watson classic paper “Psychology as the Behaviorism Views It”. Behaviorism, also called behavioral psychology, Is d theory based upon learning the idea that all behaviors are learnt through conditioning. Conditioning happens through interaction with the environment. Behaviorist’s believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors. Y this understanding of school of thought, behavior can be studied in a systematic and observable manner with no consideration of internal mental states. It suggests that only observable behaviors should be studied, since Internal states such as cognitions, emotions, and moods are too subjective. As Watson above quote suggests, strict behaviorist’s believe that any person could potentially be trained to perform any task, regardless of factors like genetic background, personality traits, and Internal thoughts (wealth the Limits tot their physical capabilities): all it takes is the right conditioning.

In a behaviorism School the strategies and techniques used are: Chaining: This behavior techniques Involves breaking a task down Into smaller constituents. The sleepless or TLS task In ten process Is taught TLS. Once Tanat task NAS Eden learned, the next task can be taught. This continues until the entire sequence is successfully chained together. Prompting: This approach involves using some type of prompt to activate a desired response. This might involve issues a verbal cue, such as telling the person what to do, or a visual cue, such as displaying a picture designed to cue the response.

Shaping: This strategy involves gradually altering a behavior, rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. A report by a coacher from Long Island University, USA stated that “the methods and theories of Behaviorism will enforce rewards and punishments to my students in order for them to want to learn. I believe that we all learn or work to achieve our goals/make money/ be successful or to steer away from poverty/lack of education/unhappiness. Learning does occur when we are offered repercussions. Children definitely need to be given challenges to work harder. This also allows them to learn whether their actions were correct or they have done something wrong; learning is a continuous process, and thou committing mistakes or errors, one will never gain the experience they would otherwise need. Behaviorism will also help a teachers since, the behaviorism model of learning theory states that everything an organism does, even thinking, is a behavior. Teaching using this theory ensures one to respect the idea of learning something as a behavior.

Interest and correct answers can be increased with positive reinforcement, and lack of effort or wrong answers deterred with punishment or negative reinforcement. This allows teachers to groom the students to the requirement of the teachers, parents, or societies. This where I feel Behaviorism has tried to comprehend the process of learning through the construction of theories which creates problems and inhibits personal freedom. Another theory in education psychology completely different and opposing to “behaviorism is “constructivism”.

It has its roots in cognitive psychology and an approach to education that lays emphasis on the ways knowledge is created in order to adapt to the world. The school of constructivism is based on the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves, each learner individually constructs meaning for themselves. These individuals collectively, gathering information makes up our society and the knowledge it makes up today. The term refers to the idea that learners construct knowledge for themselves each learner individually (and socially) constructs meaning as he or she learns.

Constructing meaning is learning; there is no other kind. The environmental factor is made up of the physical surroundings around the individual that has potentially reinforcing stimuli, including people who are present or absent. The environment influences the intensity and frequency of the behavior, Just as the behavior itself can have an impact on the environment. The individual component includes all the characteristics that have been rewarded in the past.

Personality and cognitive factors play an important part in how a person behaves, including all of the individual’s expectations, beliefs, and unique personality characteristics. And finally, the behavior itself is something that may or may not be reinforced at any given time or situation. “Albert Bandeau speculates that personality is the product of three interacting forces: environment, behavior, and thoughts. Bandeau called the constant interaction among these three factors reciprocal determinism. We choose to place ourselves in certain environments, and these environments then influence our Demeanor Ana ten way we tank.

However, ten way we tank – our attributions, goals, values, and perceptions – may guide which environments we choose to be in as well as the behavior we exhibit. Our behavior, in turn, may change the environment as well as the way we think. All three variables influence each other in a reciprocal manner. ” From a teacher’s perspective today, it seems rather fair to assume that both behavioral” and “constructivist” schools are beneficial in classrooms. Classroom organization is a very important part of education, and it can be maximized by using both constructivist and behaviorism philosophies. As a teacher I would prefer for my classroom to be open and flexible in compliance with the constructivist viewpoint . This constructivist approach to classroom organization can be reflected in the classroom by allowing everything from seating arraignments to the lesson plans to be subject to change. A behaviorism classroom organization does not allow for change and is organized by the teacher. As the teacher I would set a standard that he students would have to maintain, but I would also give them the freedom to make decisions in the classroom.

In order to maintain a standard in the classroom I would use behaviorism ideas such as rewards and punishments, but I would also allow for the constructivist ideas of the students involvement in decision making. I feel letting the students organize their own environment is important because it creates enthusiasm, comfort, and a sense of responsibility for the students. ” Today, the behavioral school is being challenged by the changes of the new individualistic and self-determining world. Determinism and democracy, both psychological and social changes go hand in hand when the world moves forward.

Yet it may mean society needs more time to break the chains of conformity completely, but surely a change in the trend can be seen and this pattern predicts a more vibrant and diverse future for not Just education psychology but also in a subject as vast sociology. Bibliography http://www. Exploratory. Deed/fill/resources/counterrevolutionaries. HTML http:// en. Wisped. Org/wick/Constructivism_(philosophyf_education) http:// en. wikiWispedg/Orgiwickn_Taylor_GattAgatep://en. wikiWispedg/OrgiwickaBehaviorism

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