Major Theorist- Skinner (Up top) “Organisms learn to ;operate’ on their environment in order to obtain or avoid a particular consequence” Assumptions Human behavior can be explained by a setoffs laws Behavior should be studied at its simplest, most fundamental level Principles of earning derived from research with animals should apply to humans An observable change In behavior Is the only basis for concluding that learning has occurred.
Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning- strengthening a behavior Positive Reinforcement Presenting a positive stimulus immediately after a behavior has occurred Negative Reinforcement removing a negative Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning Weakening a behavior Presentation Punishment (Type 1) Presenting an aversive stimulus immediately after the behavior has occurred Removal Punishment (Type 2, or time-out) Removing…. Lased When a previously reinforced behavior decreases in frequency and eventually ceases altogether because reinforcement Is withheld Spontaneous Recovery When an extinguished behavior reappears without having been reinforced Generalization when an Uninominal learns to make a particular response to a particular stimulus Ana then makes the same or a similar response in a slightly different situation Ex.
Transferring study skills from one class where successful to other classes. Discrimination Notices the unique aspects of seemingly similar situations and thus responds differently Ex. Parents and teachers, both adults but different responses needed. (Maybe acting different in front of your regular vs. Christian friends) Instructional Approaches Clear goals Logical sequencing of materials More drill and practice More teacher directed Self-pacing (accelerated Christian education- curriculum home school and small Christian schools) Basic Principles of Operant Conditioning Shaping Reducing complex behaviors into a sequence of more simple behaviors (steps) Reinforcing success … Issued Fixed Interval Schedule Reinforced of a desired behavior occurs only after a specific amount of time has lapsed Variable interval schedule Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after variable intervals of time have elapsed Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after a specific number of those responses are made (praise after certain amount of work completed) Variable ratio schedule Reinforcement of a desired behavior occurs only after variable …. Missed Type of Program- Purpose Drill and Practice – Practice knowledge and skills learned earlier to produce fast and accurate responses Tutorial- Teach new information and skills Problem-solving programs and Games- Teach new information and skills and provide an opportunity to apply what was learned in a meaningful context that would otherwise be unavailable because of cost, physical danger, and time constraints.
Research on the Effects of CAB (Computer based instruction) Students who learn from tutorial and simulation programs score moderately higher (13-20 percentile ranks) on achievement tests than do students who are conventionally taught Recent studies reported even stronger effects Performance at school moderately related to computer use at home Integrated Learning systems (ILLS A computerized system that combines tutorial programs with programs that track student performance and provide feedback to both student and teacher Produce moderately positive results, particularly for low achieving students Evaluation of Computer Based Instruction When properly used… Missed Behavior Modification Select the target behavior Obtain realistic baseline data Select potential reinforces. Choose things they would like Reinforce successive approximations for the target behavior each time they occur Reinforce the newly established target behavior each time it occurs Reinforce the target behavior on a arable reinforcement schedule Token Economies Use of items that have no intrinsic values but can be redeemed at some future time for valued items or activities to shaper and reinforce desired behavior More flexible than traditional reinforces Contingency Contracting A written or oral agreement in which the student agrees to exhibit certain behavior under particular conditions, and the teacher agrees to provide an acceptable form of reinforcement Extinction, Time-out, and Response Cost Extinction involves ignoring an undesired behavior Time out involves placing a student in an environment in which he or she cannot obtain reinforcement after an undesired behavior has occurred Response Cost, which is usually used with token economies, involves taking away a certain amount of previously earned tokens after an undesired behavior. Punishment The application of an aversive stimulus immediately after an undesired behavior Although still used, corporal punishment is ineffective at producing desired behavior and has several possible negative consequences. Corporal punishment is banned in 29 states Information Processing Attending, recognizing, transforming, comparing & assigning meaning.